Warm temperate Climates

This climatic group is sub-divided into the Mediterranean, China and West European climatic types. The coldest month is below-18°C, but temperature never goes below-30°C. The warmest month records temperature over 10°C.


(i) The Mediterranean Climate (Cs):

Warm temperate Climates

  • This climate is found along the west coasts of continents between 30° and 45° latitudes.
  • It is bounded by the arid steppe on the equatorward side and the marine west European climate on the poleward side.
  • Areas around the Mediterranean sea, central California, central Chile, southern part of South Africa and south-eastern and southern-western parts of Australia experience this climate.
  • As there is seasonal shift of pressure belts with the annual movements of the sun, these areas come under the influence of subtropical high-pressure conditions during summer, and cyclonic low-pressure conditions during winter.
  • Summers are, therefore, warm and dry, temperature remains in between 20°C and 27°C.
  • Winters are mild with temperature ranging between 4°C and 10°C.
  • The annual range of temperature is about 10° to 17°C.
  • Rainfall is moderate and varies between 40 and 60 centimetres.
  • Most of the rainfall occurs in the winter season.

(ii) The Humid Subtropical Climate or the China Type (Cwa/Cfa):

 

Warm temperate Climates

  • The humid subtropical climate is found along the eastern coasts of continents between 25° and 45° latitudes.
  • It occurs in the southern-eastern United States, Uruguay, Argentina, southern Brazil, eastern China, southern Japan and eastern coastal belt of Australia.
  • Summers are hot and humid. Winters are mild.
  • The average annual temperature is 20°C and the average annual range of temperature is about 17°C.
  • Yearly precipitation totals area usually more than 100 centimetres.
  • It is well distributed throughout the year.
  • These areas experience dreaded hurricanes and typhoons, mostly in late summer and autumn.

(iii) The Marine West European Climate (Cwb/Cfb):

Warm temperate Climates

  • The climate is found along the western coasts of continents from about 40° and 65° north and south latitudes.
  • This climate is dominated by the on-shore flow of oceanic air.
  • Under the influence of maritime air masses, the areas under Cwb/Cfb experience mild winters, cool summers and ample amount of rainfall throughout the year.
  • This climate is found most widely in Europe, where in the absence of any mountain barrier running north-south, the movement of cool maritime air is not restricted.
  • In North and South America, this climate is found only in narrow belt, along the cost, because of the presence of mountain barriers.
  • Besides these areas, New Zealand and south-eastern tip of Australia also experience this climate.
  • Weather remains highly variable and unpredictable throughout the year under the influence of cyclonic low pressure system.
  • The average annual rainfall is about 140 centimetres.
  • The winters are rainier than the summers.