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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 2:

  1. UN Reforms: India Presents a Detailed Model


GS Paper 3:

  1. HCES Data: A shift in Indian households’ food consumption patterns


Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

  1. Missing Voters


Facts for Prelims (FFP)

  1. Anthropocene epoch
  2. Fifth mass coral bleaching event
  3. Oran Land
  4. Sudha Murty nominated to Rajya Sabha
  5. Mysore Paints and Varnish Ltd (MPVL)
  6. ‘NITI for States’ Platform
  7. National Cooperative Database
  8. National Creators Award
  9. ‘Measles and Rubella Champion’ Award
  10. ChipIN Centre
  11. Parasitoid wasp



  1. Canals of the World



UN Reforms: India Presents a Detailed Model

GS  Paper 2 

 Syllabus: Multinational Bodies


Source: Th


Context: India, representing the G4 nations (Participating in Inter-governmental Negotiations on UNSC reform), presented a detailed model for UN Security Council reform, proposing new permanent members elected democratically by the General Assembly and showing flexibility on the veto issue.


Key Highlights of the Proposed Model:

Highlights Details
Enlarged Membership 11 Permanent members, and 14/15 non-permanent members with a 2-year term to be elected based on current practice.
Equitable Regional Representation Representation of 6 new permanent members shall come from Africa (2), Asia-Pacific (2), Latin America and Caribbean (2), Western Europe and Other Member States (1).
Working Methods of Council An affirmative vote of 14/15 of 25/26 members will be required for a decision.
Veto No veto rights to new permanent members until decided by a review, held fifteen years after reform came into force.
Relationship between UNSC and UNGA The council should hold regular consultations with the President of UNGA, submit annual reports and special reports to UNGA, etc.


Benefits of the proposed Model:

  1. Enlarged Membership: Increasing the Security Council’s membership from 15 to 25-26 allows for greater representation of diverse perspectives and regions, enhancing the Council’s legitimacy.
  2. Equitable Regional Representation: The proposed model ensures representation from underrepresented regions such as Africa, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and the Caribbean, addressing the current imbalance in the Council’s composition.
  3. Democratic Election of New Members: New permanent members will be elected democratically by the General Assembly, promoting fairness and inclusivity in the selection process.
  4. Flexibility on Veto: By delaying the exercise of veto rights for new permanent members until a review is conducted, the model displays a willingness to compromise and facilitate constructive negotiations.
  5. Enhanced Working Methods: Requiring an affirmative vote of 14/15 members for decisions encourages consensus-building and cooperation among Council members.
  6. Improved Relationship with UNGA: Regular consultations with the President of the UN General Assembly and submission of reports enhance transparency and accountability, fostering a stronger relationship between the Security Council and the General Assembly.
  7. Greater Acceptability:g., France has expressed support for India, Japan, Brazil, and Germany’s candidacy for permanent membership and endorsed the G4 model. The U.S. acknowledged the support for expanding both permanent and non-permanent seats on the Security Council.



  1. Uncertainty in the Selection Process: The model does not specify which member states will occupy the new permanent seats, potentially leading to ambiguity and disputes during the democratic election process.
  2. Delayed Exercise of Veto: While the model offers flexibility on the veto issue, delaying its exercise until a review introduces uncertainty and may hinder immediate decision-making on critical matters.
  3. Potential Resistance from Current Permanent Members: The proposed reforms may face opposition from existing permanent members who wield veto powers, as it could dilute their influence and control within the Security Council.
  4. Complex Decision-Making Process: Requiring an affirmative vote of 14/15 members for decisions could lead to gridlock and inefficiency in decision-making, particularly on contentious issues where consensus is challenging to achieve.


The article should be read in continuation of the previous article: Future of United Nations: UN Reforms



Looking towards the future, the 21st century presents a myriad of complex challenges, ranging from climate change to cybersecurity threats and economic inequality. Despite its imperfections, the United Nations (UN) stands uniquely positioned to address these multifaceted issues, given its convening power, diplomatic role, and extensive network of agencies.

However, realizing its full potential requires implementing reforms to enhance its effectiveness. Streamlining bureaucracy, reducing inefficiencies, and ensuring more equitable representation within the organization are crucial steps towards achieving this goal. Despite these challenges, the UN remains indispensable in global governance, humanitarian assistance, and crisis management. While the need for reform is evident, the UN’s continued role in fostering cooperation, dialogue, and collective action underscores its enduring importance in tackling the world’s most pressing problems.


About  G4:

It consists of Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan, and aims to secure permanent seats on the UNSC. They mutually endorse each other’s bids for permanent membership and regularly convene during the UN General Assembly sessions.


Inter-governmental Negotiations:

Intergovernmental Negotiations (IGN) is a UN-based initiative focused on reforming the UNSC. It involves various international organizations such as the African Union, G4 nations, Uniting for Consensus Group (UfC), L.69 Group of Developing Countries, Arab League, and Caribbean Community (CARICOM)


Insta Links:


Mains Links:

What are the main functions of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)? Explain different functional commissions attached to it. (10 M) (UPSC 2017)


Prelims Links:

With reference to the “United Nations Credentials Committee”, consider the following statements: (UPSC 2022)

  1. It is a committee set up by the UN Security Council and works under its supervision.
  2. It traditionally meets in March, June and September every year
  3. It assesses the credentials of all UN members before submitting a report to the General Assembly for approval.


Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 

(a) 3 only
(b) 1 and 3
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 1 and 2


Ans: (a)

HCES Data: A shift in Indian households’ food consumption patterns

GS Paper 3

 Syllabus: Indian Economy


Source: IE

 Context: The recently released Household Consumer Expenditure Survey (HCES) data for 2022-23 highlights a shift in Indian households’ food consumption patterns.

What does the HCES data show about Food Trends?

Over the years, there has been a gradual decline in the share of expenditure on food (to less than 50%) and an increase in spending on non-food items for both urban and rural households. This decline in food spending reflects an increase in incomes, allowing for more expenditures on other necessities like medical expenses, clothing, education, conveyance, durables, fuel, and entertainment.


The recent survey highlights a reduction in the share of cereals and pulses within overall food consumption expenditure in both rural and urban households. Among non-food items, spending on conveyance now holds the highest share. Previously, fuel and light were the categories with the highest consumption spending among non-food items until the 2022-23 survey


Significance of the shift in Indian households’ food consumption patterns:

  1. Economic Development Indicator: The shift in Indian households’ food consumption patterns reflects economic development, as it suggests an increase in incomes and the ability to spend more on non-food items.
  2. Improved Standard of Living: The decline in the share of expenditure on food indicates an improved standard of living for households, allowing them to allocate more resources to other essential and discretionary expenses.
  3. Dietary Diversity: The reduction in the share of cereals and pulses suggests a diversification of diets, potentially leading to improved nutrition outcomes by incorporating a wider range of food groups.
  4. Changing Lifestyle Preferences: The increased spending on non-food items, such as conveyance, reflects changing lifestyle preferences and priorities among Indian households, possibly influenced by urbanization and modernization.
  5. Economic Opportunities: The shift in consumption patterns may signify increased economic opportunities, particularly in sectors beyond agriculture, leading to greater consumption of goods and services beyond basic food necessities.
  6. Infrastructure Development: Higher spending on non-food items like conveyance may indicate improved infrastructure development, such as better transportation networks, contributing to enhanced accessibility and mobility for households.


Limitations of MPCE Data:

  1. Lack of Intra-Household Allocation Insight: MPCE data only reveals the overall consumption pattern of households, failing to provide insights into how food and nutrients are allocated among different demographic groups within the household, such as women and adolescent girls.
  2. Incomplete Assessment of Salt and Sugar Intake: MPCE data does not accurately reflect the actual intake of salt and sugar, as it cannot estimate the quantities consumed through processed foods and beverages. This limitation is critical given the rising prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension in India.


Way Forward:

  1. Awareness: Implement front-of-pack food labelling with a traffic light system to indicate high salt, fat, or sugar content in processed foods and Promote nutrition literacy to educate consumers about healthy eating practices and lifestyle modifications.
  2. Imposition of Health Tax: Implement a 20% to 30% health tax, in addition to GST, on high-fat, sugar, and salt (HFSS) foods to deter consumption.
  3. Expansion of Low-Cost Eateries: Increase the number of low-cost eateries operated by the government, offering affordable nutritious meals and healthy alternatives like buttermilk.
  4. Nutritious Provision in Anganwadi: Enhance the allocation of vegetables in government Anganwadi and school noon meal schemes to encourage healthy eating habits and improve nutrition.
  5. Diversification of PDS Basket: Expand the Public Distribution System (PDS) basket to include a wider variety of foods, ensuring nutritional security for all.


About Household Consumption Expenditure Survey (HCES):

It is conducted every 5 years by the National Statistical Office (NSO) and gathers data on household consumption of goods and services. This data is essential for deriving macroeconomic indicators like Gross Domestic Product (GDP), poverty rates, and Consumer Price Inflation (CPI). The survey generates insights into


  1. Household spending on both goods and services
  2. Aids in calculating Monthly Per Capita Consumer Expenditure (MPCE)
  3. Analyzes the distribution of households and individuals across MPCE categories.

Note: NITI Aayog noted that the latest survey showed a reduction in poverty to 5%.


Prelims Links:

As per the NSSO 70th Round “Situation Assessment Survey of Agricultural Households”, consider the following statements: (UPSC 2018)

  1. Rajasthan has the highest percentage share of agricultural households among its rural households.
  2. Out of the total agricultural households in the country, a little over 60 per cent belong to OBCs.
  3. In Kerala, a little over 60 per cent of agricultural households reported to have received maximum income from sources other than agricultural activities.


Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3


Ans: C


In a given year in India, official poverty lines are higher in some States than in others because (UPSC 2019)

(a) poverty rates vary from State to State
(b) price levels vary from State to State
(c) Gross State Product varies from State to State
(d) quality of public distribution varies from State to State


Ans: B

Missing Voters

Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)


Source: TOI

“Missing voters” are primarily young, single male migrants in urban areas whose addresses on electoral rolls don’t match their current living places.

The Election Commission’s plan to use remote voting machines could help these voters participate, potentially increasing voter turnout by up to 30% and impacting political focus and party strategies. This inclusion could lead to a shift in political manifestos, focusing on issues like urban employment and migration-related challenges. Additionally, it may lead to demands for specific policies addressing job security and skill development.

The Election Commission’s initiative is seen as crucial for ensuring a more inclusive and representative democratic process.


Other countries are tackling the issue of missing voters with the following strategies:

  1. Remote Voting Systems: Estonia has implemented remote voting systems, enabling citizens to vote online or via mobile devices, enhancing accessibility for those unable to visit polling stations.
  2. Postal Voting: Australia and Switzerland offer postal voting options, allowing eligible voters to cast their ballots by mail, accommodating those unable to attend polling stations on election day.
  3. Voter Registration Reforms: Canada and New Zealand have simplified voter registration processes through automatic registration systems and initiatives to update voter rolls using government databases, reducing the likelihood of exclusion due to address discrepancies.
  4. Outreach Programs: The United Kingdom and the United States conduct outreach programs to educate citizens about voter registration procedures, particularly targeting marginalized communities to ensure their participation in elections.

Usage: The example can be used in Polity/Governance/Essay as a way to electoral reforms.

Anthropocene epoch

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: IE

 Context: The International Commission on Stratigraphy rejected the proposal of the Anthropocene epoch after a committee of 18 scientists recently voted against it.


What is an Epoch?

An epoch is a subdivision of geological time that represents a distinct interval of time characterized by significant events or developments in Earth’s history.


What is the Anthropocene epoch?

The Anthropocene epoch is a proposed unit of geologic time that marks a period during which human activities have had a significant impact on Earth’s climate and ecosystems. It suggests a new epoch following the Holocene, with the concept coined in 2000 by Dutch meteorologist Paul Crutzen and American botanist Eugene Stoermer. The starting point of the Anthropocene is debated, with some proposing the period after World War II due to the “Great Acceleration” of human activities.


Why was the proposal Rejected?

The proposal to recognize the Anthropocene epoch was rejected due to several reasons:

  1. Contention over the starting date: The proposal suggested 1952 as the beginning of the Anthropocene, citing global plutonium fallout from nuclear weapons tests. However, opponents argue that human impact began earlier, including activities such as farming, and cannot be confined to a single date.
  2. Epoch definition standards: The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) committee found that adding an Anthropocene epoch and ending the Holocene didn’t align with the usual standards for defining epochs. There were concerns about the scientific rigour and criteria required to establish a new geological epoch.


Fifth mass coral bleaching event

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: The Guardian

 Context: The Great Barrier Reef is experiencing its fifth mass coral bleaching event in eight years, driven by global heating and an El Niño climate pattern.

  • Aerial surveys have revealed widespread bleaching across two-thirds of the reef, with particular concern for the southern section where centuries-old corals are severely affected.
  • The reef’s size, covering an area larger than Italy, has seen significant bleaching episodes in 1998, 2002, 2016, 2017, 2020, 2022, and now in 2024

Coral bleaching is a response to stressful conditions that cause corals to expel the algae that live in their tissues. The algae are the coral’s primary food source and give them their colour.

Coral bleaching can be caused by changes in conditions such as temperature, light, or nutrients.

Coral bleaching is associated with the devastation of coral reefs, which are home to approximately 25 per cent of all marine species

Oran land

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: DTE

 Context: Villagers in Rajasthan oppose the state government’s proposal to classify sacred groves known as orans as deemed forests, fearing loss of access and livelihood. The notification, released on February 1, 2024, aims to give orans the status of deemed forests as per Supreme Court directives.

Communities rely on orans for cultural, religious, and economic reasons, using them for cattle herding, pastures, and gathering forest produce. They fear that this classification will deprive them of access to the forests and threaten their way of life. Legal experts clarify that while deemed forests are protected from certain activities like mining, they do not restrict community access to grazing or worship.

What are Orans?

Orans are traditional sacred groves found in Rajasthan, India. These community forests are preserved and managed by rural communities, often associated with local deities. They are rich in biodiversity, typically containing water bodies, and have been conserved for centuries. Orans serve as grazing areas for livestock and are venues for communal gatherings and festivals. They are also vital habitats for endangered species like the Great Indian Bustard.


What are Sacred groves?

Sacred groves are relic forest patches traditionally protected by communities in reverence of a deity. They are important repositories of forest biodiversity, providing refuge to many plant and animal species of conservation significance. India has over 13,000 documented sacred groves. These groves are known by different names in different regions, such as Kavu/Sarpa Kavu in Kerala, Devarakadu/Devkad in Karnataka, and Deorai/Devrai in Maharashtra.

Sudha Murty nominated to Rajya Sabha

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: LM

 Context: Author and philanthropist Sudha Murty has been nominated to the Rajya Sabha by President Droupadi Murmu, announced by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on March 8. This nomination coincides with International Women’s Day, highlighting the significant role of ‘Nari Shakti’ or Women’s Power.


Who is Sudha Murty?

Sudha Murty is a renowned author, philanthropist, and former chairperson of Infosys Foundation. Known for her immense contributions to social work, education, and literature, she has authored numerous books and has been recognized with prestigious awards, including the Padma Shri and Padma Bhushan. Sudha Murty is celebrated for her advocacy for social causes and the promotion of education and healthcare initiatives.


Nomination to RS:

The nomination of members to the Rajya Sabha falls under the purview of the Ministry of Home Affairs, as per the Allocation of Business Rules, 1961. Article 80(3) of the Constitution allows the President to nominate 12 members to the Rajya Sabha who possess special knowledge or practical experience in fields such as literature, science, art, and social service. This provision was upheld by the Delhi High Court in the case of Ram Gopal Singh Sisodia Vs. Union of India through its Secretary & Ors. (2012), where the nomination of Sachin Tendulkar under Article 80(3) was validated.



Nominated members of the Rajya Sabha possess the same powers and privileges as elected MPs, allowing them to participate fully in House proceedings. However, they are unable to vote in the election of the President, though they retain the right to vote in the election of the Vice-President

Mysore Paints and Varnish Ltd (MPVL)

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: LM

 Context: Mysore Paints and Varnish Ltd (MPVL), India’s sole manufacturer of indelible ink, is ramping up production to meet the soaring demand ahead of the upcoming general elections.

Besides domestic demand, MPVL is also catering to export orders, reinforcing its pivotal role in safeguarding electoral integrity worldwide. Under rule 49K of Conduct of Elections Rules, 1961 every elector shall allow his left forefinger to be inspected by the Presiding officer or Polling Officer and an Indelible ink mark to be put on it.


What is Indelible Ink and how does it work?

Indelible ink is a special purple colour ink used to mark voters during elections to prevent duplicate voting. It is typically applied to a voter’s finger after they cast their vote and is designed to be long-lasting and resistant to removal. It often contains silver nitrate, which reacts with the skin and on exposure to light, forms a permanent dark mark. The ink works by penetrating the skin and staining it, making it difficult to wash off or remove with solvents.


‘NITI for States’ Platform

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: PIB

  Context: The ‘NITI for States’ platform, a digital initiative aimed at empowering states and union territories (UTs) in achieving national development goals was launched recently.

  • The platform, inaugurated at NITI Aayog’s ‘Viksit Bharat Strategy Room’, provides a centralized repository of resources including best practices, policy documents, datasets, and NITI Aayog publications.
  • It features multilingual accessibility, capacity building initiatives, an expert help desk, and data integration from the National Data & Analytics Platform (NDAP).

It reflects NITI Aayog’s commitment to collaborative governance and promoting development across the nation.


National Cooperative Database

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: Business Standard

 Context: Cooperation Minister launched the National Cooperative Database, aiming to facilitate the expansion and development of cooperatives in India.

  • The database is a web-based digital dashboard capturing information about over 8 lakh registered cooperative societies, involving more than 30 crore people.
  • Additionally, the ‘National Cooperative Database 2023: A Report’ was released which highlighted the progress made in computerizing all primary agricultural credit societies (PACS) in the country.


The government of India established the Agricultural Refinance Corporation in 1962 to provide long-term loans to cooperatives. In 1963, Parliament established the National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC)


To form a cooperative society in India, at least 10 adults must consent. The association can then be registered with the Registrar of Co-operative Societies

National Creators Award

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: PM INDIA

 Context: The Prime Minister presented the inaugural National Creators Award, celebrating the talent and impact of content creators in various fields.

  • The award ceremony, honoured winners across storytelling, social change advocacy, education, gaming, and other domains.


The creator economy is a modern economic landscape where content creators can use digital platforms to produce and distribute content. It’s also known as the influencer economy.

In the creator economy, creators can monetize their content through:

 Advertising, Sponsorships, Subscriptions, Merchandise sales, Crowdfunding, Brand deals, Ad share revenue, Affiliate links, Monetary tips, and Courses.

The creator economy involves creators, audiences, digital platforms, marketers, and agencies. It’s centred around social media channels where users and creators interact to form online communities. 

‘Measles and Rubella Champion’ Award

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: PIB


Context: India has been honoured with the prestigious Measles and Rubella Champion Award by The Measles and Rubella Partnership at the American Red Cross Headquarters in Washington D.C., USA.

  • The partnership, comprising various organizations dedicated to reducing global measles deaths and preventing rubella illness, applauds India’s commitment to public health and leadership in controlling these infectious diseases, particularly among children.

Measles is a highly contagious disease that can cause death in young children. It can cause brain damage, deafness, and blindness. The measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine is safe and highly effective in preventing rubella. The WHO recommends two doses of the measles vaccine to ensure immunity and prevent outbreaks. 


Rubella is a contagious viral infection that can cause birth defects. It’s also known as German measles or three-day measles. Rubella is not as infectious or as severe as measles. It’s caused by the rubella virus and spreads when people breathe in virus-infected fluid or direct contact with nasal or throat secretions of infected individuals.

ChipIN Centre

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: PIB

 Context: The ChipIN Centre, a hub for chip designers in India, received a boost from leading semiconductor industry players, aiming to empower the semiconductor design community in the country.

  • The centre offers state-of-the-art Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools to students at various academic levels.

These initiatives aim to realize India’s vision of becoming a semiconductor hub by fostering chip design innovation and entrepreneurship.

 A semiconductor chip, also known as an integrated circuit (IC) or microchip, is a small electronic device that contains multiple interconnected electronic components.

Semiconductor chips are made up of electronic components such as transistors, resistors, and capacitors. These components are etched onto a small piece of semiconductor material, usually silicon. Semiconductors are tiny electrical switches that act like electrical currents on or off. 

Parasitoid wasp

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: TH


Context: Entomologists from the Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE) have discovered a new species of parasitoid wasp in the Western Ghats region of Karnataka.

  • Named Taeniogonalos deepaki, it was discovered in the Belgaum region and named after the medical doctor and nature enthusiast Deepak Deshpande, who collected the specimen.


Parasitoid wasps are a group of insects that lay their eggs inside other insects to complete their life cycle. 


Parasitoid wasps are important biological control methods for gardeners. They are useful in controlling both native pests and invasive species. They feed on the eggs, larvae, and sometimes pupae of many insects, including aphids, caterpillars, and other honeydew-producing sucking insects.

Canals of the World



Source: IMF

 Context: In early 2024, global trade faced disruptions due to attacks in the Red Sea and a drought at the Panama Canal. This led to a 50% drop in Suez Canal trade and a 32% decline in Panama Canal trade. These disruptions may hamper supply chains, lead to inflation, and affect official trade statistics.

The Suez Canal typically handles about 15% of global maritime trade volume, while the Panama Canal accounts for approximately 5% of global maritime trade.

Initiatives for restoring peace include:

  1. Operations Prosperity Guardian: Led by the US, it’s a multinational security effort under the Combined Maritime Forces, concentrating on security in the Red Sea. Members include the UK, Bahrain, Canada, France, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Seychelles, and Spain.
  2. Operation Aspides: Introduced by the EU to enhance regional stability in the


Major Canals of the World:

Canal Name Description
Suez Canal Connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea, facilitating maritime trade between Europe and Asia.
Panama Canal Connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean, providing a shortcut for ships travelling between the two oceans.
Kiel Canal Links the North Sea with the Baltic Sea, providing a shortcut for ships travelling between the two seas.
Corinth Canal Cuts through the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece, connecting the Gulf of Corinth with the Saronic Gulf.
Suez-Mediterranean Pipeline Carries crude oil from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea, bypassing the Suez Canal for oil transportation.
Welland Canal Connects Lake Ontario to Lake Erie, bypassing Niagara Falls and facilitating shipping in the Great Lakes region.
Erie Canal Links the Great Lakes with the Hudson River, providing a navigable water route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes.
Amsterdam-Rhine Canal Connects Amsterdam to the Rhine River, serving as an important waterway for transportation and trade in the Netherlands.
Strait of Hormuz Located between Oman and Iran, it’s a critical chokepoint for global oil transportation, connecting the Persian Gulf with the Gulf of Oman.
Bosporus Strait Separates European and Asian Turkey, serving as a key passage for maritime traffic between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Strait of Malacca Connects the Indian Ocean to the South China Sea, serving as one of the busiest and most important shipping lanes in the world.
Strait of Gibraltar Links the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea, serving as a strategic maritime route between Europe and Africa.
English Channel Separates southern England from northern France, serving as a major maritime route connecting the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.



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