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[Mission 2024] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 15 March 2024

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

1. Even amidst economic growth, the poor and marginalized communities often lack access to basic necessities and services. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

NITI Aayog’s B.V.R. Subrahmanyam recently claimed that less than 5% of Indians now live below the poverty line.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the reasons for lingering poverty in the country, despite various measures and suggest reforms to rectify it.

Directive word:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving the statistic about the widespread nature of poverty in the country.

Body:

First, explain the rapid economic growth witnessed and various schemes and measures aimed towards elimination poverty in India.

Next, write about the causes for limitations in the above efforts. Bring outs its impact.

Next, suggest reforms that are needed to overcome the above.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

Despite economic growth, poverty and marginalized communities still face significant challenges in accessing basic necessities and services. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights emphasizes the right to adequate food, housing, and medical care for all individuals. However, disparities persist, affecting marginalized populations in various ways. These disparities are evident in the lack of access to essential services like healthcare, sanitation, clean water, transportation, and affordable housing.

Body

India’s recent economic growth has been robust, with an estimated 6.9% expansion in FY 2022/23, driven by strong domestic demand, increased infrastructure investment, and robust private consumption. For FY 2023/24, a growth of 7.3% is projected, maintaining India’s 5th position in the global GDP rankings. The economy has surged to $3.7 trillion. Future prospects indicate an ambitious target of reaching a $10 trillion economy by 2035, aligning with the government’s vision to transform India into a ‘developed country’ by 2047.

Access to Basic Amenities in India:

  • Research indicates that Indian households lack access to 46% of the basic services they need, highlighting wide disparities in social infrastructure availability.
  • The Empowerment Line, a measure of individual consumption, reveals that 56% of the population lacked the means to meet essential needs in 2012, with 680 million Indians experiencing deprivation.
  • Efforts are needed to make basic services more effective by doubling the share allocated to healthcare, water, and sanitation and ensuring public spending translates into improved outcomes.

Linkage Between Access to Basic Services and Poverty:

  • Limited access to basic services is associated with high unemployment, poverty, and lack of awareness among people.
  • The Bare Necessities Index (BNI) measures access to essentials like water, sanitation, housing, and other facilities, showing significant improvements in access across states in India from 2012 to 2018.
  • Improved access to necessities has a direct impact on health outcomes, with initiatives like the Swachh Bharat Mission leading to declines in diarrhea and malaria cases in children below five years.

Way forward

  • Policy makers need a comprehensive benchmark to measure gaps in access to basic necessities and inform resource allocation for marginalized communities.
  • Accelerating job creation, improving infrastructure, reducing administrative burdens on businesses, and enhancing social infrastructure are key priorities to lift millions above the Empowerment Line and eliminate extreme poverty by 2022.
  • Despite progress in reducing the official poverty rate in India from 1994 to 2012, there is a need for higher aspirations to address widespread deprivation beyond extreme poverty levels.

Conclusion

while India has made strides in economic growth, addressing the lack of access to basic necessities and services among poor and marginalized communities remains a critical challenge. Efforts focusing on improving social infrastructure, job creation, equitable resource allocation, and enhancing healthcare and education services are essential to uplift vulnerable populations and ensure a more inclusive and prosperous society.

 

Topic: geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

2. Throw light on cold deserts of India. Examine the present challenges to agriculture in cold desert regions and suggest ways to manage them. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Down to Earth

Why the question:

Agriculture in the cold desert of Spiti Valley is difficult, but there are ways to make it easier

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the cold deserts of India, challenges for agriculture in cold deserts and measures needed.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining cold desert and highlight the cold desert regions in the country.

Body:

In the first part, write about various issues for agriculture in cold desert region – Shallow soil, labour intensity, geographical remoteness from major markets and a lack of quality planting materials etc.

Next, write about measures needed to improve the situation – diversifying crops, improving irrigation techniques, implementing soil conservation measures, adopting greenhouse farming etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a balanced way forward.

Introduction

A cold desert is a large arid area of land that typically receives scant amounts of annual precipitation, which occurs mainly in the form of snow or fog. The upper limit of mean annual precipitation is often considered to be fewer than 25 cm (9.8 inches). Cold deserts are found typically in temperate regions at high elevations, on plateaus, or in mountainous areas, but they also occur in polar regions. Shrubs and grasses are the main types of vegetation, and most plants and other organisms have adaptations that enable them to survive the dry, frigid conditions.

Body

cold deserts of India

  • In India, the cold desert regions are located in the Greater Himalayas, particularly in Ladakh, which is the cold desert of India.
  • Ladakh shares borders with China and is enclosed by the Zanskar mountains in the south and the Karakoram mountain range in the north.
  • Other cold desert regions in India include the Spiti Valley in Himachal Pradesh, which is also a high-altitude region with a dry, cold climate.

 

The present challenges to agriculture in cold desert regions of India include:

  • Water scarcity: With the decline in snowfall and faster snowmelt in higher regions, water availability for irrigation has reduced.
  • shallow soil: Soils primarily have very low water holding capacity — less than 30 per cent.
  • Climate change: The rise in average temperature in Ladakh by 3 degrees Celsius in the past four decades has affected the rainfall pattern adversely in these higher regions, leading to less snowfall and faster snowmelt.
  • Habitat loss and degradation: Protected areas such as Hemis National Park and Changthang Wildlife Sanctuary provide a safe haven for threatened species such as the snow leopard and Tibetan wild ass, but habitat loss and degradation are still major threats to the ecosystem.
  • access to high-quality seeds and chemicals requires purchases from distant markets because local vendors are scarce. Surrounded by the formidable Higher Himalayas, Spiti Valley lacks direct market access, compelling farmers to depend on intermediaries and traders for selling their produce.
  • Overgrazing: The increase in human activity, including agriculture and livestock grazing, can negatively impact the fragile cold desert ecosystems.

To manage these challenges, the following measures can be taken:

  • Natural farming: Farmers in Spiti Valley use minimal to no fertilisers, relying on manure, with sparing use of plant protection chemicals. This practice positions the valley as a promising hub for natural farming, providing the opportunity to secure premium prices for such produce. However, government support is essential for a smooth transition.
  • Development of heat-resistant crops: Researchers and scientists are working to develop varieties of crops that will grow under the changed climate, focusing on heat-resistant wheat and other water-wise technologies.
  • Conservation of water: Efforts should be made to conserve water as ice in the form of artificial glaciers, as farmers in Ladakh have been doing since 1987.
  • Protection of biodiversity: Protected areas such as Hemis National Park and Changthang Wildlife Sanctuary should be maintained and expanded to protect the remarkable biodiversity found in these ecosystems.
  • Sustainable land use practices: Encouraging local communities to adopt sustainable land use practices, such as reducing overgrazing and promoting conservation efforts, can help preserve the cold desert ecosystems.
  • Introduction of new fruits and vegetables: The cultivation of apples and exotic vegetables, with distinct maturity times from the rest of India, presents lucrative opportunities for farmers, yielding higher returns.
  • Processing of food products: “Vocal for Local”: There is significant potential for processing apples into dried slices, converting sea buckthorn into powdered form for tea/juice and drying apricots. Promoting FPOs and improving market ties can empower farmers to fetch better prices, aligning with the government’s “Vocal for Local” drive.
  • Agri-Tourism: Spiti’s scenic beauty combined with agricultural practices creates potential for agri-tourism. This integration can generate extra income for farmers while promoting environmental stewardship.

Conclusion

Thus, there is a need of multiple measures to ensure sustainable agricultural practices in Cold desert regions of India.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.

3. Do you believe that ‘One nation, one election’ goes against the spirit of our constitution, in your opinion? Critically analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Indian Express.Insights on India

Why the question:

The High-level Committee (HLC) on One Nation, One Election — headed by former President Ram Nath Kovind — submitted its report to President Droupadi Murmu

Key Demand of the question:

To write about constitutionality of holding simultaneous elections of the parliament and state legislatures in the country.

Directive word: 

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a balanced judgment on the topic.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context of ‘One Nation, One election’.

Body:

In the first part, write about advantages of simultaneous elections.

Next, write about the constitutionality of conducting simultaneous election in India – cite provisions that allow it.

Next, write about the limitations that hinder conduct of simultaneous elections in India and goes against the spirit of constitution.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a balanced opinion regard the conduct of simultaneous elections.

Introduction

Simultaneous elections refer to holding elections to Lok Sabha, State Legislative Assemblies, Panchayats and Urban local bodies simultaneously, once in five years. The idea of holding elections simultaneously is in news after it got a push from Prime Minister and ex-President of India. However, political parties are divided on the issue of holding simultaneous elections

The High-level Committee (HLC) on One Nation, One Election — headed by former President Ram Nath Kovind — submitted its report to President Droupadi Murmu.

Body:

The Law Commission of India has also proposed holding simultaneous state and general elections and has sought public opinion on its recommendations regarding the same. Simultaneous elections were held in India during the first two decades of independence.

Merits of Simultaneous elections:

  • Governance and consistency:
    • The ruling parties will be able to focus on legislation and governance rather than having to be in campaign mode forever.
    • Parties and workers spending too much time and money in electioneering can make use of the time for social work and to take people-oriented programmes to the grassroots.
    • To overcome the “policy paralysis and governance deficit” associated with imposition of the Model Code of Conduct at election time which leads to putting on hold all developmental activities on that area and also affects the bureaucracy’s functioning.
  • Reduced Expenditure of Money and Administration:
    • The entire State and District level administrative and security machinery will be busy with the conduct of elections twice in a period of five years as per the current practice.
    • Expenditure can be reduced by conducting simultaneous elections.
    • It is felt that crucial manpower is often deployed on election duties for a prolonged period of time. If simultaneous elections are held, then this manpower would be made available for other important tasks.
    • For instance, for the 2014 Lok Sabha polls, which was held along with 4 state assemblies saw the deployment of 1077 in situ companies and 1349 mobile companies of Central Armed Police Force (CAPF).
  • Continuity in policies and programmes:
    • Will limit the disruption to normal public life associated with elections, such as increased traffic and noise pollution.
    • Large numbers of teachers are involved in the electoral process which causes maximum harm to the education sector.
  • Efficiency of Governance:
    • Simultaneous elections can bring the much-needed operational efficiency in this exercise.
    • Populist measures by governments will reduce.
  • Curbs Vices:
    • During frequent elections there is increase in “vices” such as communalism, casteism, corruption and crony capitalism.
    • Simultaneous elections can also be a means to curb corruptionand build a more conducive socio-economic ecosystem.
    • The impact of black money on the voters will be reduced as all elections are held at a time.

Challenges to simultaneous elections:

  • Illiteracy:
    • Not all voters are highly educated to know who to vote for. They may get confused and may not know whether they are voting for candidates contesting assembly or parliament elections.
    • IDFC studysays that there is 77% chance that the Indian voter will vote for the same party for both the state and centre, when elections are held simultaneously.
    • Evidence from Brazil, Argentina, Canada, Germany, the US and Europe supports the idea that elections that are held simultaneously produce greater alignment between national and regional election outcomes.
  • Functional issues:
    • Frequent elections bring the politicians back to the voters, create jobs and prevent the mixing of local and national issues in the minds of the voters.
    • There is a dearth of enough security and administrative officials to conduct simultaneous free and fair elections throughout the country in one go.
  • Changes in Constitution and Legislations:
    • The following constitutional changes need to be made:
    • Amendments needed in the following articles:
      • Article 83which deals with the duration of Houses of Parliament need an amendment
      • Article 85(on dissolution of Lok Sabha by the president)
      • Article 172(relating to the duration of state legislatures)
      • Article 174(relating to dissolution of state assemblies)
      • Article 356(on President’s Rule).
    • The Representation of People Act, 1951 Act would have to be amended to build in provisions for stability of tenure for both parliament and assemblies. This should include the following crucial elements:
    • Restructuring the powers and functions of the ECI to facilitate procedures required for simultaneous elections
    • A definition of simultaneous election can be added to section 2 of the 1951 act
    • Articles 83 and 172 along with articles with articles 14 and 15 of the 1951 act be appropriately amended to incorporate the provision regarding remainder of the term i.e.., post mid elections, the new loksabha/assembly so constituted shall be only for the remainder of the term of the previous loksabha or assembly and not for a fresh term of five years.
  • Constructive vote of no confidence:
    • The 170thlaw commission report suggested a new rule i.e., rule 198-A has to be added to rules of procedure and conduct of business in Lok Sabha and similar amendment to such rules in the state legislatures.
    • The report suggested introduction of motion of no confidence in the incumbent government along with a motion of confidence in the alternative government.
    • To avoid premature dissolution of the house/state assemble in case of Hung parliament /assembly and to advance simultaneous elections the rigour of anti-defection law laid under in tenth schedule be removed as an exception.
  • Local and national issues will get mixed up distorting priorities.
  • The terms of different state governments are ending on separate dates and years.
  • Spirit of Constitution:
    • One nation, one election” would make sense if India were a unitary state. So “one nation, one election” is anti-democratic.
    • Simultaneous elections threaten the federal character of our democracy.
    • Frequent elections act as checks and balances on the functioning of elected representatives.

Way forward:

  • Any changes must require both a constitutional amendment and judicial approval that they do not violate the “basic structure” of the Constitution.
  • focused group of constitutional experts, think tanks, government officials and representatives of political parties should be formed to work out appropriate implementation related details.
  • Other alternatives should be explored to reduce election related expenses like
    • State funding of elections
    • Decriminalisation of politics
    • Bringing in transparency in political funding
    • Setting up National Electoral Fund to which all donors can contribute.
  • One year one election as suggested by Election Commission can be executed by amending Section 15 of the RP Act 1951. If the six-month stipulation is extended to nine or 10 months, elections to all states, whose term is expiring in one year, can be held together.
  • The Law Commission of India in its report of 1999 has dealt with the problem of premature and frequent elections. It had recommended an amendment of this rule on the lines of the German Constitution, which provides that the leader of the party who wants to replace the chancellor has to move the no-confidence motion along with the confidence motion. If the motions succeed, the president appoints him as the chancellor.
    • If such an amendment to Rule 198 is made, the Lok Sabha would avoid premature dissolution without diluting the cardinal principle of democracy that is a government with the consent of the peoples’ representatives with periodical elections.
    • It will also be consistent with the notion of collective responsibility of the government to the House as mentioned in Article 75 (3) of the Constitution.

Conclusion:

Election Commission’s idea of “one year one election” will better suited as it will require fewer amendments to the constitution, it will respect the essence of the exercise of popular will, unlike one nation one election which prioritizes economic costs of elections over the exercise itself, it will avoid clubbing of national and state issues, it will not disturb federalism much, not much issues generated by emergencies like need to hold by-election etc. will be addressed by this option.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.

4. India’s issues with the WTO are emblematic of broader tensions between free trade and development objectives, as well as debates about the role of international organizations in setting global trade rules. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 3 and mentioned as part of Mission-2024 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the issues of India with WTO, reforms that are needed in the WTO.

Directive word:

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving the aims and objectives of WTO.

Body:

First, Explain the factors that have led to India’s chequered relationship with the World Trade Organisation (WTO). – disagreements over agricultural subsidies, intellectual property, services trade, special and differential treatment for developing countries, and the functioning of the dispute settlement mechanism.

Next, suggest reforms that are needed to overcome the above – Appellate body reform, clarity on Special and differential treatment and Sustainable Development Goal-oriented trade negotiation etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

WTO as an organization was expected to play larger role for improved living standards, employment generation, trade expansion with increasing share for developing countries and overall sustainable development. Trade liberalization was seen as means for achieving the above-mentioned objectives.

A democratic inclusive WTO however, started showing signs of discontent. The issues came to surface in the very first Singapore Ministerial (1996). Singapore issues spilled over to Seattle, Cancun and finally to Doha Ministerial. The recent trade war between US and China where US is increasing import tariffs is a symptom of the larger rot

Body

India and WTO: A chequered relationship

  • Stalled Doha Development Round negotiations: They focused on reducing important trade barriers in sectors, such as agriculture, industrial goods and services.
    • However, after a decade of talks, it still remains to be concluded.
  • Growing protectionism: Over the past two years, governments have introduced trade restrictions covering a substantial amount of international trade — affecting $747 billion in global imports in the past year alone.
    • WTO has been less affective in addressing them, including US China trade war.
  • New emerging issues: Groups of members are also working towards new rules on a range of issues — electronic commerce, investment facilitation, domestic regulation in services — that aim to make trade more efficient and predictable in cutting-edge sectors of the economy.
    • However, the rising differences among developed and developing countries is delaying any early settlement.
    • India has made it clear that no discussion can go on without settling the question of Peace clause and Doha rounds.
  • Side stepping WTO: Since the launch of the Doha Round, countries have turned to free trade agreements (FTAs) in order to gain significant trade access in new markets and to explore new trade-related issues that are currently not addressed within the WTO.
    • As more FTAs have been concluded, the central role of the WTO in liberalizing trade has been called into question.
  • Limited success in major issues: WTO has played a very limited role in helping address other global issues related to trade, such as food security, climate change and global trade imbalances.

Way forward

  • A vibrant WTO cannot accommodate conflicting economic models of market versus state. All WTO members will have to accept the operative assumption of a rules-based order steered by a market economy, the private sector, and competition.
  • Launch negotiations to address the intertwined issues of agricultural subsidies and market access, while recognising that food security concerns will not disappear.
  • A credible trading system requires a dispute settlement system that is accepted by all.
  • Launch serious negotiations to restore the balance, and we must do so in an open-ended plurilateral manner that cannot be blocked by those who do not want to move ahead.
  • GATT/WTO rules in a number of areas are outdated. New rules are required to keep pace with changes in the market and technology. Rules and disciplines on topics ranging from trade-distorting industrial subsidies to digital trade require updates.

Conclusion

The World Trade Organization remains an indispensable organisation but it requires urgent modernisation. Members have to face the reality that the organisation requires non-cosmetic, serious root-and-branch reform for a WTO adapted to 21st century economic and political realities.

Value addition

Organizational Structure of WTO

  • Ministerial Conference – It Includes all members, meets once in 2 year and the 11th Ministerial Conference was held in Argentina)
  • General Council – It acts a Dispute Settlement Body and Trade Policy Review Body.

 

Topic: issues relating to intellectual property rights

5. Critically analyse the National Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) Policy, aimed to promote creativity and innovation in the country while protecting intellectual property rights. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference:  Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 3 and mentioned as part of Mission-2024 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To evaluate the performance of IPR regime in India and to suggest changes to IPR policy to balance protecting patents while prioritising national interest.

Directive word: 

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a balanced judgment on the topic.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start the answer by giving an overview of IPR regime in India. Give stats with respect to applied and approved IPR’s.

Body:

In the first part, give brief overview of National IPR Policy, 2016 and mention the challenges in enforcing Intellectual property rights (IPR) in India – procedural and substantive constraints, legal aspects, conflict with competition law, low awareness, counterfeiting and piracy, IP Financing, etc.

Mention IPR regime has gained further significance in light of the Government’s focus on ‘Make in India’ and ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat’ and Covid-19 pandemic.

Next write about changes that are needed to National IPR Policy in order balance between protecting the rights of the IPR holders and national interest.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) are legal rights, which result from intellectual invention, innovation and discovery in the industrial, scientific, literary and artistic fields. These rights entitle an individual or group to the moral and economic rights of creators in their creation. The National IPR Policy (2016) is a vision document that aims to create and exploit synergies between all forms of intellectual property (IP), concerned statutes and agencies. It sets in place an institutional mechanism for implementation, monitoring and review. It aims to incorporate and adapt global best practices to the Indian scenario.

Body

National IPR Policy, 2016

A comprehensive National IPR policy was adopted in May 2016, to stimulate innovation and creativity across sectors, and provide a clear vision regarding IPR issues. Objectives enshrined in the policy are hereunder:

  • IPR Awareness – Outreach and Promotion – To create public awareness about the economic, social and cultural benefits of IPRs among all sections of society;
  • Generation of IPRs – To stimulate the generation of IPRs;
  • Legal and Legislative Framework – To have strong and effective IPR laws, which balance the interests of rights’ owners with larger public interest
  • Administration and Management – To modernize and strengthen service-oriented IPR administration;
  • Commercialization of IPRs – Get value for IPRs through commercialization;
  • Enforcement and Adjudication – To strengthen the enforcement and adjudicatory mechanisms for combating IPR infringements; and
  • Human Capital Development – To strengthen and expand human resources, institutions and capacities for teaching, training, research and skill building in IPRs

Important highlights of National Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) Policy

  • The Policy aims to push IPRs as a marketable financial asset, promote innovation and entrepreneurship, while protecting public interest.
  • In order to have strong and effective IPR laws, steps would be taken — including review of existing IP laws — to update and improve them or to remove anomalies and inconsistencies.
  • The policy is entirely compliant with the WTO’s agreement on TRIPS.
  • Special thrust on awareness generation and effective enforcement of IPRs, besides encouragement of IP commercialisation through various incentives.
  • India will engage constructively in the negotiation of international treaties and agreements in consultation with stakeholde
  • The government will examine accession to some multilateral treaties which are in India’s interest, and become a signatory to those treaties which India has de facto implemented to enable it to participate in their decision making process, the policy said.
  • It suggests making the department of industrial policy and promotion (DIPP) the nodal agency for all IPR issues. Copyrights related issues will also come under DIPP’s ambit from that of the Human Resource Development (HRD) Ministry.
  • Films, music, industrial drawings will be all covered by copyright.
  • The Policy also seeks to facilitate domestic IPR filings, for the entire value chain from IPR generation to commercialization. It aims to promote research and development through tax benefits.

Issues with the current policy:

  • Policy is aimed at a gold rush towards IPR. A blind rush towards IP could be a deterrent to innovation itself by restricting knowledge flow.
  • Policy recommends scientist and professors to convert all their discoveries into IP which in turn has the potential to curb the free flow of knowledge
  • IPR policy is driven by the agenda of IP maximalism, where IP owners’ rights will be maximised at the cost of public interest. This (policy) will influence courts and judges who might consider rights of patentees above that on common man in certain cases.
  • Connection between patenting and application of patented knowledge is yet to be established. Hence, patenting and not applying the new invention could deter progress
  • Policy recommends criminalization of unauthorised copying of movies – which is just a civil wrong.
  • Not understanding the modes of creativity and sharing in “shadow economy “, the policy leans towards superimposition of formal IP framework.
  • While IP could accelerate innovation in certain technologies it in turn impedes in others. Policy recommends scientist and professors to convert all their discoveries
  • According to USTR, Patent applicants face costly and time-consuming patent opposition hurdles, long timelines for receiving patents, and excessive reporting requirements

Measures needed:

  • Fostering an environment where innovation flourishes and a knowledge economy is built, is the key idea. Hence, the policy should have a balance.
  • It should encourage patenting and at the same time ensure that patentability of a product/process does not deter further innovation and progress.
  • Intellectual Property must not be about patents on paper but dearth of application in reality. T
  • The organisations such as CSIR and others must be encouraged to work upon socially useful applications of their patents.
  • Support for innovation has to be accompanied with instruments that guard local companies against the misuse of market power, coercive bargaining and aggressive acquisition strategies.
  • India needs to spread awareness on IPR in public and for its traditional industries to enable fair monetisation of IP Rights.
  • It needs to safeguard its patents, copyrights and traditional knowledge by ensuring easy IPR rules.

Conclusion

Beliefs, attitudes and approaches towards IPRs in India must change for the sake of the ambitions articulated in this government’s many initiatives—from Make in India to Startup India and Smart Cities. Indian policymakers do not adequately appreciate the fundamental reality that IP laws and policies are meant to incentivize innovation by establishing enforceable boundaries to protect new products, processes, and original works of expression. Adequate safeguards though necessary should not cripple innovation or new technology that can come to India and benefit the larger public.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and nonpartisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker- sections.

6.  To deal with these challenging circumstances prevailing across the world in the recent past, the world requires compassion, cooperation and complete solidarity. Discuss. (150 Words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the importance compassion, cooperation and complete solidarity in dealing with contemporary challenges.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by giving context.

Body:

First, write about the challenging circumstances prevailing across the world in recent past – pandemic, extreme weather events, wars, social strife etc.

Next, write how compassion, cooperation and solidarity can play a part in overcoming the above-mentioned challenges. Substantiate with examples.

Conclusion:

Complete by summarising.

Introduction

The world is witnessing two active wars simultaneously. The Hamas attack on Israel and subsequent retaliation which has resulted in killing of innocent civilians is a gruesome reminder that war does not benefit anyone. War based on identity, religion, ethinicity which are all man-made constructs will lead to ruin of mankind.

In the face of global challenges, such as pandemics, climate change, economic crises, and social unrest, compassion, cooperation, and solidarity are essential. These values are not only important for addressing immediate issues but also for building a more resilient and interconnected world in the long run. When individuals, communities, and nations come together with empathy and a shared sense of purpose, it becomes possible to find effective solutions and support those who are most vulnerable. This collaborative spirit is key to creating a better future for all of humanity.

Body

Compassion is our first guiding star to advance humanity in crisis settings. Without compassion, which literally means ‘suffering together,’ we would not be able to put ourselves into each other’s shoes, or see a crisis through the eyes of a child and realise that other human lives are worth saving, sometimes by taking risks.

Solidarity comes next. Countless times I have seen solidarity shape into a collective force to do good. Solidarity does not always have to be heroic: sometimes, it can mean giving voice to the powerless, protesting injustice, or not letting others suffer alone. Other times, it can make the difference between life and death.

Eg: In India, people came together to go the extra mile and lend a hand during covid-19 pandemic. Several initiatives- from distributing food to migrant workers to buying protective gear for healthcare workers – brought a sense of solidarity among the society.

Cooperation is needed to provide a mindset and solid anchor to compassion and solidarity; it is also what enables us to ‘make things happen’. In wars, disasters and emergencies, there are a hundred jobs to be done, and it is natural that we may get paralysed. Only cooperation can save the day and humanity.

More than ever, it is imperative to stand up against stigma, hate speech, xenophobia, racism, war and all forms of discrimination that are an affront to universal human values and rights

Conclusion

“If we want societies to be inclusive, cohesive and peaceful, this is the time to foster an alliance between cultures, civilizations, and people”. Global fraternity and global village must become a reality to save humankind from an impending apocalypse which is man-made.

Value Addition

Compassion

  • Compassion is the ability to understand and share the feelings of others. It involves recognizing someone else’s suffering or hardship and having a desire to alleviate it. Compassion is often associated with empathy, which is the capacity to put oneself in another person’s shoes and understand their perspective.
  • Empathy: Empathy is the foundation of compassion. It allows individuals to connect with others on an emotional level. When we empathize, we not only understand the challenges someone is facing, but we also feel a desire to help them.
  • Kindness and Understanding: Compassion manifests through acts of kindness and understanding. It can be expressed through simple gestures like offering a listening ear, providing support, or offering a helping hand.
  • Reducing Suffering: Compassion aims to alleviate suffering, whether it’s physical, emotional, or social. This can be done through various means, such as offering comfort, providing resources, or advocating for change.
  • Promoting Well-being: Compassion contributes to the overall well-being of individuals and communities. When people feel understood and supported, it can lead to a greater sense of belonging and mental health.

Solidarity

  • Solidarity is the unity and mutual support among individuals or groups, especially in difficult times. It involves recognizing that we are all part of a larger community, and when one person or group suffers, it affects us all.
  • Unity in Diversity: Solidarity transcends differences in race, nationality, religion, or any other categorization. It acknowledges the shared humanity that binds us together.
  • Collective Action: Solidarity often leads to collective action. It empowers people to work together toward common goals, whether it’s advocating for social justice, addressing a crisis, or striving for positive change.
  • Advocacy and Activism: Solidarity often fuels advocacy efforts. When people come together in solidarity, they amplify their voices and are more likely to effect meaningful change.
  • Resilience and Support: Knowing that others stand with you in times of difficulty can provide a tremendous sense of strength and resilience. It lessens the feeling of isolation and empowers individuals to face challenges head-on.
  • Building Trust and Community: Solidarity builds trust within communities and fosters a sense of belonging. It creates a foundation of support that can be relied upon in times of need.

 

Topic:  moral and political attitudes.

7. public morality is a complex and multifaceted concept that evolves over time as societies grapple with new challenges and opportunities. Explain. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Directive word: 

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Give a simple elaboration on the concept of public morality.

Body:

Write about aspects such as what is accepted within the realms of public morality, is it static and indestructible by quoting few examples. Influence of public morality on legislations and the changes with time such as legalisation of same-sex marriage etc.

Next, write about the various factors affecting public morality.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating that society evolves with time and thus the public morality also takes its shape, however certain historically sustainable values must be preserved as well.

Introduction

A morality is a system of principles and values concerning people’s behaviour, which is generally accepted by a society or by a particular group of people. Public morality refers to moral and ethical standards enforced in a society, by law or police work or social pressure, and applied to public life, to the content of the media, and to conduct in public places.

Body

Public morality is concerned with collective obligations, and is generally based on the notion of consequentialism. For instance, Public morality often means regulation of sexual matters, including prostitution and homosexuality, but also matters of dress and nudity, pornography, acceptability in social terms of cohabitation before marriage, and the protection of children.

It is a main justification for censorship; it can lead to campaigns against profanity, and so be at odds with freedom of speech. Gambling is generally controlled: casinos have been considered much more of a threat than large-scale lotteries or football pools. Public drunkenness is quite unacceptable in some societies, and legal control of consumption of alcohol is often justified in terms of public morality, just as much as for medical reasons or to limit alcohol-related crime.

Abortion is sometimes treated as an aspect of public morality, even if it is legally defined, regulated by medical professionals, and almost entirely hidden from public view. AIDS as a health policy issue is linked to public morality in a complicated manner.

Views on public morality do change over time. Public views on which things are acceptable often move towards wider tolerance.

Various factors affecting Public morality

  • Social & Religious mores. Eg. Animal slaughter still continues
  • Inertial of the People to change their belief & attitude. Eg.: attitude towards homosexuality, transgenders etc.
  • Lack of Scientific temper. E.g: a genetically impaired person is seen as a God’s curse
  • Poor will of legislators and elected.
  • Ineffective implementation of law mechanism
  • Lack of ethical education

Conclusion

Public morality has been on a decline due to a host of factors such as legal, corruption, malpractices, cultural etc. Citizens in a political community must be bound together neither by feelings nor by self-interest but by a commitment to common values discovered by public reason — values such as political freedom, solidarity, shared traditions and cultural heritage.

 

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