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[Mission 2024] INSIGHTS DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS + PIB SUMMARY 30 April 2024

InstaLinks :  Insta Links help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically.

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 4:

  1. Guidelines for the Elimination of Corporal Punishment in Schools (GECP)
  2. Digital Dilemma: Children’s Digital Screen Time

 

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

  1. Star campaigners
  2. Project ISHAN
  3. Inheritance Tax
  4. Salmonella contamination in spices
  5. UN Panel on “Critical Energy Transition Minerals”
  6. Biohacking
  7. Nilgiri Tahr
  8. New Alert indicators under PMLA

 

Mapping

  1. Second Thomas Shoal Island

 


 

Guidelines for the Elimination of Corporal Punishment in Schools (GECP)

Guidelines for the Elimination of Corporal Punishment in Schools (GECP)

GS Paper 4

 Syllabus: Applications of Ethics

  

Source: TH

 

Context: The Tamil Nadu School Education Department has released Guidelines for the Elimination of Corporal Punishment in Schools (GECP), focusing on safeguarding students’ physical and mental well-being.

The guidelines, issued jointly by the Director of School Education and the Director of Elementary Education, address various forms of harassment, in line with the Right to Education Act, 2009. Measures include awareness camps, prompt complaint resolution, and the establishment of monitoring committees at each school. Affirmative actions against corporal punishment and promoting a positive environment are also emphasized. District-level officers are instructed to ensure schools implement these guidelines effectively.

 

What is Corporal Punishment?

Corporal punishment refers to the use of physical force against students as a means of discipline or punishment in educational settings. It can include actions such as hitting, spanking, or other forms of physical punishment inflicted by teachers or school authorities on students.

 

Key legal provisions related to the prohibition of corporal punishment:

  1. Article 39 of the Constitution: Mandates the State to protect childhood and youth from exploitation, including physical and mental abuse.
  2. Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act 2009: Section 17 of the Act explicitly prohibits physical and mental harassment of children in schools, making it a punishable offence.
  3. NCPCR guidelines: The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) provides guidelines for eliminating corporal punishment. This includes promoting positive engagement with children and establishing Corporal Punishment Monitoring Cells in every school to ensure compliance with anti-corporal punishment measures.

 

Ethical Issues with Corporal Punishment:

Ethical Issue Description
Physical and psychological harm Corporal punishment can cause physical injuries, anxiety, low self-esteem, and other mental health issues.
Perpetuation of violence By using violence as a disciplinary measure, corporal punishment may normalize and perpetuate violence in society.
Discrimination and disproportionate impact Corporal punishment may be applied disproportionately or discriminatorily based on factors such as gender, race, or socioeconomic status.
Ineffectiveness as a disciplinary measure It may fail to promote positive behavioural changes or moral development, teaching children to fear punishment rather than learn from their mistakes.
Impact on education Corporal punishment can lead to higher school dropout rates and poor learning outcomes due to the atmosphere of fear and intimidation it creates in classrooms.

 

 

Thinker’s views on Corporal Punishments:


Thinker View on Corporal Punishment
Mahatma Gandhi Opposed corporal punishment, advocated for nonviolent methods of discipline and education.
Rabindranath Tagore Condemned corporal punishment, believed in nurturing individual creativity and moral development through positive reinforcement.
Maria Montessori Advocated against corporal punishment, and promoted child-centered education focused on nurturing independence and self-discipline.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau Opposed corporal punishment, believed in the natural goodness of children and the importance of freedom in education.
John Dewey Criticized corporal punishment, and emphasized experiential learning and democratic principles in education.
Digital Dilemma: Children’s Digital Screen Time

Digital Dilemma: Children’s Digital Screen Time

 GS Paper 4

 

Syllabus: Applications of Ethics

 

Context: In several studies, it has been found that screen time among children is more than 2 hours a day

 

Reasons for the increase in children’s screen time:

  1. Role Modeling: Children mimic their parents, family, and peers.
  2. Educational and Recreational Needs: Mobile use surged during the COVID-19 pandemic for learning and entertainment.
  3. Working Parents: Mobile phones are often given to children for safety and communication.
  4. Accessibility: The widespread availability of smartphones, tablets, and computers has made screens more accessible than ever.

 

In today’s digital age, children are increasingly immersed in screens, from smartphones to computers, raising concerns about their health. While screens offer educational and entertainment opportunities, excessive screen time has health implications:

  1. Sedentary Lifestyle: Leads to obesity and cardiovascular issues.
  2. Sleep Disruption: Blue light affects sleep quality and duration.
  3. Eye Strain: Causes discomfort and vision problems.
  4. Behavioural Issues: Linked to attention deficits and impulsivity
  5. Cognitive ability and social skills: High screen time can hinder the development of important Cognitive, social and emotional skills, such as empathy.
  6. Cyber Bullying and Child Abuse: Incidents of bullying and abuse are rising. Young girls are more prone to them.

Recent initiatives in child well-being:

  1. WHO Guidelines: It recommends no screen time for babies under 2 years old, with limited screen time for those aged 2 to 4. Additionally, implementing parental controls and filters can help block access to unsuitable content and products, ensuring a healthier screen time experience for children.
  2. Manodarpan Initiative: Launched by the Ministry of Education, it provides psychosocial support to students for mental health and emotional well-being.
  3. CCPWC (Cyber Crime Prevention against Women and Children) Scheme: An initiative of the Ministry of Home Affairs aimed at preventing cybercrime against women and children, ensuring a safe online environment.

 

To mitigate risks, strategies include setting limits, promoting active screen use, creating screen-free zones, leading by example, and educating families. Balancing screen time with other activities is crucial for children’s holistic development.

 

Star campaigners

Star campaigners

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

 

Source: TH

  

Context: Several political parties have released the list of their star campaigners for the upcoming Lok Sabha General Elections.

  • The Representation of the People Act, 1951, defines rules around star campaigners, who are leaders of political parties appointed for campaigning.
  • A recognised political party can appoint a maximum of 40-star campaigners while a registered unrecognized political party can appoint up to 20.
  • These campaigners can incur travel expenses for campaigning without affecting candidates’ expenditure limits.

 

Project ISHAN

Project ISHAN

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

 

Source: WION

  

Context: India has kickstarted the process of unifying its four airspace regions under Project Indian Single Sky Harmonized Air Traffic Management at Nagpur (ISHAN).

  • This initiative is expected to enhance air traffic management, benefiting airlines and passengers by making operations more efficient and safer.
  • Challenges include technological implementation, process changes, and retraining of staff.

 

Currently, Indian airspace is divided into 4 FIRs i.e. Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, and a sub-FIR in Guwahati, each managed separately.

 

Inheritance Tax

Inheritance Tax

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

 

Source: BS

 Context: In India, the debate over inheritance tax as a tool to address economic inequality is ongoing.

What is Inheritance Tax?

It is a tax levied on the assets inherited by individuals from a deceased person. The tax rate depends on the value of the inherited property and the heir’s relationship to the decedent.

 

Unlike estate tax, which taxes the total value of a deceased person’s estate, inheritance tax is specifically levied on inherited property. While many countries impose inheritance taxes,
including the United States (where inheritance tax is imposed on money or property inherited from a deceased person’s estate), India currently does not. Estate duty, imposed from 1953 with tax rates reaching up to 85%, was abolished in 1985 due to unpopularity.

Similarly, gift tax and wealth tax, introduced earlier, were abolished in 1998 and 2015 respectively, although gift tax was briefly reinstated in 2004.

 

Pros of inheritance tax include potential revenue generation for the government and reducing wealth inequality, promoting equality of opportunity. However, it also raises concerns about tax evasion, discouraging hard work, and potential double taxation of already taxed assets.

 

UN Panel on “Critical Energy Transition Minerals”

UN Panel on “Critical Energy Transition Minerals”

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

 

Source: Forbes

 Context: The United Nations recently launched a new panel on “Critical Energy Transition Minerals” to address the challenges of the “material-energy nexus” and promote responsible and fair value chains.

 

With 23 countries (including India) and the African Union on board, along with 14 non-governmental groups, the panel aims to foster dialogue and prevent negative resource nationalism, with both China and the United States as key members.

 

The Panel further aims to establish global common principles for critical energy transition minerals, addressing equity, transparency, sustainability, and human rights throughout the value chain.

 

Other initiatives for Critical Minerals:

  1. Global Mineral Security Partnership (MSP) boosts critical mineral supply chains, with India involved
  2. Critical Minerals Mapping Initiative is underway
  3. UN Framework on Just Transitions for Critical Energy Transition Minerals launching by 2024 end
  4. India identifies 30 critical minerals for self-reliance.
  5. India’s Partnerships with Australia and Argentina for lithium and cobalt
  6. Khanij Bidesh India Limited (KABIL) was formed for strategic mineral sourcing abroad.

 

Salmonella contamination in spices

Salmonella contamination in spices

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

 

Source: Business Standard

  

Context: Over the past six months, US customs authorities have rejected 31% of all spice-related shipments from Mahashian Di Hatti (MDH) due to salmonella contamination concerns.

 

About Salmonella: 

  • Salmonella is a genus of bacteria that can cause food poisoning in humans.
  • It is one of the most common causes of foodborne illness worldwide.
  • Salmonella bacteria typically infect the intestinal tract and can cause symptoms such as diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting.
  • Contamination usually occurs through the consumption of contaminated food or water, particularly raw or undercooked poultry, eggs, meat, and dairy products.
  • Proper food handling, cooking, and hygiene practices are essential for preventing salmonella infections.
Biohacking

Biohacking

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

 

Source: TH

 Context: Biohacking is gaining traction in India, with enthusiasts experimenting with various techniques like cryotherapy and IV therapy.

 

What is Biohacking?

Biohacking involves using scientific knowledge and experimentation to optimize one’s body and mind. It encompasses various practices aimed at improving physical and mental performance, longevity, and overall well-being.

 

Examples of biohacking include:

  1. Dietary Modifications: Following specific diets like ketogenic diet or intermittent fasting to enhance energy levels and metabolic health.
  2. Supplementation: Taking supplements such as vitamins, minerals, or nootropics to improve cognitive function, mood, or physical performance.
  3. Physical Training: Engaging in tailored exercise routines, including high-intensity interval training (HIIT) or strength training, to build strength, endurance, and resilience.
  4. Sleep Optimization: Employing techniques like sleep tracking, creating ideal sleep environments, or using sleep aids to enhance sleep quality and duration.
  5. Mindfulness Practices: Practicing meditation, deep breathing exercises, or mindfulness techniques to reduce stress, improve focus, and promote mental well-being.
  6. Biometric Monitoring: Using wearable devices or apps to track metrics such as heart rate variability, sleep patterns, and activity levels to gain insights into overall health and performance.
  7. Biofeedback Devices: Utilizing devices like neurofeedback or heart rate variability monitors to train the body’s physiological responses and improve stress management and emotional regulation.

 

Nilgiri Tahr

Nilgiri Tahr

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

 

Source: TH

  

Context: The Tamil Nadu government is conducting a three-day survey to estimate the population of the Nilgiri Tahr, a species listed as endangered by the IUCN

 

New Alert indicators under PMLA

New Alert indicators under PMLA

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

 

Source: ET


Context:
India’s financial intelligence unit (FIU) issues new alert indicators under PMLA for various sectors to combat money laundering and terrorism financing.

  • These guidelines, part of the anti-money laundering (AML) and counter-terrorism financing regime, involve collaborations with regulatory bodies.

 

The New Indicators are:

Sector New Alert Indicators
Capital Markets Mis-utilization of client funds by stockbrokers
Depositories Identification of suspicious off-market transfers
Insurance Sector Alerts for fraud cases experienced by insurance firms analyzed from the AML/CFT perspective
Online Payment Gateways Speed of transactions leading to AML/CFT risks
VDA or Cryptocurrency Service Providers Directions to register with FIU to carry out “enhanced due diligence to implementation of travel rule.”
Travel Rule, extended to crypto companies in 2019 by FATF, requires businesses to collect and share the personal data of participants in a transaction.
Credit Rating Agencies Timely reporting of STRs to FIU. “STR” stands for “Suspicious Transaction Report.”
Identification of serious corporate frauds with AML/CFT implications
Debenture Trustees Periodic reports from issuers of debentures. Taking appropriate action in the interest of debenture holders upon noticing breaches of trust deed or law
Real Estate Agents (DNFBP) Guidelines for STR reporting under PMLA

 

About Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU) India:

 

FIU-IND, established in 2004, operates as an independent body reporting directly to the Economic Intelligence Council led by the Finance Minister. Its functions include receiving, analyzing, and disseminating information on suspicious financial transactions. It coordinates efforts with national and international agencies to combat money laundering and terror financing. Additionally, India employs specialized agencies like the Enforcement Directorate and Central Bureau of Investigation and participates in international cooperation through memberships in organizations like FATF and the Eurasian Group.

 

Second Thomas Shoal Reef

Second Thomas Shoal Reef

Mapping

 

Source: Th

 Context: Tensions have escalated at the Second Thomas Shoal, with China blocking manoeuvres and disrupting supply missions. The Philippines has refuted China’s claim of reaching an agreement over the South China Sea dispute, labelling it as propaganda.

Second Thomas Shoal (located near the Spratly Islands) is a submerged reef in the South China Sea. The shoal is within the Philippines’ exclusive economic zone (EEZ) but is also claimed by China.

 

About the South China Sea: 

It is a vast area of the western Pacific Ocean, stretching from Singapore and the Strait of Malacca in the southwest to the Strait of Taiwan in the northeast. It is a region of significant geopolitical tension due to various territorial disputes. One major dispute involves the “nine-dash line” claimed by China, which encompasses most of the South China Sea and overlaps with the exclusive economic zone claims of several other countries, including Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam. Key disputed features include:

  1. Paracel Islands (controlled by China but also claimed by Taiwan and Vietnam)
  2. Spratly Islands (claimed by multiple countries including China, Taiwan, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Malaysia)
  3. Scarborough Shoal (claimed by China, Taiwan, and the Philippines)

current affairs

 

 

 

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