Failure of India’s slum development strategies is due to the following reasons

  • Failure of many projects:
    • For instance, the World Bank-funded Slum Upgradation Programme, the Slum Rehabilitation Scheme, rolled out in Maharashtra in 1995 under the Slum Rehabilitation Authority, etc none of them have been successful.
    • Current slum policies primarily focus on housing, relocation or in-situ development of multi-story complexes, which free up swathes of prime real estate. But in doing so, they miss out on the brewing socio-economic distress in slums. This was revealed in two projects conducted in Bengaluru and which could apply to other Indian cities too.
  • The lack of adequate data and land titles in slumsmeant expensive, time-consuming delays were common.
  • Failure to take slum dweller representatives on boardmeant that the informal economic networks underlying slum’s economy would be disrupted by the redevelopment.
  • Lack of common standards meant that the housing built for slum dwellers was often of execrable quality. As for the problem of slum dwellers selling or leasing the houses and returning to their previous housing, poor quality, unaffordable maintenance costs and disrupted networks often had a role to play here.
  • Forced evictions:
    • Millions of poor people, or squatters, have been evicted until the late 1980s around the world in the name of Urban Renewal Projects, most of them (tenant) without a share in any benefit. Excluding the already excluded poor from developmental opportunities aggravates the problem.
  • Tiers of slums:
    • Many cities across India have two tiers of slums those with official government recognition and those without, and the JNNURM did not push cities hard enough to directly intervene in slum areas without recognition.