United Nation Convention on Biological Diversity, defines Biotechnology “any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use”. And “Biological resources” includes genetic resources, organisms or parts thereof, populations, or any other biotic component of ecosystems with actual or potential use or value for humanity. India has become the world’s 12th biggest biotechnology economy having the second highest number of USFDA-approved plants. Biotechnology will help developing countries accomplish things that they could never do

Conventional  biotechnology  is a biotechnology  practice  conducted  by using simple methods  and  instruments,  without genetic manipulation. It has been done since  thousands of years ago to produce many  kinds of products,such as beer, wine, tuak,  sake, yogurt,  bread, cheese, soy sauce,  tempe,tapai, and oncom.

Modern biotechnology is a biotechnology  practice  developed with genetic manipulation  technique,  in which  transfer  of genetic material(transfer  of gene) from one  living organism to the other occurs. Through  this technique,  humans can control the production  according  to his desire. Forexamples,  the production  of pest and disease resistant  plants,  imperishable fruits, and cattle which are able  to produce more milk.

In the genetic manipulation process, organisms whose body containsforeign  genes  are called transgenic  organisms. They can be  transgenic plants,transgenic  animals,  and  transgenic  bacteria.