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Reports in News

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

 

 

Reports Description
Land Conflict Watch database on FRA A recent analysis by Land Conflict Watch (LCW) highlights a strong connection between land conflicts and the enforcement of the Forest Rights Act (FRA) in India
Key findings:

 

Conflict Causes: About 44% of conflicts in FRA constituencies stem from conservation and forestry projects, while over 88% result from non-implementation or violation of FRA provisions, including evictions and lack of prior consent for land use.

 

States Most Affected: Maharashtra, Odisha, and Madhya Pradesh have the highest number of core FRA constituencies. Odisha, Chhattisgarh, and Jammu and Kashmir face significant forest rights issues.

 

Conflict Nature: Reserved constituencies witness disputes over common land, while unreserved ones experience conflicts over private land. Infrastructure projects, particularly in the mining and power sectors, often trigger conflicts.

 

Economic Activities Involved: Infrastructure development, including mining and power projects, is a major cause of conflict. Additionally, disputes arise from issues related to the collection of minor forest produce.

 

About FRA:

The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition Of Forest Rights) Act, commonly known as FRA, was enacted in 2006, placing the responsibility of implementation on state governments and UT administrations. As per the Ministry of Tribal Affairs, around 23.43 lakh land titles have been distributed across states, encompassing individual and community rights.

 

 
Trade and Development Report Update (April 2024) Published by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
Key Findings:

 

Global merchandise trade decline: In 2023, global merchandise trade decreased by approximately 1% in real terms due to trade tensions among major economies, subdued global demand, and disruptions in key shipping routes.

Impact of developed economies’ monetary policy on developing countries: Rapid and simultaneous tightening of monetary policy by major developed economies has led to higher debt servicing costs and challenges in securing new financing options for developing countries. Additionally, increased interest rates in developed countries have depreciated currencies in developing nations, and double-digit interest rates set by central banks in many developing countries have negatively affected domestic demand, employment, and household incomes.
Global debt crisis: Developing countries’ governments are struggling with increasing debt payment obligations. This year marked the first instance of a net negative resource transfer from developing to developed countries since 2008. By 2023, nine low-income countries had fallen into debt distress, with an additional 25 on the brink.
  UNCTAD (founded 1964; HQ: Geneva) is an intergovernmental organization within the United Nations Secretariat that promotes the interests of developing countries in world trade.
   
BiasWatchIndia study on Women in STEM Key findings:

 

Gender Gap in Indian STEM Faculties: A study by BiasWatchIndia revealed that only 13.5% of faculty members across 98 universities and institutes in India are women. This underrepresentation extends to prestigious institutions like IITs, IISc, and TIFR, and is more pronounced compared to countries like the US and UK.

 

The factors responsible are:

 

Social biases within certain STEM fields discourage women from pursuing higher education and research, while the challenges of balancing family planning with career aspirations during the postdoc to faculty transition limit their progression. Additionally, toxic work environments, characterized by disrespect and limited advancement opportunities, often prompt senior women to leave STEM academia. Moreover, the absence of a centralized database tracking women faculty in STEM hampers efforts to address the gender gap, alongside the lack of dedicated resources and leadership commitment needed to achieve gender equity.

India has the highest percentage of women STEM graduates globally, at about 40%. However, their representation in STEM jobs within the country is low, standing at only 14%. The gradual dropout of women from the STEM workforce is termed the ‘Leaky Pipeline Syndrome’.

 

 
Strengthening the Bretton Woods Institutions (BWIs) to Meet 21st-Century Global Challenges Report By Bretton Woods Committee (BWC) (it was created in 1983, and is a non-profit organization). This is the first report from BWC’s Multilateral Reform Working Group (MRWG)
Multilateralism spearheaded by International Financial Institutions has propelled significant growth and globalization, benefiting the global populace. However, the report underscores two challenges to this progress: crises in the global commons and slow progress in addressing them.
The Bretton Woods Institutions (BWIs) were established in 1944 by 43 countries to aid in post-war economic reconstruction and foster international economic cooperation. They comprise the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF)