Cold Snow forest Climates (D)

Humid mid-latitude climates having low temperatures have been sub-divided into the taiga climate, the cool east coast, and the continental climates.

 

Cold Snow forest Climates (D)


(i) The Taiga Climate (Dwd/Dwe/Dfe):

  • This climatic type has been named after the coniferous forest cover found in the region.
  • This climatic region covers broad expenses from Western Alaska to Newfoundland in North America, and from Norway to the Kamchetka Peninsula in Eurasia.
  • The climate is dominated by continental polar air masses.
  • The summers are short with average temperature 15°C.
  • The winters are long and very cold. Minimum temperature may be as low as -50°C (recorded at Verkhoyansk in January).
  • The precipitation is low and concentrated in warmer months.
  • Despite its small amount, it is sufficient for tree growth because evaporation is less.
  • The vegetation associated with this climatic type is the soft-wood coniferous forest.

(ii) The Cool East Coast Climate (Dwa):

  • This climate is found in areas located along the north-eastern coast of the United States, northern China, Japan, Korea and lower Danube plains.
  • The summers are long, hot and humid under the influence of tropical maritime air masses.
  • Average summer temperature is 25°C. The winters are cold and the average winter temperature ranges between -40°C and 0°C. Precipitation is variable.
  • Summer rainfall is characteristic and is convectional in nature.
  • In winter, precipitation is usually less than in summer, and falls mostly in the form of snow.

(iii) The Continental Climate (Dfa):

  • The climatic region is situated in the interior parts of the big continents between the Taiga and the mid-latitude deserts.
  • In Eurasia, it spreads from Poland and Baltic States to the central Russian Plain.
  • Beyond the Ural mountains, the belt is narrow and runs along the 55° parallel.
  • In North America this climate is found in the northern states of the United States and in the southern parts of the central states of Canada.
  • Temperature is usually higher than those of the Taiga type climate, but is lower than those of the cool east coast climate.
  • Summers are short and warm, temperature being in between 10°C and 21°C. Winters are long.
  • Temperature goes down below freezing point.
  • Precipitation is variable and comes mostly in summer as rainfall.
  • Winter precipitation is in the form of snow.