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Human Development Index (HDI) 2023-24

GS2/GS3 Paper 

 Syllabus: Social Justice/ Indian Economy


Source: UNDP

 Context: The 2023/24 Human Development Report, titled “Breaking the Gridlock: Reimagining Cooperation in a polarized world,” was launched on March 13, 2024


Human Development Index (HDI) 2023-24 Description
About It is a statistical composite index that measures the average achievement of a country in three basic dimensions: health, education, and income.

Background Developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990, it embodies Amartya Sen’s capabilities approach to understanding human well-being.
Alongside HDI, the Human Development Report (HDR) presents other indices such as the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI), Gender Inequality Index (GII), and Gender Development Index (GDI).
The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) measures human development by considering how evenly a country’s achievements are distributed among its citizens in health, education, and income.
Key Highlights of India’s Human Development Report 2023-24
India’s Ranking India ranked 134 in 2022, showing a slight improvement from its previous rank of 135 in 2021. It falls under the medium human development category. Between 1990 and 2022, India saw over 48% increase in its HDI value, from 0.434 to 0.644
India’s Performance on Various Indicators India’s life expectancy at birth increased slightly to 67.7 years.
There was a 5.88% increase in expected years of schooling (EYS) from 11.9 years to 12.6 years, leading to an improvement of 18 places.
Gross National Income (GNI) per capita also improved from $6,542 to $6,951.
Performance of India’s Neighbourhood Sri Lanka and China rank higher than India at 78 and 75, respectively, in the High Human Development category. Bhutan and Bangladesh rank at 125 and 129, respectively. Nepal (146) and Pakistan (164) rank lower than India.
India’s Progress in Reducing Gender Inequality Index (GII) India ranks 108 out of 166 countries in the Gender Inequality Index (GII) 2022, showing progress (in 2021, it ranked 122 out of 199 countries). India Jumps 14 ranks on Gender Inequality Index 2022


The GII measures gender inequalities on three parameters: Reproductive health (Use indicators namely the maternal mortality ratio and the adolescent fertility rate), Empowerment (Measured by the share of parliamentary seats held), and the Labor market (Measured by labour force participation rates by both gender)
India’s GII value of 0.437 is better than the global average (0.462) and the South Asian average.
GII score varies between 0 (when women and men fare equally) and 1 (when men or women fare poorly compared to the other in all dimensions).
Observations by the Human Development Index The report highlights a reversal in the trend of reducing inequalities between wealthy and poor nations. It emphasizes the need for collective action to address climate change, digitalization, poverty, and inequality. Political polarization is identified as a hindrance to progress.
Four Areas for Immediate Action Proposed by the Human Development Report Planetary public goods for climate stability as we confront the unprecedented challenges of the Anthropocene.
Digital global public goods for greater equity in harnessing new technologies for equitable human development.
New and expanded financial mechanisms, including a novel track in international cooperation that complements humanitarian assistance and traditional development aid to low-income countries.
Dialling down political polarization through new governance approaches focused on enhancing people’s voices in deliberation and tackling misinformation.


Insta Links:

Human Development Index (HDI).


Mains Link: UPSC 2019

Despite the consistent experience of High growth, India still goes with the lowest indicators of human development. Examine the issues that make balanced and inclusive development elusive.


Prelims Links

The Multi-Dimensional Poverty Index developed by Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative with UNDP support covers which of the following?

  1. Deprivation of education, health, assets and services at the household level
  2. Purchasing power parity at the national level
  3. The extent of the budget deficit and GDP growth rate at the national level


Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

© 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3


Solution: A