Changing urban life and Unpaid housework scenario for women

  • despite an increase in the time spent for everyone on unpaid work, the burden has increased more for women
  • The term unpaid work, as given by the International Labour Organization, is the ‘non-remunerated work carried out to sustain the well-being and maintenance of other individuals in a household or the community, and it includes both direct and indirect care (i.e. routine housework)’.
  • The ILO estimates show that time spent in unpaid work accounted for ‘16.4 billion hours per day, with women contributing more than three-fourths of the total’ which is ‘equivalent to 2.0 billion people working on a full-time basis without pay’.
  • In India, women spend an average of 351.9 min/day on unpaid work as compared to an average of 51.8 min/day by men.
  • In addition, data show that time spent on total paid and unpaid work by women in India is 536.6 min/day as compared to an average of 442.3 min/day being spent by men.
  • This implies that for women engaged in paid employment, the drudgery of unpaid work is so high that they work longer than men.
  • the 2019 National Statistical office survey that states 92% women in India take part in unpaid domestic work in homes in comparison to 27% of men.