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4Ps (Political Leadership, Public Financing, Partnerships, and Participation)

Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)


Source: IE

 Context: India’s development strategy, characterized by the 4Ps (Political Leadership, Public Financing, Partnerships, and Participation), has led to significant success in national programs.


Explanation of each of the 4Ps using Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) Example:

P Explanation Examples
Political Leadership Setting the vision, direction, and institutional framework for development initiatives. Government’s initiative to tackle open defecation through the Swachh Bharat Mission. Creation of institutional mechanisms to implement large-scale programs.
Public Financing Allocation of financial resources by the government towards development projects and initiatives. Allocation of approximately $20 billion towards sanitation initiatives under the SBM. Investment in infrastructure development for poverty reduction.
Partnerships Collaborative efforts involving multiple stakeholders to achieve development goals. Collaboration with international organizations like the World Bank, NGOs, and local administrations for implementing the SBM. Partnership with communities and media.
People’s Participation Engagement and involvement of communities in development activities, fostering ownership and sustainability. Empowering communities to build toilets and end open defecation under the SBM. Women and girls leading efforts to declare villages open defecation-free.


Usage: The 4Ps framework can be used to explain the success of schemes in India e.g. Swachh Bharat Mission, Mission Lifestyle etc.