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Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: TH

 Context: Large-scale damage to cardamom plantations has been reported in various regions of Kerala due to the drought.

  • Farmers are facing significant losses, with many fearing the destruction of their crops if the drought persists.
  • The Indian Council of Agricultural Research and Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) Idukki recommend measures such as foliar application of Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophic Bacteria (PPFM) and treating plants to decrease disease incidence to mitigate the impact of the drought on cardamom production.


PPFMs are aerobic, Gram-negative bacteria that use one-carbon compounds like formate, formaldehyde, and methanol as their sole carbon and energy source. They are phylogenetically diverse and belong to the genus Methylobacterium. 

PPFMs have been well studied in agricultural systems. They can be applied to seeds and crops as a foliar spray. 


Cardamom is a spice made from the seeds of the Elettaria cardamomum plant, also known as green cardamom or true cardamom.

The plant is native to southern India and is part of the ginger family.

Cardamom has a strong, warm flavour that is both spicy and sweet.


Soil and climate

  • Soil: It is grown in forest loamy soils, which are usually acidic in nature with a pH range of 5.0–6.5
  • This crop can be grown at an elevation from 600 to 1500 m.
  • Temperature: 10 to 35 degree C
  • Rainfall: 1500 to 4000 mm
  • The growth of cardamom is enhanced when planted in humus rich soils with low to medium available phosphorous and medium to high available potassium.