Insights Prelims Test Series – 2016: Discussions Test – 25

Insights Prelims Test Series – 2016: Discussions Test – 24

Hope you enjoyed solving the Twenty Fifth Test of our 2016 Test Series. On this page, please share your doubts to seek clarifications, or to point out any mistakes in the comment box regarding the First Test. We will do our best to address  all your doubts.

237 Replies to “Insights Prelims Test Series – 2016: Discussions Test – 25”

  1. What is a good score in this test? I got 102 ,is it ok if in remaining tests score is in range of 100.plz rpl.

  2. Does anti-defection law apply to rajya sabha elections? Lakshmikant has not mentioned in particular.

    1. No..It dosent apply to RS elections. Thats why Cross-voting occurs sometimes in RS elections unlike Loksabha where MPs cant go against party Whip directions.

          1. Sorry.. It has been clarified.. I was wrong.. Got confused with the article.. 🙂

    2. No, Anti-defection law doesn’t apply to Rajya Sabha elections as has been clearly mentioned in the PDF. This is the reason why there is open ballot voting and monitoring of whips in the entire election process.

      Also, cross-party voting and horse trading are possible only because anti-defection provisions do not apply. Had they applied, the MLAs would be automatically disqualified.

      1. Q 96 – Sighting of the most energetic light ever in space from an observatory based here;

        should be “Sighting of the most energetic light ever detected in space from an observatory based here”

  3. plz anybody clarify me.. what type of clouds do form during Tropical cyclones and Temperate cyclones.?. and Is expenditure of ECI charged on CFI..(given in test 3 but not in Laxmikanth).?. and whether oxides sulphure contribute to global warming?

    1. 3,It contributes to acid rain not global warming,actually it cools the atmosphere.

    2. ECI is not charge on CFI. That is a part of their latest demands.
      That was submitted in January that they be given security of tenure( other than CEC) and CFI expenditure.

    3. GHG List –> Carbon dioxide (CO2), the most significant GHG, methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), Tropospheric Ozone (O3), and Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), Sulfur Hexaflouride. And also Water Vapour.
      Sulphur Oxide leads to aerosol formation –> Reduced insolation –> Global dimming !

    4. Vision Says “Cirrus clouds do not cause rainfall. The rainfall in the temperate cyclones is generally caused by Cumulo- nimbus clouds. The rainfall in the tropical cyclones is generally caused by Nimbo-stratus clouds”
      in one of its questions – It means generally the dominant rain is caused “generally” by cumulo-nimus in temperate clouds, Nimbo-stratus in tropical cyclones.

      That said –
      says variety of clouds cause rainfall in both the types of cyclones;

      Regards and All the best.

  4. Is Vice President removed by simple majority or absolute majority (given in Laxmikanth in two different ways)? Don’t Tropical cyclones originate in ITCZ (test 3 Q78)?

    1. Impeachment of Vice-President requires absolute majority in Rajya Sabha (i.e. more than 50% of number of members, excluding vacant seats) and agreed to by a simple majority (50% of present and voting members) of the Lok Sabha.

      1. Article 67(b).

        A Vice-President may be removed from his office by a resolution of the Council of States passed by a majority of all the then members of the Council and agreed to by the House of the People; but no resolution for the purpose of this clause shall be moved unless at least fourteen days’ notice has been given of the intention to move the resolution.

        loosely speaking (for as an aid to memory) it’s effective majority. its the only instance.

    2. tropical cyclone ..origintes when minimum temp 27 degree,continious supply of warm and moist air ,devlop only on oceans must have strong corolisis force we know corolisis force is directly proprtional to sign of latitutde as well as velocity of wind and altitude of near corolisis forces are less…it is best of my knowledge ..if u have something pls enlighten

  5. Regarding Q.No. 14: No one can be compelled to sing the National Anthem because
    1. It will be against the Right to freedom of speech and expression.
    2. There is no legal provision that obliges anyone to sing the
    National Anthem.

    How compelling someone to sing national anthem is against her/his freedom of speech and expression? though it might come under some different right may be..

    1. Freedom of speech/expression is a wide expression and it not only includes the right against censorship, it also includes the right to speak/express as and when one likes.

      For e.g. suppressing speech is as much a violation of this fundamental right as compelling to speak is. A similar question has been asked by UPSC and it clearly supports this viewpoint. 🙂

      1. Thanks for the clarification Insights!! 🙂 Can you also please provide good mark for this type of test? 🙂

        1. The best thing to do is to solve questions at one time rather than giving tests, just like a MCQ book. I am doing it now due to paucity of time and other priorities. Do give full length tests properly. Insights too says that their tests are more for knowledge rather than to check yourself. Solve all the tests. See the question, think the answer, scroll down and check, read explanation, underline important points and move ahead. You can solve 100-150 questions daily. Just keep reading the relevant subject matter and solving mcqs which is a must. All the best

      2. 1) When would we get the second part of the corrigendum? I would suggest to make the link both of them a featured comment as they are not yet available on dash board. Many of my friends were still unaware of the issuance of 1st part.
        2) Would you please have a second look at the answer provided and the explanation for question no 71 of the 10th test?
        Thank you 🙂

        1. Sure. 🙂

          Please be more specific for the Q71 (Test 10) doubt. We will be able to help out.

        2. 1. We would make all of them more accessible and issue the second corrigendum soon.

          2. Please be a little specific about the doubt. We will be able to help out. 🙂

          1. How would sparse cropping help nitrogen fixation? Many of the nitrogen fixing microbes require plants for survival , right?

      3. Q 37;

        Insights, your answer is C; Which is Curvature of the earth 🙂
        I don’t agree with the explanation though.

        Don’t you think bulge at the equator changes the curvature? the contribution of the bulge may be very small but non-zero; You may need to correct this.

        Anyways the answer is C because option A is “bulge at the equator and poles” – There is no bulge at the poles;

        1. To avoid the same confusion over bulge affecting curvature, we had made option (a) as a wrong option: poles have no bulge.

          Certainly the bulge affects the curvature minutely and thus the amount of solar insolation. But, the explanation in the PDF only covers the broad and significant causes for change in solar insolation.

          If such a question appears in UPSC, please stick with the same answer C. UPSC approaches it in the same way.

      4. Q 41:

        It is the only global not-for-profit organisation dedicated to the conservation and restoration of wetlands.

        Its website says its the only; Wikipedia says its a not-for-profit organisation;

        This has about 500 wetlands NGOs; I don’t know if anyone of them is global, non-profit;

        Do you think it requires a correction?

        1. We will look extensively on this again, and issue a clarification note in the corrigendum, if required. Thank you.

  6. Consider the following statements about the Champaran
    Satyagraha 1917.
    1. It was Gandhiji’s first Satyagraha in India.
    2. It was launched against the oppressive policies of European
    indigo planters.

    Wasn’t it launched against british planters rather than ‘European’ just to be specific as Eurpean planters may includer other like German planters as well..

    1. Its a statement picked up from Bipin Chandra! We don’t need to think so much for UPSC, European planters is a super set of British planters;

      Its like calling you an Asian while you insist on being called as an Indian 🙂

      All the best.

      1. Hahaha!!! Agree. Insights have asked such tricky points earlier in tests so i had to think in this way.. 🙂

    1. Read Artika Shukla’s (Rank 4) Article ….she never got even a 100..So u have full chance in Prelims …Don’t Worry much…Keep revising

        1. I am trying not to take much stress and just go on day to day basis…Just trying to achieve day’s target and forget that I am even going to appear on 7th August …Hahaha….because this stress of the whole procedure Prelims-Mains- personal tensions like this year only etc etc was taking a toll…I even had nightmares that I time traveled to 2021 and it was not a good scenario:D :D…

          1. Well this is what i should emulate .I have been so stressed and burnt out that i am unable to read well for the past few days.I am getting pretty good marks in test series but the fear of failure is pulling me down.I need to man up,collect my broken parts and should start reading instead of daydreaming.You seem to have the same problems as me.Nice humour.Ha ha I am often giving interviews in day dreams but i know it would make me lose sense of reality.I should try to stop that habit.Oh what you are doing exactly in 2021?

            1. The same thing as I am doing in 2016 :D:D….would have preferred a “virus/zombie outbreak” or ” end of the world ” story than this …. (The whole story is a lot to write here – but I assure you it was interesting enough to wake me up at 2:49 am last night …and open my laptop to start studying :P)

    2. I would like to give you hope and confidence but we do need to look into reality.There could be many reasons for this scenario.If you have not revised well then its good as you have 40 days to revise.If you are weak in some subjects then its good as you found your weakness before prelims.Now the only way ahead is to utilise those 40 days in a fruitful manner.What are the reasons, you think contributed to your low marks?Whats your average performance in these tests?I would like to hear a detailed explanation from your side.As for fear and self doubts it is common to every aspirant.You should work through it.Psychologically mild fear helps one to correct their mistakes.So,Brush up your basics.take up ncerts and other standard books.Only you know well about yourself.By the way i too have the same fear and doubt about myself.Aim to get around 100 in the next test.

      1. Aim to yahi rakhti hu ….but ek bar bhi 100 se above nhi le pai….sirf 70 to 80 ki range m hi marks rahte h….but yahhh…improvement jarur ki hu….1st 2 , 3 test m 40 se bhi kam the….:P
        thanks for supportive suggestion..

        1. Well I dont know hindi as i am a tamilian but i understood your comment.It is great that you have improved in a vast manner.Keep it up.ha ha 100 marks is just 8 questions away.Try to reduce negative marks.My comfort level is around 85 questions.Find your comfort level.Actually answering you gave me an awakening that i should improve myself.

    3. Sure there is. Don’t worry about marks. Just try to learn from mistakes. Go through the solutions thoroughly. Last year around this time I was hopeless. But after CAPF exam I studied hard for around 40 days and followed Insights Revision plan exhaustively. I learned a lot in that short span. Had I controlled my nerves I would have written mains. Over attempted and negative marking doomed me. Remember Revision is the key for here. Go for it 🙂

  7. Question no. 18th->explanation of 2nd statement is given wrong. Recently , Kiran bedi has recently appointed the chief minister of puducherry

    1. She is not CM but has been appointed as Lieutenant Governor. CM is V. Narayanasamy from Congress party..

      1. She has appointed the cm but explanation said that only president can appoint cm

    2. Kiran Bedi administered the oath of office and secrecy only to the new Chief Minister. The President makes the appointment of CM of a UT.

  8. one question to insights
    i have seen many students getting 196 marks , do u think this is possible? and this is sheer mockery of your hard work ,,and injustice towards genuine people giving exams as they are getting lower ranks,,,you should do something about this otherwise no use of assigning ranks,,,please reply if u have any justification

    1. ha ha yes ,they are giving the exam after revising from photocopies sold in delhi.You need not worry about those stupid jokers as we know their hardwork and talent very well:).I would say if everyone gives the exam in a genuine manner first mark would not go beyond 135 to 140 as questions are pretty tough compared to upsc.However insights is doing a amazing job in framing excellent questions and though they know it is a mockery,they could not do anything in this case as it is a online exam and we never know who copies .As for the difficulty level of the last two papers i would say anything above than 110 is a good mark.I got 121.33 in the previous test and 108 in this test.

      1. sahi bol ra h bro,,,but i have a question agar paper hi tha to 200 ku ni lae wo log ,,,lol

          1. m saying that i have a question,,,that if these people have solved answers in their hand while doing test then why they dont get 200 marks ,,lol

            1. ha ha I think they read the questions beforehand from photocopy and then give answers here.Another point i would like to make is that,not only these people are just copying ,there could be many others who could just google for a few questions they dont know but thats fine as we or insights team could not do anything about it.Ha ha they could not do it in exam hall,however.

              1. hmmmm .interesting…. I like to believe that they work hard and get those scores… 😀 So I work even harder 🙂

    2. actually…they are mocking themselves..i would say..if one’s score is above 120 constantly…he/she neednot worry about anything…afterall…who cares if someone stands first in prelims..

    3. @disqus_8IxfAC5JDQ:disqus it is not possible to score more than 150 in these quality tests..those scoring 190+ are fooling themselves..we can’t stop these ”aspirants” from doing these as that score satisfying them….in my view, any score greater than 100 is very good score….best luck to all aspirants

    4. I remember rubi rai,bihar board topper.
      I dont why people want to fool themselves n their offence

  9. @insightsprelimstestseries:disqus
    Q 45

    why answer D

    as many MSME’s are exporting their product

    according to pib in 2014 the msme export is $128162 million dollar

          1. All will be part of Priority Sector Lending. We had used slightly old data to frame the question. The RBI website was updated on 10th May 2016. Please stick to the same. 🙂

            1. Please include a clarification on this question in the corrigendum. Thanks

        1. All will be part of Priority Sector Lending. We had used slightly old data to frame the question. The RBI website was updated on 10th May 2016. Please stick to the same.

          1. According to R.S Sharma old ncert the first gold coins were issued by Indo greeks and according to new ncert it is kushan’s which one should we follow.. please reply

            1. There was a similar statement in UPSC, which was clearly based on the NEW NCERT. Please stick to them. 🙂

      1. Regarding Q95 shouldn’t the explanation be

        It thus addresses the concerns of foreign nuclear equipment suppliers.
        International nuclear reactor makers have been reluctant to set up plants in
        India because of the 2010 domestic Civil Nuclear Liability Law – that makes
        equipment suppliers accountable for accidents and not the plant operators, as
        is AGAINST the global norm

        Please clarify sir.

        1. Yes, that is correct – “as is against the global norm”. 🙂 This is the point that the statement is driving towards.

      2. The RBI Link does not seem to mention about “Sofware industries” being under PSL. Could you please clarify 🙂

    1. “Conferment of more jurisdiction on the Supreme Court” is possible by a simple majority in the Parliament. Statement 1 mentions the opposite and will be wrong.

      Increase in number of puisne judges is also possible by a simple majority. So, the answer is as provided option (b).

  10. Dear insights, in ques no 56.. it is said that mangroves are not found in all coastal areas…and it given as correct statement in explanation. But in India Year Book 2016 pg 330…it is said that mangroves are found in all coastal states/ UTs….Can U please clarify..?

    1. The answer is in your statement itself.Area is different from states.For example mangroves are not found in chennai coast but it is found in gulf of mannar both of which are located in tamilnadu.Hope you understand.

    1. Hey Arun, what’s the score?
      Gave the test just now, got 134, too much of current affairs (loved it) too much of culture and ancient India too (hated it). But it was fun, what’s your take on it?

        1. Yours is not JUST 108, it is good! 🙂
          In the question 41, it says wetlands international is the ONLY global not for profit organization dedicated to conserve wetlands.

          Is it the ONLY one? I got confused seeing the word ONLY lol, kindly check once. Thank you.

          1. yes it is the only one.I saw it now in a website too.Ha ha i too was confused at first on seeing the word”only”.Thanks simran.I hope i would get more marks in the next test.Could i get your mail id.?

  11. The Second Administrative Reforms Commission did NOT
    deal specifically with
    a) Public Order
    b) Disaster Management
    c) Ethics in Governance
    d) It dealt with all of the above.

    Answer has been given as d).

    from the explanantion given below I can see there is one point “crisis management”. So does this include “Disaster Management”? I think these are administrative reforms so Disaster management should not come here.

    1. Crisis management and disaster management are the same man 🙂 2nd ARC dealt with this in the backdrop of Tsunami;

      Report is important for the mains; Look for compilation of the report.

      1. Ohh… Really didnt know.. Thanks for the info!! 🙂 By crisis i assumed crisis in government functioning.

  12. Good questions, i could find my weak areas though i scored less marks in this test than previous… (84 in this test and 113 the previous)… Hoping for a better performance… thank you Insights… 🙂

  13. plz anybody clarify me.. what type of clouds do form during Tropical cyclones and Temperate cyclones.?. and Is expenditure of ECI charged on CFI..(given in test 3 but not in Laxmikanth).?. and whether oxides sulphure contribute to global warming?

    1. “Strato-spheric SO2 aerosols reflect sunlight, reducing the amount of energy reaching the lower atmosphere and the Earth’s surface, cooling them”. Human-made sulfate aerosols “absorb no sunlight but they reflect it, thereby reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the Earth’s surface”.

  14. Q 55) Please clarify. The solution provided goes against the Laxmikant book (4 th edition Ch.10 Pg.2)

    1. Looks like a typo from Insights; the explanation is correct though.

      Answer should have been D.

      1. The answer mentioned is correct. It is B. Increasing the number of puisne judges iin the Supreme Court does require a constitutional amendment, with a simple majority though.
        The explanation is not related to this case.

    2. The solution provided is correct and matches with what is mentioned in Laxmikanth.

      “Conferment of more jurisdiction on the Supreme Court” is possible by a simple majority in the Parliament. Statement 1 mentions the opposite and will be wrong. Increase in number of puisne judges is also possible by a simple majority. So, the answer is as provided option (b). 🙂

      1. Statement 2 of the explanation says parliament can curtail the jurisdiction of supreme court. However in Laxmikant pg 25.4 it says ” its jurisiction cannot be curtailed ” but can be extended. And again in pg 30.4 there is a contradictory point 9 under jurisdiction of Highcourt. Please explain.

        How to approach this question if asked : parliament can curtail the jurisdiction of Supreme court?

  15. Regarding Q 88
    Trade Balance is included in GDP also
    when we calculate GDP looking @ aggregate demand trade balance is included
    Net Factor Income Abroad is not a part of GDP as it is in GNP..
    Clear My Doubts @insightsprelimstestseries:disqus

    1. 1. NFIA is the income earned by factors working in host or foreign nation, and does not include value of imports or exports as such. So, (a) is the answer.
      From the expenditure side, GDP at current market prices can be seen as the sum of (a) consumption—both private and public (b) investment, also known as Gross Capital Formation (GCF) which comprises fixed capital formation, change in stock and valuables, and, (c) net exports which represent the difference between exports and imports of goods and non-factor services (Net factor Income excluded). So, option (c) is wrong.

      2. Option A should actually be “Income from abroad (IA)” instead of “Net Factor Income from abroad”. NFIA does not include trade balance, but IA does. It is a mistake from our side and we will update it in the corrigendum.

      But, given the present options, both A and C should be correct. 🙂

    Q:88 regarding trade balance…in solution u have given it doesn’t form part of GDP….
    Actually balance of trade being explicitly added to the calculation of
    their nation’s gross domestic product using the expenditure method of
    calculating gross domestic production, (i.e. GDP), trade surpluses are
    contributions and trade deficits are “drags” upon their nation’s GDP… i think answer should be A
    Sir pls clarify …

    Also in NCERT 12th class Introductory to macroeconomics it is given that current transactions is directly proportional to REAL GDP……

    SOURCE:Wikipedia,under the sub heading of “Trade balances affects upon their nation’s GDPs”.(

    1. I think trade balance is not part of net factored income from abroad as income is different from transaction. Trade balance is export – import. It may lead to income or loss. We cannot say anything about income.

      following paragraph is from Wikipedia

      “The balance of trade forms part of the current account, which includes other transactions such as income from the net international investment position as well as international aid.”

      Therefore answer should be “A”

    2. Gross domestic Product calculation involves, (Total consumption + trade balance); Remember GDP is the Gross “domestic” product – only includes what is domestically produced;

      That doesn’t mean trade balance is part of GDP 🙂

      On the other hand Net factor income includes trade balance

      1. Net factor income from abroad comes under GNP and trade balance comes under current account,which becomes the part of GDP while calculating….

        1. OK – Let us examine your statement;
          1st statement is correct; GNP = GDP + Net Factor income;

          Trade balance is part of current account;

          Current account deficit = Trade deficit + Net factor income + current transfers;

          Current account becomes part of GDP ? – I think thats a wrong statement;

          Imagine an economy where A produces Apples, consumes none of his apples, but imports oranges while exporting apples to B in a different economy; In this imaginary economy

          GDP = Total apples produced;
          Trade balance = Apples exported – oranges imported;
          Net Factor Income = Value of apples produced by A – Value of oranges produced by B;

          Net factor income = trade balance!!

          Although the example is simplistic – I hope that answers your question.

          All the best.

          1. i think u have mistaken the meaning of NET FACTOR INCOME FROM ABROAD”(Statement 1) has nothing to do with trade….

            Net foreign factor income (NFFI) is the difference between the aggregate amount that a country’s citizens and companies earn abroad, and the aggregate amount that foreign citizens and overseas companies earn in that country. In mathematical terms, NFFI = GNP – GDP
            For example, if a Japanese company has a production facility in the U.S., its output will count toward U.S. GDP, but Japan’s GNP


            I got ur example…let me tell one thing while calculating GDP of a particular year of a country,net exports ,net imports,trade surplus,trade defecit…etc.., are not taken into account ??

            so i think both NFI from abroad and GDP both include trade balance….
            thank u for replying…

            1. Net foreign factor income (NFFI) is the difference between the aggregate amount that a country’s citizens and companies earn abroad, and the aggregate amount that foreign citizens and overseas companies earn in that country.

              The highlighted part includes trade balance 🙂 (In the end you seem to have agreed that NFI contained the trade balance)

              GDP is calculated on what is “produced” domestically, not on what is “consumed” domestically;

              That is why when you are calculating GDP through consumption method you make up for it by adding trade balance.

              I hope that helps; (BTW a similar question was asked before in the insights test series)

              Following is quoted from the Ramesh Singh;
              Gross National Product (GNP) is the GDP of a country added with its ‘income from abroad’. Here, the trans-boundary economic activities of an economy is also taken into account. The items which are counted in the segment ‘Income from Abroad’ are:
              (i) Trade Balance: the net outcome at the year end of the total exports and imports of a country may be positive or negative accordingly added with the GDP (in India’s case it has always been negative except the three consecutive years 2000-03 when it was positive, due to high levels of ‘services sector’ export during the years courtsey the booming BPO industry).
              (ii) Interest of External Loans: the net outcome on the front of the interest payments i.e. balance of the inflow (on the money lend out by the economy) and the outflow (on the money borrowedby the economy) of the external interests. In India’s case it has been always negative as the economy has been a ‘net borrower’ from the world economies.
              (iii) Private Remittances: the net outcome of the money which inflows and outflows on account of the ‘private transfers’ by the Indian nationals working outside India (to India) and the foreign nationals working in India (to their home countries). On this front India has been always a gainer- till early 1990s from the Gulf region (which fell down afterwards in the wake of the heavy country-bound movements of the Indians working there due to the Gulf War) and afterwards from the USA and the European nations. Basically, during the year 2012, India is projected (as per the IMF) to be the highest receiver of this fund to the tune of $58 billion (it was the second highest in 2011 at $55 billion, China was the top gainer with $57 billion).
              Ultimately, the balance of all the three components of the ‘Income from Abroad’ segment may turn out to be positive or negative. In India’s case it has been always negative (due to heavy outflows on account of trade deficits and interest payments of the foreign loans). It means, the ‘Income from Abroad’ is subtracted from India’s GDP to calculate its GNP.
              The normal formula is GNP = GDP + Income from Abroad. But it becomes GNP = GDP + (– Income from Abroad) = GDP – Income from Abroad, in the case of India. This means that India’s GNP is always lower than its GDP.

    3. 1. From the expenditure side, GDP at current market prices can be seen as the sum of (a) consumption—both private and public (b) investment, also known as Gross Capital Formation (GCF) which comprises fixed capital formation, change in stock and valuables, and, (c) net exports which represent the difference between exports and imports of goods and non-factor services (Net factor Income excluded). So, option (c) is wrong.

      2. Option A should actually be “Income from abroad (IA)” instead of “Net Factor Income from abroad”. NFIA does not include trade balance, but IA does. It is a mistake from our side and we will update it in the corrigendum.

      1. Question 68: Could you explain the first statement?
        It is a statutory body as given on its website.
        Is it not constituted to implement “project tiger”?
        Although project tiger came up in 1973 and NTCA in 2005.

        Please clarify 🙂

        Thanks for the wonderful questions.

  17. i score 110 is that good score in this test? mention rank is out of how much students generally?

    1. Got 104, not sure if its a good score. Have the same suggestion @insightsprelimstestseries:disqus

      1. @neha_kabra:disqus any score 100+ is good score…maintain consistency….. revise whatever you can…best luck..!!

    2. hiii…nothing to worry abt gud or bad score…watever we get is the reflection of our hardwork…just to solve as much question for practice..let the score watever it may be…be truthful and passionate is the key….noone can judge gud score or bad score…as level of preparation is different for each of us….so dont get confused…do your best,,.final decision is by upsc only on the ‘D’ day…till the time just study..without any fear n worries…hope this will help u…best of luck

  18. Test 24

    Q25 : The ES thinks that the recommendations of the SPC wont’ affect inflation as wage hike comprises only a part of the Demand -Supply ratio
    Q 67 : Turkey to Both Mediterranean Sea and BLACK SEA instead of Caspian Sea
    Q 95 : Can we say that an earthquake may be accompanied by an eruption ? (The movement of magma due to convention )

    1. 25. Of all the given options only option (c) ‘may’ result in inflation. It is standard economic theory that higher demand (however smaller) with constant supplies would tend to push up the price level. Please stick to the most appropriate option among all.

      67. Yes, this will be updated in the corrigendum.

      95. Not necessarily. Eruption may also lead to ground-shaking. Only 80% of the Volcanic areas coincide with earthquake prone zones. So, not all volcanic eruptions produce earthquakes.

  19. hi insights pls inculcate previous year upsc papers in ur test series eg 2015 paper as test no. 33 and so on .. i thnk this will be of immense benefit for aspirants…

  20. hello, I got registered for test series on 2nd june but could not give the test as it is not getting loaded. Can anyone help please.

    1. Please try changing the browser or device/ clearing cookies/ plugin data; it should work. 🙂

  21. Dear Insight
    Regarding Q 88 the solution says Trade Balance is not included in GDP
    But when we calculate GDP looking @ Aggregate Demand(Expenditure Method
    Trade Balance is included
    Net Factor Income From Abroad is not included in GDP as It is not domestically produced but earned by the factors of production employed abroad .
    Hence they are included in GNP
    Hope Insight Team will clear my Doubt .

    1. Trade balance includes the value of a number of goods that are not produced domestically (like imported from say USA). Whereas GDP includes the value of only those goods that are produced domestically, so it is only the exports which form part of GDP, not the entire trade balance (which also includes import figures).

      1. Dear insight
        From the expenditure side, GDP at current market prices can be seen as the
        sum of (a) consumption—both private and public (b) investment, also known as Gross
        Capital Formation (GCF) which comprises fixed capital formation, change in stock and valuables, and, (c) net exports which represent the difference between exports and imports of goods and non-factor services.(Net factor Income excluded).
        Taken From Economic Survey Vol 2 @insightsprelimstestseries:disqus
        According to this GDP includes Trade balance(Export and Import Of Goods).
        Kindly explain this .

  22. Q. no. 05 – Rajya Sabha elections – Anti-defection law does not apply and candidates can vote for cross-party candidates

    This is a wrong statement. Answer should be 1 only. It is no where mentioned that Anti-defection law is applicable only for Lok Sabha.

    A member of Parliament or a State Legislature would be disqualified on the ground of defection if he votes or abstains from voting in the House contrary to any direction of such party.

    Insights pls. comment.

      1. I agree with you sir, as per newspaper article statement is correct. But I have searched extensively on this topic & I think the statement given in indianexpress is wrong.

        As per chapter 66 (Electoral Reforms – Laxmikanth 4th edition) – In 2003, the following change was introduced with respect to elections to the Rajya Sabha: Introducing open ballot system, instead of secret ballot system, for elections to the Rajya Sabha. This was done to curb cross-voting and to wipe out the role of money power during Rajya Sabha elections. Under the new system, an elector belonging to a political party has to show the ballot paper after marking his vote to a nominated agent of that political party.

        Then how horse trading ?? As was given in the article ” The voting is open so the party MLAs are subject to party discipline but the independents are hot property”. Means it is independent members who are horse traded. Also in the election of rajya sabha members have to give the preference of candidates (system of proportional representation). In these cases generally party decides the preference. Means even though a political party will give first preference to its candidate, but what about second preference. There will be choice of candidates from other political parties. In these cases one party will try to get the second preference from the other party. Hence the political party itself will give the direction to its legislatures in a particular order after getting money from other parties.

        1. The open ballot system relies on party discipline. The party takes action in case of cross-voting. It is not a legal action.

          There is nothing in the law that prohibits the MLAs to vote for other party candidates or disobey party directions on voting. Anti-defection law does not apply to Rajya Sabha elections.

          The IE article was written by India’s former Chief Election Commissioner. 🙂

  23. Can some one answer below question asked in Test 13. Q.No. 94:
    Which of the following form part of the revenue expenditure
    of the the Government of India?
    1. Expenditure on social security
    2. Grants given to foreign countries and Indian states
    3. Subsidies forwarded to all sectors of the economy
    Select the correct answer using the codes below.
    a) 1 and 2 only
    b) 2 and 3 only
    c) 1 and 3 only
    d) 1, 2 and 3

    Answer is d)

    Clarification: Expenditure on social security should be part of capital expenditure or revenue expenditure?

    1. i think social expenditure comes from both revenue and capital expenditure….

      1. hmm.. yeah.. even i think the same… I mean spending on regular health services/schemes is part of revenue expenditure. But considering that it creates better human resource by giving social security, it may come under capital expenditure as well. Is this correct understanding Shankar?

        1. refer NCERT 12 Introductory to macroeconomics… chapter 5,page 4(last line)….
          actually revenue non plan expenditure covers social sector and similarly capital non plan expenditure also…it is clearly given in NCERT…

  24. @Insights Team,

    Please mention the total participants who have taken the exam & also what you consider a good/decent score in the test, this will help us measure us. Ranking alone is not giving a clear picture & see that many people are writing tests later. I am sorry if it is already mentioned somewhere, please let me know the location where I can find the same.

      1. Insight please provide correction within 2-3 days.
        Also provide average ranking, good score, below average score……which is provided by visionias or few other test series

      1. regarding question 18 of test 15: statement 1: Tattwabodini Sabha was a splinter group of Bramho samaj……………but tattwobodhini sabha never merged with bramho samaj rather worked through informal association with,how can u say it was a splinter group of brahmo?splinter means breaking away or disintegrating?please clarify

          1. Q5 please clarify the statement that how w.r.t Rajya sabha Anti-defection law does not apply and candidates can vote for cross-party candidates ?
            In rajya sabha also directions of party whip have to be followed..right?

            1. The election to Rajya sabha does not attract the provisions of anti-defection. This was laid down by the Supreme Court in the Kuldeep Nayar case. The most probable reason is that these are not legislative exercise and are elections by voting, which should require a free will of the voter. So even though, there is a party whip on voting and the voting is on open ballot system, a member is not disqualified for cross voting. The respective parties may take internal action against the member.

              Incidently, disqualification on defection is not attracted even to the Presidential election. See:

            2. Yes, but that relies only on party discipline. There is no legal provision that binds the MPs from cross-voting.

          2. wrt q 41–wetlands intnl and ramsar convention on wetland have no convergence? can you just brief about how the two are different. Thanks.

  25. Q.36 – Who issued First gold coin – Kushanas or Indo-Greek ??

    someone pls help…..I read it as Indo-greek, INSIGHT says Kushanas

    1. Chapter 2: Themes in Indian History: 12th NCERT clearly mentions it to be Kushanas. 🙂 Please stick with authoritative sources.

    1. You can find it mentioned in Ramesh Singh under the Banking Chapter. RBI has given a category “Others” also. Thank you 🙂

      1. But Ma’am/Sir Export credit is clearly included under PSL.. this is for export oriented industries only right? So option D is not incorrect is it??

  26. Can anyone explain the logic behind cold currents occurring on the west coast in Low & middle latitudes & on the east coast in higher latitudes?

    1. Because of Coriolis force, ocean currents circulate in clockwise direction in the Northern hemisphere and counter clockwise in the southern hemisphere;

      If you imagine it in the Atlantic ocean you should be able to see Canaries in the North west Africa (Reason for Sahara desert) and Benguela in the southern Africa (Reason for Namib desert);

      The circulation is same for Anti-Cyclones in both the hemispheres;

      While its opposite for the cyclones – Just imagine there is a “Low pressure zone” and all the air is rushing in (Say directly towards the centre); Draw a circle around “L” and use Coriolis force to change the the wind deflection; You will understand why thats is the case.

    2. This is mainly due to North and South equatorial currents movements which are from east to west… splits to move along east coasts as warm currents there by completing their cycle as cold currents along east coasts.. and this can also be attributed to relief features and same is true for higher latitudes

  27. Anybody clarify me… why don’t clouds form in stratosphere? Is it due to absence of water vapour OR that of hygroscopic nuclei like dust?

        1. But in little quantity and stratosphere is very stable…which makes air not to rise……that’s why planes prefer it….

  28. Sir analyse CPF paper and plsss guide good book for Modern india…waiting for reply sir

  29. Dear Insights,

    Test series 2015 :
    Test 29 :
    Qno 18 Can Lokayuktas investigate cases against Central civil servants ??
    Q no 24 Explanation in the pdf was not clear. Can you please explain here
    Q no 43 Answer should be ” b” ?
    Q no 68 Answer should be “c” ?
    Also Can u please explain the difference between European Zone and European Union.

    Thank you

    Would be grateful if you provide the Corrigendum for Test 11 onwards.If already uploaded kindly provide the link.

    1. 18. We don’t think so. Lokayukta is appointed by the state government, and its jurisdiction thus should be restricted to the State government.

      24. Please be a little specific about the doubt. The explanation seems clear.

      43. Farmers can both sell and buy agricultural produce from the online market. The answer should actually be D, also also clear from the explanation.

      68. Yes, please see the Corrigendum for 2015 Test Series. It was addressed there.

      About European Union and Eurozone:

      1. Thankyou.

        Just one more query : where to find the Corrigendum for 2015?…It is not there in the downloads in our dashboard..

          1. Test Series 2015 :

            Test 31
            Q no 21 . All three statements are correct . Are’nt they ?
            Q no 86 .Time zone depends on latitude or longitude? I remember one test in Testseries 2016 saying longitude, here it says latitude …Pls help

  30. Sir Q69 explination can u plz constitution mentioned sc,st but did not define it.but it clearly defined anglo did it define in such a way

    1. When constitution defines a term, it is always explicitly mentioned in the constitution, for e.g. Anglo-Indians. On the other hand, terms like “weaker sections”, “minorities” have been mentioned in the constitution but not defined explicitly. 🙂

  31. Q-45, hey export credit is also included in PSL, so all four categories are in PSL. Q-55: Parliament doesn’t need to amend constitution to increase the number of judges, so second statement is also wrong. Please anyone clarify the issue.

  32. An open question , not related to the test :

    Difference between implicit and explicit subsidy ?

    1. Implicit subsidy: For e.g. training farmers under a government scheme to boost agricultural productivity can be called as an implicit subsidy, as the training would indirectly give a financial gain to the farmer in form of increased outputs.

      Explicit subsidy: MSP, fertilizer subsidies, free power etc can be called as explicit, as they enter directly into the cost of production and farmer’s profits.

  33. insights its very time taking exercise to read every conversation here and find out what if any change is to be made in answer sheet.

    pls post a featured comment, with all the necessary changes to be made in answer sheet.

    Thanks for the efforts.

  34. Temperature increases with height in stratosphere, can it be called ‘Temperature Inversion’? or Temp.Inv. confined to troposphere only?.. plz clarify..

    1. The geographical (technical) definition of temperature inversion is that linked to mountain valleys. Stratospheric temperature increase is not termed by scientists as temperature inversion. But, its just a question of terminology used, you may wish to call it temperature inversion. The concept is more important here, please stick to the same. 🙂

    1. Dear, they are the same. Coastal belts/areas/regions, they point to the same thing. The point that should be noted is, Mangroves would not be found in an area only because it is a coastal area. Conditions like salinity, mudflats etc need to suitable for their growth.

      1. test 25-q 56: mangroves are not found in all coastal belts of india………but previously in one of ur tests explanation it was explained that mangrove is present in all the coastal states of india….plz clarify

    1. India can surely benefit from the missile technology of other countries. But, please read the Statement 1 carefully.

      It says, “All member states would agree to transfer latest missile technologies to India with safeguards.” Only by the virtue of India being a MTCR member, countries will not agree to transfer latest missile technology. It would depend on the kind and depth of their relations with India.

      However, MTCR entry does remove the barriers to transfer of missile technologies. If a country wanted to export missile technologies to India earlier, it could not due to MTCR restrictions. Now it can. Answer given is correct. 🙂

  35. Sir,

    Q17. Point D: “Promote a protective environment for Girl Children by implementing of Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act 2012” could also be the answer as it is not monitorable.

    Q25. There are ‘Seven’ natural WHS in India. Newly added Great HImalayan National Park (2014)

    Q55. Statement 2: The Parliament can increase the number of judges in the Supreme Court by an ‘amendment of the constitution’ with a simple majority in the Parliament.
    It does not need amendment in constitution. hence statement must be wrong.

    Q91. as a general info, how to learn themes of report or international days? i always end up leaving the question…

    Thank you

    1. Yes, No 17. Option is wrong. Number 2. Enrollment can be easily monitored.

  36. Q27. explanation last line mentions “great Indian bustard, an endangered species found only in India” … IT IS CRITICALLY ENDANGERED. not ENDANGERED.

  37. Q27. explanation last line mentions “great Indian bustard, an endangered species found only in India” … IT IS CRITICALLY ENDANGERED. not ENDANGERED….

  38. Q.56 only hand picked(from IYB) explanation “However, not all coastal areas are suitable for mangrove plantation …..”
    Why previous statement “Mangrove vegetation has been reported in all the coastal states/union territories.” has been not mentioned ???

    Reported MEANS found. and NOT “not found” . therefore Assertion must be wrong.

    1. Every state has many coastal areas. While Mangroves are found in all coastal states, it is not found in all coastal areas for lack of suitable conditions like proper salinity, mudflats etc.

  39. Q71. “The principal tributaries of the river joining from right are the Lohit, the Dibang, the Subansiri, the Jiabharali, the Dhansiri, the Manas, the Torsa, the Sankosh and the Teesta whereas the Burhidihing, the Desang, the Dikhow, the Dhansiri and the Kopili joins it from left.”

    HOW does the DHANSIRI joins R.Brahmaputra from both LEFT & RIGHT ???

    Also Lohit cannot be it’s right trib…. zoom the left image to see :

  40. Since we have already started to attempt the second chance of attempts provided for test series , I would like to say that it is already too late to issue the corrigendum for test 11 onward. Sir kindly make it available ASAP

  41. Q. 69

    Reason: The constitution does not define “minorities”.

    Isn’t this incorrect, as article 29 implicitly defines a minority? Maybe not in the sense of the National Minority Commission, but it still does so.

    1. No dear, the constitution does not define ‘minorities’. Definitions are explicitly mentioned in the constitution, for e.g. “Agriculture”. UPSC too takes this stand clearly in its past papers.

      1. Minorities are givern under the marginal headings of the constitution …Knowing this , would this still not be a part of the constitution ?

        1. No. If you can refer the specific “Appendix” of M Laxmikanth’s Indian Polity, you would get all terms which are defined in the constitution. Minority is not one of them. UPSC too has conceded to this fact in several past year papers. 🙂

          1. Thank you ..
            I have a “Lot many doubts” Sir.I have posted them on the discussion page for test 31.Kindly skim through it and answer them at your convieience 🙂

            Thankyou so much !

  42. @insightsprelimstestseries:disqus Q-22: List of Ramsar sites in India…..Insight could you plz clarify whether Chilika Lake is still a Ramsar site…In some of sites it is shown that Chilika Lake has shown improvement over its criteria to be not fulfilling the criteria prescribed by the Montreux Record to be designated as Ramsar Sites…It is also shown in some sites that it had been removed from Ramsar Site list in 2014…So plz throw light on this apart from your explanation in pdf & Wikipedia..

    1. Hi Abhijeet
      first read what is montreux record , you will it that even if any site removed from MONTREUX RECORD it still there in as RAMSAR SITE it is because RAMSAR site are the site which are ecologically beneficial and MONTREUX RECORD are those site whose encroachment much more and that what special protection otherwise it get lost therefore need to list in MONTREUX RECORD. and when site is recovered it may deleted from MONTREUX RECORD but still be there in RAMSAR SITE.

      1. Thanx @TARGET2016…now doubt gets cleared …All the best to you for 7th aug’16

  43. Q 25 Explanation says
    Currently, six natural World Heritage Sites have been recognized by UNESCO in India, viz., Nanda Devi National Park, Kaziranga National Park, Manas National Park, Keoladeo National Park, Sundarbans National Park.
    But keoladeo is man made wetland then how it comes under Natural site. Someone please clarify

    1. There are 7 natural World Heritage Sites in India. Western Ghats and the Great Himalayan National Park are also on the list along with the 5 mentioned.

      The Keoladeo National Park has artificial wetlands, the water levels in which are managed to avoid shortage in the drought-affected region. As these wetlands provide a natural habitat to many species of animals and plants to survive, it is very important to maintain their water levels. Further, the Keoladeo National Park also has many other features because of which it falls into the category of a natural World Heritage site. The criterion for it stands as:

      Criterion (x):
      “Contains the most important and significant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation.”

      Plus the UNESCO Website says:
      “The Keoladeo National Park is a wetland of international importance for migratory waterfowl, where birds migrating down the Central Asian flyway congregate before dispersing to other regions. At time of inscription it was the wintering ground for the Critically Endangered Siberian Crane, and is habitat for large numbers of resident nesting birds. Some 375 bird species have been recorded from the property including five Critically Endangered, two Endangered and six vulnerable species. Around 115 species of birds breed in the park which includes 15 water bird species forming one of the most spectacular heronries of the region. The habitat mosaic of the property supports a large number of species in a small area, with 42 species of raptors recorded.”

      I hope this clarifies why Keoladeo is a natural world heritage site.

  44. q 59 on NITI aayog was well placed.
    Thank you insight for such quality questions.

  45. Dear insights,

    Can we give the last two tests in first week of august. Before 7th august offcourse!

    written on site that tests are available until july, but due to my
    personal schedule and to maintain momentum, i would like to give atleast
    the last two tests on 3rd n 4th of august.

    Will the site be live then? Please confirm

    Thanks in advance

    1. Yes Dear. You can surely give. They will be live till 6th August. After that, only PDFs will be available at your login ID. 🙂

  46. Clarifications for Test 25

    5. RS elections rely on party whip system and transparency induced by the open ballot voting system. But, there is no legal provision that binds the MPs must vote as per the directions of the party whip. Anti-defection law does not apply to it, and thus the experts have recommended bringing Anti-defection law to RS elections as well. Also see, this

    25. Updated list of World heritage site also includes Khangchendzonga National Park and Great Himalayan National Park.

    45. Please discard the options related to Exports and Software Industries. As per the latest RBI notification, categories under priority sector are Agriculture; Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises; Export Credit; Education; Housing; Social Infrastructure; Renewable Energy. For the complete list see

    55. A Bill introduced for the purpose of increasing the pusine judges of the Supreme Court is not considered as a constitutional amendment under A368 of the Constitution.

    56. Every state has many coastal areas. While Mangroves are found in all coastal states, it is not found in all coastal areas for lack of suitable conditions like proper salinity, mudflats etc.

    88. Correct answer is option (a). Trade balance forms part of the Net Income from abroad, not Net Factor Income from abroad.
    NFIA is the income earned by factors working in host or foreign nation, and does not include value of imports or exports as such. So, (a) is the answer.

    From the expenditure side, GDP at current market prices can be seen as the sum of (a) consumption—both private and public (b) investment, also known as Gross Capital Formation (GCF) which comprises fixed capital formation, change in stock and valuables, and, (c) net exports which represent the difference between exports and imports of goods and non-factor services (Net factor Income excluded). So, option (c) is wrong.

    1. I have one small (silly) doubt that has been bugging me –

      When the options for a question with multiple statements are like as mentioned in picture, then what does “None of the above” mean ? Is it –

      that none of the above “combination” of the statements are correct
      that none of the statements in the question itself are correct.

      1. It means none of the statements above are correct. Otherwise, the examiner will clearly mention “None of A, B or C is correct”, which implies that no option combination given is correct.

        The catch is that in either case you are bound to choose the “None” option 🙂

    2. @insightsprelimstestseries:disqus
      Sir inward tourism, education … will be part of NFIA ? So trade in these services will be part of NFIA. So correct answer will be GDP. Please correct me 🙂

  47. Dear Insights In Rajya sabha Elections question If a person elected changes party or the nominated member joins a party after 6 months doesn’t it count as defection?

  48. in laxmikanth its given that person who has gained citizenship by naturalization is eligible to become the citizen of india.but in question this considered as wrong

  49. hi friends. i have a doubt.. i solved the mock test and got good score(as per insights description).

    i want to know that is that score is calculated with or without negative marks??

    or i hav to subtract negative marks from my score??

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