Northern Plain

The great plains  are the outcome of alluvial deposits brought from rivers originating in Himalayan and Peninsular regions.These plains extend approximately 3,200 km from the east to the west.

The Great Plains are remarkably homogeneous with little variation in relief features of hundreds of kilometres.The monotony is broken by bluffs,levees,ravines and khols

Bhabar plains

  • Bhabar is a narrow belt ranging between 8-10 km parallel to the Shiwalik foothills at the break-up of the slope. As a result of this, the streams and rivers coming from the mountains deposit heavy materials of rocks and boulders, and at times, disappear in this zone
  • Area is not suitable for agriculture,only big trees with large roots are available
  • Materials suitable for construction are available inform of heavy boulders
  • Footloose industries are being encouraged recently

Tarai plains

  • South of Bhabar,marshy tract reappear and this region is called Terai
  • This has a luxurious growth of natural vegetation and houses a varied wildlife.
  • In UP,these forests are cleared to grow sugarcane,rice and Wheat

Bhangar Plains

  • It represents the uplands formed by the older alluvium.
  • The Alluvium is of dark colour generally rich in calcium called Kankar
  • The main constituent of Bhangar is clay which at places gives way to loam and sandy-loam
  • In drier areas presence of saline and Alkaline efflorescences known as Reh

Khadar Plains

  • Younger alluvium of flood plains if the river is called Khadar.
  • Its Alluvium is light in colour and poor in calcareous matter

Delta plains

  • Its an extension of Khadar plains
  • Here uplands are called Chars and marshy land as Bils

Regional Division of  Northern Plains

Rajasthan Plains

  • This includes Marusthali and Rajasthan Bagar areas to west of Aravalis
  • This region was under Marine submergence which receded during upliftment of HImalayan phase so there exists several brackish lakes example is sambhar
  • It has many inland drainage only Luni reaches to sea.Luni is sweet in upper region and turns brackish in lower regions
  • Region is covered by sand and dunes
  • It is separated from Bagar region through 25cm Isohyet.
  • Bagar is semi arid and fertile region and is drained by Luni in south

Punjab Haryana plain

  • These are formed by deposition of rivers Satluj Beas and Ravi rivers
  • Highlands between these rivers are called Doabs and they are very fertile
  • The northern part of region has witnessed intense erosion due to small streams called Chos

Ganga plains

They extend from Yamuna river in west till Bangladesh

It is divided into

      • Upper Gangetic Plain

This region has Ganga Yamuna Doab, Rohilkhand plain-Ramganga, Avadh plains-drained by ghagra and Gomati river

      • Middle Ganga Plain
      • Lower Ganga Plain

It is formed by subduction of Rajmahal Garo gap and subsequent infilling by rivers. Monotonous surface is broken by Bils, Swamps, Marshes, Levees

Brahmaputra Plains

Due to low gradient, numerous riverine Islands are formed Region is surrounded by high mountains on all sides