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[Mission 2024] INSIGHTS DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS + PIB SUMMARY 12 April 2024

InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 2:

  1. Impact of Climate Crisis on Women and Girls

 

Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

  1. Lessons from Japan: ‘Womenomics’ Reforms
  2. NTPC’s Girl Empowerment Mission

 

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

  1. Candidates’ Right to Privacy from Voters
  2. Curative petition
  3. Representation of the People Act, 1951
  4. CDP-SURAKSHA
  5. Microbial formulations to improve agricultural productivity
  6. Methanol in Hand Sanitizers
  7. Piezoelectric Bone Conduction Hearing Implants
  8. Parivartan Chintan
  9. International Narcotics Control Board

 


 

Impact of Climate Crisis on Women and Girls 

Impact of Climate Crisis on Women and Girls 

GS1 Paper 

 Syllabus: Indian Society

 

Source: TH

 Context: The climate crisis affects everyone differently, with women and girls facing disproportionate risks due to existing roles, responsibilities, and cultural norms.

 

Impact of Climate Crisis on Women and Girls:

Aspect Impact
Health Women bear the brunt of climate-related health risks due to caregiving roles, facing challenges from heat waves, extreme weather, and vector-borne diseases.
Pregnant women and new mothers are vulnerable to malnutrition, childbirth complications, and limited access to maternal healthcare after disasters.
Additionally, health issues resulting from climate change can exacerbate social issues and strain social support systems

 

Livelihoods and Income Women in rural areas rely heavily on climate-sensitive sectors like agriculture, facing income loss and food insecurity from climate-induced factors such as unpredictable weather and soil degradation.
Education and Literacy Climate disasters disrupt education, with girls more likely to be withdrawn from school due to safety concerns or increased caregiving duties.
Water and Sanitation Women’s responsibility for water management makes them vulnerable to climate-induced water scarcity and contamination, limiting opportunities for education, income, and community involvement.
Inadequate access to clean water and sanitation facilities affects women’s health and hygiene, leading to higher rates of waterborne diseases and maternal mortality.
Gender-Based Violence Interpersonal tensions often escalate during climate-related disasters due to competition for scarce resources like food and shelter. This can lead to increased domestic violence within households.
Prolonged Heat Waves Prolonged heat poses risks to pregnant women and exposes women and unborn children to pollutants, impacting respiratory and cardiovascular health.
Child Marriage Climate-induced disasters can lead to child marriage as a coping mechanism, setting back gender equality progress and community resilience.
Disproportionate deaths Women and children are 14 times more likely than men to die in disasters, according to the UNDP
Rural to Urban Migration Men’s migration due to extreme weather events leaves women with increased responsibilities, decreased income, and limited access to land and resources, increasing vulnerability to climate impacts.
Decreased Adaptive Capacity Women’s integration into the informal economy affects their decision-making power and adaptive capacity, leading to greater risks during climate disasters.
Biased Social norms Lack of access to resources and discriminatory practices restrict women’s ability to adapt to climate change.

Role of Rural women in the fight against climate change

Aspect Examples of Women’s Contributions to Climate Resilience
Agriculture In Odisha, women resurrect traditional crops that withstand frequent floods and droughts.
Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA) teaches women farmers how to respond to shifting climate patterns to support themselves better financially.
Reducing domestic pollution E.g., Charlot Magayi helps Kenyan women transition from dirty cook stoves to clean ones, improving community health and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
The African program Solar Sister, led by women, helps communities establish small-scale solar systems for energy independence, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution.
Watershed Management Women collectives in Nagpur use indigenous techniques to turn parched lands into fertile areas.
Seed Preservation Rural women in Telangana act as seed guardians, safeguarding native seeds against climate uncertainties.
Sustainable Fishing Fisherwomen cooperatives in coastal Karnataka advocate for regulated fishing practices and marine life sustainability.
Waste Management Rural women in coastal Karnataka lead circularity efforts, transforming kitchen waste into compost and promoting waste segregation and recycling.
Agroforestry Women farmers in the Malnad region practice agroforestry, intercropping native trees with traditional crops to combat erratic rainfall patterns and enhance soil fertility.
Community Influence Rural women actively participate in community decisions and drive movements, using their vote and voice as agents of change.

 

Constitutional Rights for safeguarding Vulnerable groups against Climate Change/Disasters:

 

  1. Right to Life and Personal Liberty (Article 21): The Constitution guarantees the right to life and personal liberty, which includes the right to live in a safe environment free from the adverse effects of climate change and disasters (Read the recent SC ruling here)
  2. Right to Equality (Article 14): Women and girls are entitled to equal protection under the law, ensuring that they receive equitable treatment and opportunities in climate change adaptation and disaster response measures.
  3. Right to Health (Article 21): The Constitution recognizes the right to health as an integral part of the right to life, ensuring access to healthcare services to mitigate health risks posed by climate change and disasters, particularly for pregnant women and children.
  4. Directive Principles of State Policy (Article 39): The Directive Principles of State Policy mandate the state to ensure that women are not subject to discrimination and have equal rights to livelihood opportunities.
  5. Fundamental Duties (Article 51A): Citizens have a duty to protect and improve the natural environment, including forests, lakes, rivers, and wildlife, which are essential for climate resilience and disaster mitigation efforts that benefit women and girls.
  6. Protection Against Exploitation (Article 23): The Constitution prohibits trafficking, forced labour, and other forms of exploitation, safeguarding women and girls from vulnerabilities exacerbated by climate change-induced displacement and migration.
  7. Special Provisions for Women and Children (Article 15): The Constitution allows the state to make special provisions for the advancement of women and children, including measures to enhance their resilience and adaptive capacity to climate change and disasters.
  8. Protection of Tribal Rights (Article 244): Indigenous women and girls have constitutionally protected rights to their traditional lands and resources, which are essential for their resilience to climate change impacts.

 

Steps to Make Climate Crisis Gender Neutral:

  1. Implement social protection programs providing access to healthcare, education, clean water, and sanitation. This includes cash transfers, food security initiatives, and insurance schemes for women and girls affected by climate events.
  2. Support sustainable livelihoods through poverty alleviation, inclusive economic growth, and sustainable agriculture practices.
  3. Empower women by providing equal access to resources, which can enhance agricultural yields and promote local solutions, particularly in rural areas.
  4. Gather sex-disaggregated data to better understand women’s diverse roles and experiences as agents of change.
  5. Reduce the impact of prolonged heat waves on vulnerable groups through heat wave warnings, adjusted work and school timings, and cooling facilities.
  6. Involve urban local bodies and municipalities in climate action planning and urban design to mitigate heat and improve resilience.
  7. Map key water resources and develop local plans to improve water access and management for women
  8. Reform State-action plans on climate change to apply a gender lens and implement gender-transformative strategies, recognizing the vulnerabilities of all genders.

 

Conclusion:

To address climate change effectively, it’s crucial to recognize all genders’ vulnerabilities and implement gender-transformative strategies for comprehensive and equitable adaptation. Women shouldn’t be viewed solely as victims but as leaders in climate action. State-action plans on climate change must incorporate a gender lens, and legislation and policies should support women’s meaningful participation in decision-making processes.

 

Insta Link:

 

Mains Link:

‘Climate Change’ is a global problem. How will India be affected by climate change? How Himalayan and coastal states of India will be affected by climate change? (2017)

 

Q.1 Which of the following best describes/describe the aim of ‘Green India Mission’ of the Government of India? (UPSC 2016)

  1. Incorporating environmental benefits and costs into the Union and State Budgets thereby implementing the ‘green accounting’.
  2. Launching the second green revolution to enhance agricultural output so as to ensure food security to one and all in the future.
  3. Restoring and enhancing forest cover and responding to climate change by a combination of adaptation and mitigation measures.

 

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Ans: C

Q.2 With reference to ‘Global Climate Change Alliance’, which of the following statements is/are correct? (UPSC 2017)

  1. It is an initiative of the European Union.
  2. It provides technical and financial support to targeted developing countries to integrate climate change into their development policies and budgets.
  3. It is coordinated by World Resources Institute (WRI) and World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD).

 

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Ans: A

Lessons from Japan: ‘Womenomics’ Reforms

Lessons from Japan: ‘Womenomics’ Reforms

Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

 

Source: IE

 

‘Womenomics’ refers to a set of economic policies and reforms aimed at promoting women’s participation in the workforce and enhancing gender equality in the economy.

 

The term was popularized in Japan under the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe as part of his broader economic agenda known as ‘Abenomics.’

The ‘womenomics’ reforms in Japan included various initiatives:

  1. Improving access to childcare and early childhood education to enable more women to enter or re-enter the workforce.
  2. Enhancing support for work-life balance, including flexible working arrangements and parental leave policies.
  3. Promoting women’s leadership and career advancement through initiatives such as gender diversity targets and mentorship programs.
  4. Increasing efforts to combat gender discrimination and bias in the workplace.
  5. Encouraging businesses to create a more inclusive and supportive environment for women employees.

 

‘Womenomics’ seeks to leverage the untapped potential of women in the workforce to drive economic growth, address demographic challenges, and achieve greater gender equality in society.

NTPC’s Girl Empowerment Mission

NTPC’s Girl Empowerment Mission

Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

 

Source: PIB

 Context: NTPC launches a new edition of the Girl Empowerment Mission, aligning with the Government of India’s Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao initiative. The program aims to tackle gender inequality by nurturing girls’ imaginations and offering them opportunities for development.

 

Starting April 2024, nearly 3,000 underprivileged children will benefit from the 1-month workshop across 42 locations, totalling over 10,000 beneficiaries. It will include programmes for empowering girls through leadership development and holistic skill-building in health, hygiene, safety, fitness, sports, and yoga.

Candidates’ Right to Privacy from Voters

Candidates’ Right to Privacy from Voters

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

 

Source: TH

 Context: The Supreme Court ruled that candidates have a right to privacy from voters and are not required to disclose every aspect of their personal life and possessions.

The judgment came in a case where an MLA’s election was challenged for not declaring vehicles as assets. The Court ruled in favour of the MLA, stating that once sold, vehicles cannot be considered assets.

  

Statutory provisions regarding declarations by Election candidates as per RPA 1951:

  1. Section 33 of the Representation of People’s Act (RPA), 1951, governs nominations for election candidates and requires valid information presentation.
  2. Section 36 of the RPA, 1951, allows scrutiny of nominations by returning officers, who can reject nominations for defects of a ‘substantial character’

 

What did SC say?

  1. Supreme Court ruled that voters’ right to know is not absolute.
  2. A candidate’s privacy on matters irrelevant to their candidature is not a corrupt practice under Section 123 of the RPA, 1951.
  3. Non-disclosure of certain personal items is not a substantial defect under Section 36 of the RPA, 1951.
  4. Candidates are not obligated to disclose every item of movable property they own.
  5. Suppressing information about expensive items like watches can be a substantial defect. Ownership of simple items may not constitute a defect in disclosure.

 

Voters in India have certain rights protected by the Election Commission of India (ECI) and the Constitution:

  1. Right to Know: Voters have the right to know about candidates’ criminal records, financial status, manifesto, etc.
  2. Voting rights of NRIs: Non-resident Indians (NRIs) can vote in Indian elections.
  3. Voting rights of Prisoners: Prisoners are not permitted to vote.
  4. NOTA (Right Not to Vote): Voters can choose NOTA if they feel none of the candidates are suitable.
  5. Tendered Voting Rights: Voters can vote separately if someone else has wrongly voted on their behalf.
  6. Voting rights of Disabled or Infirm Citizens: The ECI assists disabled or infirm citizens in casting their votes.

 

Curative petition

Curative petition

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

 

Source: IE

  

Context: The Supreme Court’s decision to allow a curative writ petition in the DMRC case signifies an expansion of its powers beyond constitutionally prescribed processes.

  • The curative writ, a sparingly used judicial innovation, aims to correct grave miscarriages of justice, as established in the 2002 Rupa Hurra v Ashok Hurra case.
  • However, the exercise of curative jurisdiction in a commercial case raises questions about the finality of the Supreme Court’s rulings and the principle of minimum judicial interference.

 

Curative petition is entitled, if petitioner establishes

  • Violation of principles of natural justice; Judge failed to disclose his connection with the subject matter or there is an apprehension of bias and judgement adversely affects petitioner.

 

Representation of the People Act, 1951

Representation of the People Act, 1951

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

 

Source: TH

 

Context: The Election Commission (EC) has issued a directive to crackdown on anonymous political hoardings, requiring the disclosure of the names of their publishers and printers for traceability and accountability.

  • This move aims to regulate campaign financing and ensure accountability if the content violates the Model Code of Conduct or statutory provisions.
  • This decision follows representations received by the EC regarding hoardings lacking identification of printers or publishers.
  • Section 127A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951, mandates the prominent display of the name and address of the printer and publisher on election-related material.

 

This directive holds printers, publishers, and licensees/contractors of urban local bodies accountable for political advertisements published on outdoor media.

CDP-SURAKSHA

CDP-SURAKSHA

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

 

Source: IE

 

Context: The CDP-SURAKSHA is a digital platform was launched recently to disburse subsidies to horticulture farmers under the Cluster Development Programme (CDP).

  • It aims to promote the growth of India’s horticulture sector by facilitating instant subsidy disbursal to farmers’ bank accounts using e-RUPI vouchers.
  • The platform integrates various features such as database integration, cloud-based server space, UIDAI validation, and e-RUPI integration.
  • Farmers can access the platform to order planting material, contribute their share of the cost, and receive government subsidies upfront.
  • The system ensures transparency and accountability by requiring farmers to verify the delivery of planting material through geo-tagged photos and videos.
  • Unlike the old system, where farmers had to purchase materials themselves and then seek subsidy release, CDP-SURAKSHA provides subsidies upfront at the time of purchase.

 

The Cluster Development Program (CDP) aims to develop horticulture clusters and attract private investment, covering 55 clusters and an estimated 10 lakh farmers across India.

Microbial formulations to improve agricultural productivity

Microbial formulations to improve agricultural productivity

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

 

Source: TH

 

Context: The Indian Institute of Spices Research (IISR) in Kozhikode has developed three new

microbial formulations aimed at enhancing agricultural productivity for farmers.

  • These formulations, named Bactolime, Bactogypsum, and Trichogypsum, utilize granular lime and gypsum and have been developed using IISR’s patented technology.

 

How it works?

  • Bactolime combines beneficial bacteria with liming material to address soil pH issues and deliver microorganisms essential for plant growth.
  • Bactogypsum and Trichogypsum, the other two formulations, work to buffer soil pH to a neutral level, facilitating the establishment of beneficial microbes, thereby improving soil quality and nutrient availability.

 

Methanol in Hand Sanitizers

Methanol in Hand Sanitizers

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

 

Source: Hindustan Times

 Context: Health officials in the United States have recalled several lots of hand sanitizers and aloe gels due to the risk of methanol exposure.

  • Methanol exposure can lead to various severe health issues such as nausea, vomiting, headache, blurred vision, coma, seizures, permanent blindness, permanent damage to the central nervous system, or even death.

 

Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol and wood alcohol, is a colorless, flammable, and poisonous liquid with a strong odor. It has a chemical formula of CH₃OH.

Piezoelectric Bone Conduction Hearing Implants

Piezoelectric Bone Conduction Hearing Implants

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

 

Source: IE

 

Context: The ENT department at Command Hospital in Pune successfully conducted two piezoelectric Bone Conduction Hearing Implants (BCI), making it the first government hospital in India to achieve this milestone.

  • The piezoelectric BCI system is an implantable device for hearing-impaired patients with conductive loss, mixed hearing loss, and single-sided deafness.
  • This achievement is significant as it addresses the needs of patients who are not candidates for cochlear implants or do not benefit from hearing aids or middle-ear surgery.

 

Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that builds up in certain materials when mechanical stress is applied to them.

Piezoelectric materials can be found in nature and in synthetic materials.

Quartz is a well-known natural piezoelectric material, while ferroelectric ceramics are the most widely used synthetic piezoelectric materials.

Parivartan Chintan

Parivartan Chintan

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

 

Source: PIB

 Context: The Tri-service Conference, named ‘Parivartan Chintan,‘ took place recently, aimed at fostering Jointness and Integration in the Armed Forces.

  • It emphasises the importance of developing a Joint Culture for the Armed Forces, blending the strengths of each service while maintaining their uniqueness.
  • It helps in enhancing efficiency, warfighting ability, and interoperability.

 

Jointness implies that the three services are integrated at different levels and placed under one commander for the execution of operational plans.

The capability of the joint force is understood to be synergistic, with the sum greater than its parts (the capability of individual components).

International Narcotics Control Board

International Narcotics Control Board

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

 

Source: TH

 Context: India’s nominee, Jagjit Pavadia, has been re-elected for a third term to the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) after securing the highest number of votes.

  • Additionally, India was elected to several key bodies at the United Nations, including the Commission on the Status of Women, the Executive Board of the United Nations Children’s Fund, and the Executive Board of the United Nations Development Programme.

 

The INCB, established in 1968, monitors the implementation of international drug control conventions and aims to ensure adequate drug supplies for medical and scientific uses while preventing diversion to illicit channels.

 

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