Supercomputers are the physical embodiment of high-performance computing (HPC), allowing organizations to solve problems that would be impossible with regular computers and to better assess associated revenue streams


  • Supercomputers have certain distinguishing features. Unlike conventional computers, they usually have more than one CPU (central processing unit), which contains circuits for interpreting program instructions and executing arithmetic and logic operations in proper sequence.
  • The use of several CPUs to achieve high computational rates is necessitated by the physical limits of circuit technology.
  • Electronic signals cannot travel faster than the speed of light, which thus constitutes a fundamental speed limit for signal transmission and circuit switching.
  • This limit has almost been reached, owing to miniaturization of circuit components, dramatic reduction in the length of wires connecting circuit boards, and innovation in cooling techniques (e.g., in various supercomputer systems, processor and memory circuits are immersed in a cryogenic fluid to achieve the low temperatures at which they operate fastest).
  • Rapid retrieval of stored data and instructions is required to support the extremely high computational speed of CPUs. Therefore, most supercomputers have a very large storage capacity, as well as a very fast input/output capability.


National Supercomputing Mission (NSM):

The Mission envisages empowering national academic and R&D institutions spread over the country by installing a vast supercomputing grid comprising of more than 70 high-performance computing facilities.

  • These supercomputers will also be networked on the National Supercomputing grid over the National Knowledge Network (NKN).
  • The NKN is another programme of the government which connects academic institutions and R&D labs over a high speed network.
  • The Mission includes development of highly professional High Performance Computing (HPC) aware human resource for meeting challenges of development of these applications.
  • India looks forward to create a cluster of machines for weather forecasting, drug discovery and data mining.


Characteristics of Supercomputer

  • These types of computers are able to solve large amounts of calculations, and complicated calculations as well.
  • Multiple users are capable of accessing the supercomputer at same time.
  • It Is more expensive so ordinary users can not purchase that computer.
  • Use for special areas where there is a high amount and complicated calculations.
  • Having huge storage capacity.


There are many application areas where to use of supercomputer such as

  • Biology Areas:

Mostly, supercomputers are used to diagnose various diseases, and provide the assistance for producing good results in strokes, brain injuries and other blood flow issues in your body.

  • Military and Defense Missions:

Supercomputing helps to provide virtual testing for nuclear explosion and weapon ballistics.

  • Climate Patterns:

Supercomputer applications are able to study and understand climate patterns.

  • Airlines Industry:

With the help of a supercomputer, designed flight simulators for newbie pilots and this simulator helped to train new pilots.

  • Weather Forecasting:

To gather the information related to weather forecasting, supercomputers run in the NOAA’s system, which means National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The NOAA system is able to execute all types of simple and logical instructions.

  • Scientific Research areas:

In the weather and science research areas depend on the supercomputer for analyzing data from the exploring solar system, satellites that round earth, and other areas such as nuclear research.

  • Advance database :(Data Mining)

Some large scale companies need the supercomputer for extracting useful information from data storage houses or in the cloud system. Such as insurance companies.

  • Financial Market Place:

Supercomputers play a vital role in real financial success in the emerging online currency world such as bitcoin and the stock market.

  • Simulated Environment in Automobile:

Supercomputers provide the help to people for buying vehicles because before purchasing the vehicle, customers can test through simulation environments that are created by supercomputers.

  • Smog Control System:

Scientists use supercomputers in their own laboratory for predicting the fog and other pollution levels in particular areas, and then take final steps to prevent them.



  • More Expensive
  • Need more space for setup
  • Not useful for broad applications
  • Not able to replace physical testing
  • Need well trained staff
  • Required more maintenance
  • Need massive external storage for huge data
  • High power requirements
  • Need water cooling in addition to an A/C system, because a supercomputer produces more heat during processing time.

In the 12th five-year plan, the government of India (GOI) had committed that $2.5bn would be sanctioned for the research in the supercomputing field.

In 2015, GOI approved a 7-year supercomputing program known as National Supercomputing Mission which aims to create a cluster of 73 supercomputers connecting various academic and research institutions across India with $730mn investment.

As of June 2021 there are 3 systems based in India on the TOP500 supercomputer list.

Rank Site Name
89 Centre for Development of Advanced Computing PARAM Siddhi-AI
107 Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology Pratyush (Cray XC40)
187 National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting Mihir (Cray XC40)