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UPSC Civil Services Exam Mains 2023 – ESSAY FRAMEWORKS


NOTE: This is just a sample framework. Essay writing is much broader than this framework. Develop your own perspectives and ensure you do not restrict yourself to the framework provided here.


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1. Thinking is like a game; it does not begin unless there is an opposite team.


 Introduction: In an increasingly individualistic world, there’s a growing tendency for people to prioritise their own needs, desires, and pursuits over collective or communal experiences. This shift can sometimes lead to a sense that “the other” – referring to individuals and their perspectives outside one’s immediate circle – is gradually disappearing from everyday life.

Essence of the topic: Thinking resembles a game; it requires opposing perspectives to initiate. Just as a game needs opponents, thinking thrives on diverse ideas and viewpoints for engagement and intellectual growth.

Thesis statement: Explain what you understand by the topic. You can explain the process of thinking. What is the role of the other in initiating the thought process?

We live in cyber echo chambers where ‘the other’ often feels unreal

  • Living in cyber echo chambers means that many individuals are exposed primarily to information, opinions, and viewpoints that align with their own beliefs and values. In such environments, “the other” – those with differing perspectives – often appears distant and unreal.
  • Selective Exposure: On social media and online platforms, people tend to follow or engage with content that reinforces their existing beliefs. Algorithms also play a role by recommending similar content, creating a feedback loop.
  • Dehumanisation of Others: In extreme cases, individuals within cyber echo chambers may dehumanise or dismiss those who hold opposing view The “other” is reduced to a stereotype or caricature, making it difficult to empathise or engage in meaningful dialogue.
  • Erosion of Critical Thinking: When individuals are not exposed to dissenting opinions, their critical thinking skills may weaken. They become less practised at evaluating and debating ideas, as they are rarely challenged.

Like a game, the process of thinking thrives on the presence of multiple players

  • Each individual brings their unique perspective to the “game” of thinking. These diverse viewpoints are akin to different players on a sports team, each contributing to the overall strategy and outcome.
  • In thinking, individuals often challenge one another’s ideas, much like competitors in a game. This competition can lead to the refinement and improvement of concepts as individuals strive to outdo each other intellectually.
  • Like a game with specific rules, thinking follows certain logical and rational principle These “rules” help ensure that the game is fair and that conclusions are based on sound reasoning.
  • The presence of multiple players in the game of thinking fosters intellectual growth and development. It encourages individuals to expand their knowledge, challenge assumptions, and continuously improve their thinking skills.
  • Like learning from teammates or opponents in a game, individuals can learn from each other’s experiences, knowledge, and perspectives. This mutual learning enhances the collective intelligence of the group.
  • The Role of Opposition in Innovation: History is replete with examples of innovation that emerged from the clash of opposing ideas. Think of the scientific revolution, where new paradigms in physics and astronomy emerged through the challenge of established beliefs. Opposition has been the driving force behind many groundbreaking discoveries.


Even in thinking about oneself, the presence of the other is essential

  • Mirror Effect: Other people serve as mirrors reflecting our thoughts, behaviours, and identities. When we interact with others, we often see ourselves through their eyes. Their reactions, feedback, and perspectives provide valuable insights into our thoughts and actions.
  • Feedback from others, whether positive or negative, plays a crucial role in shaping our self-perception. It helps us refine our self-concept and adjust our behaviours to align with societal norms and expectations.
  • Interacting with others fosters empathy, which allows us to better understand our own emotions and motivation Through relating to the experiences of others, we gain insight into our inner workings.
  • Identity Formation: Our sense of identity is often shaped in response to our social environment. We define ourselves in part by our roles in relationships (e.g., parent, friend, colleague) and the context of cultural and societal norms.
  • Self-Reflection: Conversations and interactions with others prompt us to engage in self-reflection. We ponder our beliefs, values, and actions, often prompted by discussions with those who hold differing viewpoints.
  • Conflict and Resolution: Conflicts and disagreements with others force us to examine our own beliefs and values. In resolving conflicts, we often question our motivations and biases.
  • Shared Experiences: Many of our most meaningful and formative experiences involve others, whether through friendships, romantic relationships, or shared challenges. These shared experiences become integral parts of our narratives.


Poets and artists think and create in solitude but their thinking and creativity are inspired by the presence of ‘the other’.

  • Poets and artists often engage in deep thinking and creative processes in solitude, but their inspiration and creative wellspring are undeniably influenced by the presence of “the other.
  • Solitude as a Canvas: Solitude provides artists and poets with a canvas for introspection and exploration of their inner thoughts and emotions. It allows them to delve into their unique experiences, fears, and joys without external distractions.
  • Observation of Humanity: While alone, artists and poets often reflect on their observations of humanity. They draw inspiration from the behaviours, emotions, and stories of others encountered in their past or imagined in their minds.
  • Social Commentary: Many artists and poets use their work to comment on society and human relationships. Solitude gives them the space to contemplate social issues, injustices, and the complexities of human interactions.
  • Dialogue with the Past: Solitude allows artists and poets to engage in a silent dialogue with the works of those who came before them. They draw inspiration from the literary and artistic heritage of their culture, building upon and responding to the creative endeavours of their predecessors.
  • Emotional Connection: The presence of others, whether in the form of personal relationships or broader societal dynamics, often fuels the emotions that artists and poets express in their work. Love, conflict, friendship, and loss are among the themes that emerge from these connections.



The presence of “the other” is a catalyst for critical thinking and personal growth. It challenges us to navigate the complexities of a diverse and interconnected world. While it can lead to tensions and disagreements, it also offers the potential for collaboration, innovation, and a deeper understanding of the human experience.

/ ESSAY 2023 Section A

2. Visionary decision-making happens at the intersection of intuition and logic.



Creativity often thrives outside the confines of strict rationality. When we allow ourselves to break free from the “iron cage of rationality,” we open the door to innovative and imaginative thinking. Creative ideas frequently emerge when we embrace ambiguity, explore unconventional perspectives, and venture into the unknown. The imagination doesn’t always follow a linear, logical path; it thrives on making unexpected connections, questioning assumptions, and daring to dream. In this sense, creativity is the art of breaking free from the constraints of rigid thinking and allowing oneself to explore the uncharted territory of possibilities.


Essence of the topic:

Visionary decisions are born where intuition and logic converge. They blend gut feelings with rational analysis, creating a dynamic approach that recognizes possibilities beyond pure reason, resulting in innovative and impactful choices.


Thesis statement:

Try to discuss the given concepts like vision, intuition and logic in detail. Then discuss why relying solely on logic or intuition has limitations. Discuss how they complement each other. Use examples to illustrate.


Vision entails a commitment to the greater good, whereas ambition is predominantly self-oriented: Understanding Vision

  • It’s disheartening to witness a shift towards greater ambition and a decline in visionary thinking in our society. As we prioritise personal success, recognition, and material gain, we risk losing sight of the bigger picture – the well-being of our communities and the world as a whole.
  • Ambition: Ambition, while focused on personal success and achievement, may not inherently prioritise the well-being of others. It’s often associated with personal goals, such as career advancement, wealth, or re While ambition can lead to individual success, it may not necessarily lead to the betterment of society or a direct concern for the well-being of others.
  • Visionary thinking, on the other hand, encourages us to dream beyond ourselves. It challenges us to envision a future where our actions contribute to the greater good. Visionaries strive to tackle complex issues, from social injustices to environmental crises, with innovative and holistic sol Their work is driven by a sense of purpose and a commitment to leaving the world better than they found it.
  • Ambition, while important, should not come at the cost of neglecting the broader needs of society. When we focus solely on individual achievements, we risk perpetuating a culture of self-centeredness and short-term thinking. It’s as if we’re chasing after personal accolades without considering the lasting impact of our actions on others and the environment.
  • We need leaders and individuals who see beyond their own ambitions and are willing to invest in causes that benefit all of humanity.


Understanding intuition and logic

  • Intuition refers to the ability to understand or know something without the need for conscious reasoning or explicit evidence. It often involves a “gut feeling” or a sense of inner knowing.
  • Intuition is often rapid and automatic, relying on subtle cues, past experiences, emotions, and subconscious processe It can provide insights, make connections, and guide decision-making in situations where logical analysis may be challenging.
  • For instance, Intuitive decisions might include trusting someone based on your initial impression of their character, sensing danger in an unfamiliar environment, or recognizing a solution to a problem without being able to explain how you arrived at it.
  • Logic is a systematic and rational approach to problem-solving and decision-making. It involves using evidence, reasoning, and structured thinking to reach conclusions or make inferences.
  • Logical thinking is typically deliberate and based on a clear process of evaluating premises, applying rules of inference, and drawing valid conclusions. It emphasises objectivity, consistency, and the use of evidence and critical analysis.
  • Examples: Logical decisions might include using mathematical principles to solve a complex equation, following a step-by-step process to troubleshoot a technical issue, or making decisions based on empirical data and statistical analysis.


Relying solely on either logic or intuition in decision-making can have limitations

  • Relying solely on logic:
    • Relying only on logic can lead to a narrow and purely analytical perspective. It may overlook important emotional, social, or intuitive aspects of a situation that can be crucial for making well-rounded decisions.
    • Ignoring Gut Feelings: Dismissing intuition entirely means neglecting valuable gut feelings or instincts that can provide insights or warnings, especially in complex or ambiguous situations where concrete evidence may be lacking.
    • Overthinking: An overreliance on logic can lead to overthinking, analysis paralysis, or excessive consideration of irrelevant details. This can delay decisions and lead to unnecessary complexity.
    • Failure to Adapt: Logic-based decisions may not always account for rapidly changing or unpredictable circumstances. Intuition often helps individuals adapt and make quick decisions when needed.
  • Relying solely on intuition
    • Risk of Bias: Relying solely on intuition can introduce bias and subjectivity into decisions. It might lead to judgments based on personal preferences, stereotypes, or emotional reactions rather than objective analysis.
    • Inconsistencies: Intuition can be inconsistent, leading to different decisions based on mood, stress levels, or other transient factors. Logic, with its systematic approach, offers more consistency.
    • Incomplete Information: Logic may require extensive data and information, which may not always be available. Intuition can fill gaps by providing insights based on incomplete or vague information.
  • Some problems are multifaceted and require a combination of analytical thinking (logic) and creative problem-solving (intuition) to arrive at effective solutions.
  • Emotional Considerations: Human decisions are often influenced by emotions, and completely ignoring them (as in pure logic) or letting them dominate (as in pure intuition) can lead to suboptimal outcomes.


Visionary decision-making happens at the intersection of intuition and logic: Some illustration

  • Economic Reforms in 1991:
    • In 1991, India faced a severe economic crisis. The government, under the leadership of then-Finance Minister Dr Manmohan Singh, made a visionary decision to liberalise the economy.
    • This decision combined intuition, as they had to take bold steps, with logic, as they implemented market-oriented reforms.
    • It ultimately paved the way for India’s economic growth
  • Mahatma Gandhi’s Salt March (1930):
    • Gandhi’s decision to lead the Salt March was both intuitive and logical.
    • Intuitively, he understood that a nonviolent protest against the British salt monopoly would resonate with the masses.
    • Logically, he knew that salt was a necessity for every Indian, making it a powerful symbol of resistance.
  • Atal Bihari Vajpayee’s Pokhran-II Nuclear Tests (1998):
    • Vajpayee’s decision to conduct nuclear tests was a combination of intuition and logic.
    • Intuitively, he believed that these tests would bolster India’s security and status in the world.
    • Logically, it was seen as a necessary step to maintain regional stability and deter potential adversaries.
  • These examples illustrate how Indian leaders combined their intuition with strategic thinking and logical analysis to make decisions that had far-reaching consequences in the country’s history.



History is filled with examples of creative breakthroughs that defied conventional wisdom and rationality. Think of great artists, inventors, and visionaries who challenged the status quo and reshaped our world. They often did so by daring to step out of the iron cage of pure reason and letting their intuition, inspiration, and unconventional thinking guide them. The key is to strike a balance, allowing room for both structured thinking and imaginative exploration.

/ ESSAY 2023 Section A

3. Not all who wander are lost. 



Society tends to value stability and conformity, and people are often hesitant to step outside their comfort zones. However, it’s worth noting that some of the most significant advancements and personal growth come from taking unconventional paths. Innovation, creativity, and personal fulfilment often flourish when individuals are willing to challenge the status quo and pursue their unique journeys.


Essence of the topic:

This statement conveys that exploring unconventional paths in life doesn’t signify aimlessness. Some individuals choose to wander intentionally, seeking purpose, self-discovery, and unique experiences, challenging the notion that deviation from the norm implies being lost or without direction.


Thesis statement:

Explain what you understand by the topic. With illustrations and reasoning arguments justify why you think that all those who wander are not lost.


Society often places a significant emphasis on having a clear, predefined path in life

  • Security and Stability: One of the primary reasons society promotes a predefined path is the belief that it offers a sense of security and stability. Following a traditional life trajectory, such as completing education, securing a stable job, and starting a family, is seen as a way to minimize financial and personal uncertainties.
  • Norms and Expectations: Social norms and expectations play a substantial role in shaping individual choices. There is often pressure to conform to what is considered “normal” or “acceptable” in terms of career, relationships, and lifestyle. Deviating from these norms can lead to social judgment or disapproval.
  • Peer Influence: Peer pressure can be a powerful force in steering individuals toward predefined paths. People are often influenced by the choices and behaviors of their peers, leading them to pursue similar life trajectories.
  • Fear of Failure: Society’s emphasis on predefined paths can be fueled by a fear of failure. Taking unconventional routes can be risky, and the fear of not meeting societal or personal expectations can discourage individuals from exploring alternative paths.
  • It’s important to note that while predefined paths may offer stability and a sense of order, they may not suit everyone. People have diverse aspirations, talents, and interests, and deviating from the norm can lead to personal fulfilment and innovation.


Some individuals intentionally choose to wander in life

  • Seeking Purpose: Wandering allows them to explore diverse experiences and find a sense of purpose that may not be achievable through traditional routes. They want to live a life aligned with their true calling.
  • Self-Discovery: Wandering provides opportunities for self-discovery. It involves pushing boundaries, trying new things, and gaining a deeper understanding of their strengths, weaknesses, and values.
  • Embracing Uniqueness: These wanderers value uniqueness and individuality. They believe that the journey itself, filled with diverse encounters and adventures, is where they uncover their own unique identity.
  • Challenging Conformity: They may challenge societal norms and expectations, preferring a path less travelled. This can lead to personal growth and the pursuit of unconventional and fulfilling lifestyles.
  • Embracing Uncertainty: Intentional wandering means being comfortable with uncertainty. These individuals understand that life’s most profound moments often occur when stepping into the unknown.


Not all those who wander are lost; some are discontent with the status quo

  • Discontent with the status quo often stems from a deep-seated desire for personal fulfilment. Some people find that conforming to societal norms and expectations does not align with their true passions, values, or sense of purpose. In response, they choose to wander and explore alternative paths to find greater satisfaction.
  • Seeking Authenticity: Many individuals feel that the status quo may require them to suppress their true selves or conform to roles that don’t resonate with their authentic identities. Wandering allows them to break free from these constraints and discover and express their true selves.
  • Challenge of Mediocrity: Discontent with the status quo can also arise from a desire to challenge mediocrity. Some individuals are driven to excel and make a difference in their lives and societ They may wander in search of opportunities to pursue excellence and push the boundaries of what is considered normal or average.
  • Social Change and Justice: Discontent with social injustices or inequalities can motivate individuals to wander from the established order. Activists and advocates often challenge prevailing norms and fight for a fairer, more equitable society. Their discontent fuels their commitment to change.


Economic disparities push both the privileged and the less fortunate towards exploration.

  • Too Many Choices for Some:
    • Privilege and Opportunities: Individuals from affluent socioeconomic backgrounds often have access to a wide range of educational and career opportunities. They may have the means to pursue higher education, travel, and explore different career paths.
    • Exploration and Self-Discovery: With more resources at their disposal, they can afford to take risks and explore their interests. This can lead to wandering as they sample various experiences to find their true calling or passion.
    • Entrepreneurship: Some individuals from privileged backgrounds may have the financial security to start their businesses or pursue entrepreneurial ventures, which often involve breaking away from traditional career paths.
  • Too Little Choices for Many:
    • Limited Resources: On the other hand, individuals from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds may face limited access to quality education, job opportunities, and resource
    • Restricted Options: Their life choices may be constrained by economic circumstances, making it difficult to explore different paths or take risks. This limitation can lead to a sense of being trapped in their current circumstance
    • Necessity Over Exploration: Due to financial pressures, many individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds may prioritise stable employment over exploring their passions or pursuing higher education.
  • Wandering as a Response:
    • Quest for Mobility: Some individuals, regardless of their background, may engage in wandering as a response to their circumstances. Wandering can be an attempt to break free from the limitations imposed by their socioeconomic status.
    • Search for Better Opportunities: Those with fewer choices may wander in search of better opportunities, whether that means moving to a different location for work or exploring alternative career paths.
    • Aspiration for Change: Wandering can also be driven by the aspiration for socioeconomic change. People may explore new avenues to improve their financial situation and provide better opportunities for themselves and their familie

Life’s profound depths are unveiled to explorers, not conformists

  • Scientific Discovery: Throughout history, groundbreaking scientific discoveries have often been made by exploratory thinkers who questioned established theories and ventured into uncharted territories.
    • For instance, Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity challenged conventional physics and opened up new dimensions of understanding the universe.
  • Artistic Innovation: In the world of art, exploratory artists have pushed boundaries and redefined creative norms.
    • Pablo Picasso’s exploration of Cubism revolutionized the art world, revealing new perspectives on form and perception.
  • Entrepreneurial Success: Successful entrepreneurs often break away from traditional business models.
    • Innovators like Steve Jobs, co-founder of Apple, explored unconventional approaches to technology design, leading to transformative products that changed the way we live and communicate.
  • Personal Growth: On a personal level, individuals who explore different cultures, travel to new places, or take on challenging experiences often discover profound depths within themselves.
    • Travel, for example, can broaden one’s perspective, revealing the rich diversity of the world and the importance of empathy and understanding.
  • Social Change: Advocates for social change and justice are often explorers in their own right. They challenge societal norms and work to unveil the injustices and inequalities that may remain hidden to conformists.
    • Figures like Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr. and Nelson Mandela explored paths toward non-violence, civil rights and equality that had not been widely embraced.



Intentional wandering is a deliberate choice to lead a life rich in purpose, self-exploration, and unique experiences, challenging conventional notions of success and fulfilment. Throughout history, some of the most groundbreaking ideas and achievements have emerged from individuals who dared to stray from the beaten path. When we encourage and support diverse forms of exploration, we create an environment where innovation can flourish, leading to progress and advancements in various fields.

/ ESSAY 2023 Section A

4. Inspiration for creativity springs from the effort to look for the magical in the mundane. 



We sometimes forget that the mundane can hold just as much enchantment if we take the time to appreciate it. We miss out on the beauty of our neighbourhoods, the simple joys of everyday life, and the opportunity to find magic in the ordinary. It’s time to shift our perspective and recognize that adventure and creativity are not limited to far-off places; they can be discovered right at home if we open our eyes to the possibilities around us.


Essence of the topic:

It means that creativity is born from the endeavour to uncover enchantment within everyday simplicity, where the ordinary becomes a wellspring of inspiration and innovation.


Thesis statement: Explain what you understand by the statement. Explain the concept of creativity. Explain how creativity springs from finding magic in the mundane with some illustrations. Discuss Why we are not able to find it in today’s busy world.


Understanding Creativity

  • Creativity is a multifaceted and complex human trait that involves the generation of novel and valuable ideas, solutions, or expressions. It’s the ability to think divergently, outside conventional boundaries, and create something new or unique.
    1. Originality: Creativity often involves coming up with ideas, concepts, or solutions that are original and haven’t been widely explored before. It’s about breaking away from established patterns and norms.
    2. Value: Creativity isn’t just about novelty; it’s also about generating ideas or creations that have practical or aesthetic value. These ideas or creations can enhance our understanding, solve problems, inspire emotions, or simply entertain.
    3. Divergent Thinking: Creativity embraces divergent thinking, which means exploring multiple possibilities and perspectives. It encourages the generation of a wide range of ideas, even seemingly unrelated ones, and then connects them in new and meaningful ways.
    4. Imagination: Creativity often draws from the power of imagination. It involves envisioning things that don’t exist in the current reality and bringing them to life through various forms, such as art, literature, science, or innovation.
    5. Problem-Solving: Creativity plays a crucial role in problem-solving. It allows individuals to approach challenges with innovative solutions, adapt to new situations, and find novel ways to overcome obstacles


Discovering the wonder in the ordinary requires meditation, but in today’s constant busyness, we rarely find moments for such reflection.

  • In today’s fast-paced world filled with constant distractions and obligations, finding the time and mental space to meditate on the magic in the mundane can be a significant challenge.
  • Digital Distractions: The prevalence of smartphones, social media, and the constant barrage of notifications has made it challenging for people to disconnect and focus on the present moment. This constant connectivity can divert our attention away from the mundane aspects of life.
  • Busy Lifestyles: Modern life is often characterised by busy schedules, demanding jobs, and numerous commitments. This leaves little time for individuals to pause and reflect on the beauty of the everyday.
  • Instant Gratification: Society’s emphasis on instant gratification and the pursuit of novelty can lead people to seek excitement in external experiences rather than finding wonder in the familiar.
  • Consumer Culture: Advertisements and consumer culture often promote the idea that happiness and magic can be purchased through products or experiences, encouraging people to constantly seek the next big thing.
  • Stress and Anxiety: The pressures of daily life, along with the constant stream of information, can contribute to stress and anxiety. This mental state can make it challenging to slow down and appreciate the mundane.


Poets, artists, and scientists have often drawn creative inspiration from finding magic in the mundane

  • Haiku Poetry: Japanese haiku poets find beauty and depth in everyday moments, such as a dewdrop on a leaf or the sound of a distant stream. These simple observations become the subjects of profound poems that capture the essence of a moment.
  • Nature Poetry: Poets like William Wordsworth celebrated the ordinary scenes of nature, like daffodils or a solitary cloud, and used them as metaphors to convey deeper emotions and insights.
  • Impressionist painters like Claude Monet found inspiration in ordinary scenes, such as water lilies in a pond or the play of light on haystacks. They captured the fleeting and atmospheric qualities of these moments, turning them into timeless works of art.
  • A Pair of Shoes :
    • In this painting, Van Gogh takes a pair of worn-out shoes, a seemingly ordinary and utilitarian object, and transforms them into a powerful and emotionally charged work of art.
    • The careful attention to detail, the use of colour and texture, and the way he captures the essence of these well-worn shoes evoke a sense of history, hardship, and the human experience. It goes beyond a simple depiction of footwear; it becomes a window into the lives of the people who wore them.
  • Artists like Andy Warhol elevated everyday objects like Campbell’s soup cans and Coca-Cola bottles to iconic status through their art, prompting viewers to see the mundane in a new and thought-provoking way.
  • Charles Darwin’s fascination with the diverse forms of plant life during his travels on the HMS Beagle led to his revolutionary theory of evolution by natural selection. His ability to find magic in the biodiversity of plants transformed our understanding of life on Earth.


Profound revelations arise not from distant journeys but from reimagining the familiar.

  • Often, we take the familiar for granted and assume that true discovery lies in exploring new and distant horizons. However, when we approach the familiar with a new perspective, it can reveal hidden complexities, nuances, and depths that we hadn’t noticed before.
  • Expanding Knowledge: Instead of always seeking the unknown, we can deepen our understanding and expand our knowledge by delving into what we already have but haven’t fully explored. This can lead to profound insights and discoveries that enrich our lives and advance our understanding of the world.
  • Everyday Life: It‘s not limited to academic or scientific contexts. This principle applies to everyday life as well. Finding new perspectives in our relationships, personal experiences, or daily routines can lead to personal growth and a deeper appreciation of the world around us.
  • Appreciating the Mundane: As discussed earlier, it relates to finding magic in the mundane. Even the most ordinary aspects of life can hold hidden wonders when viewed with fresh eyes and an open mind.



The capacity for discovery and wonder is not limited by geographical distance but is, in fact, within our reach every day. By cultivating a curious and open-minded attitude, we can find the extraordinary within the ordinary and make true discoveries in our immediate surroundings and within ourselves.

/ ESSAY 2023 Section A




5. Girls are weighed down by restrictions, boys with demands – two equally harmful disciplines.




In societies worldwide, the profound impact of gender expectations and societal pressures on the lives of girls and boys continues to be a pressing concern. Recent years have witnessed powerful movements and incidents that spotlight the enduring relevance of this issue. The global #MeToo movement, sparked by women who courageously shared their experiences of harassment and assault, has exposed the deeply ingrained restrictions that women often confront. Simultaneously, the evolving concept of toxic masculinity and the toll it takes on men’s mental health and emotional well-being exemplify the demands placed on boys and men within society.


Essence of the topic:

The quote from Simone de Beauvoir conveys that that societal pressures and expectations based on gender roles can be equally harmful to both girls and boys. It underscores the need to address and challenge these harmful gender norms and expectations that limit individuals’ opportunities, perpetuate inequalities, and impact their mental and emotional well-being.


Thesis statement:

By examining recent examples and their consequences, this essay will demonstrate the urgent need to dismantle harmful gender norms and promote a more inclusive and equitable society that allows individuals of all genders to thrive without being weighed down by societal expectations.


Girls: Weighed Down By Restrictions

  • Quote: “The question isn’t who’s going to let me, it’s who’s going to stop me.” – Ayn Rand
  • Educational restrictions: Girls often face limitations in accessing quality education due to societal norms. In some regions, girls are discouraged from pursuing higher education, and their access to schools may be restricted.
  • The Malala Yousafzai case, where the Pakistani education activist was targeted by the Taliban for advocating girls’ education.
  • Career aspirations: Gender stereotypes and expectations can limit girls’ career choices. They may be discouraged from pursuing careers in fields traditionally dominated by men and limited to “pink-collar jobs”.
  • The gender pay gap in many countries reflects the limitations placed on girls’ career opportunities and wage disparities. Women earn only 81 cents for every dollar men earn hourly, a significant gender pay gap, according to the UN.
  • Cultural and social norms: Cultural norms may impose restrictions on girls’ clothing, behaviour, and interactions, leading to a lack of freedom and personal agency.
  • The debate over clothing choices, such as the recent Hijab-Uniform controversy, highlights how restrictions on girls’ attire can become a societal issue.
  • Higher prevalence of malnutrition as well as body image issues in the female population due to restrictions on food habits and looks.
  • Early marriage and parenthood: In some societies, girls are forced into early marriages and motherhood, curtailing their opportunities for personal development and education. Thus, they face restrictions ‘from womb to tomb’.
  • Limited mobility: Restrictions on girls’ mobility, such as curfews or limitations on travelling alone, limit their independence and experiences.

Boys: Weighed Down With Demands

  • Quote: “Boys need healthy self-esteem. They need love…Patriarchy will not heal them.” — Bell Hooks
  • Traditional masculine expectations: Boys often face societal demands to conform to traditional norms, which can include suppressing emotions, showing dominance, and avoiding vulnerability.
  • The pressure on boys to avoid expressing emotions such as sadness or fear, as seen in the phrase “boys don’t cry,” exemplifies traditional masculinity expectations.
  • Academic and career demands: Boys are frequently pushed to excel academically and achieve career success, sometimes at the expense of their mental health and well-being.
  • Physical appearance and fitness demands: Boys may face demands to maintain a certain physical appearance or level of fitness to conform to societal ideals of masculinity.
  • The prevalence of body image issues and eating disorders among boys is driven by pressure to have a “perfect” physique.
  • Pressure to provide: Boys may feel immense pressure to become primary providers for their families, which can be emotionally and economically burdensome.
  • In some cultures, boys are groomed from a young age to be breadwinners, leading to high levels of stress and responsibility. This is even seen in Gross enrollment ratio (GER) data in India as boys’ GER is lower with progressive higher stages of education.

Breaking Free: Social Hindrances and Overcoming Them

  • Quote: “The power to question is the basis of all human progress.” – Indira Gandhi
  • Underlying factors: Gender-based restrictions and demands often stem from deeply ingrained cultural and societal norms.
  • This is bound even in religion and ancient scriptures as patriarchal gender roles have been defined in works like Qur’an and Manusmriti.
  • Current social hindrances: Contemporary challenges include the persistent influence of harmful gender stereotypes and biases that affect various aspects of life, such as employment, leadership opportunities, and media representation.
  • There is a resurgence of social conservatism with social media influence like the ‘Tradwife movement
  • Role of socio-religious reforms: Throughout history, socio-religious reform movements have sought to reinterpret religious texts and traditions to promote gender equality. This must be done once again in current times to reflect on the current gendered society.
  • This is visible in the gradual acceptance of the LGBTQ+ community by religious establishments like the Catholic church.
  • Education is empowerment: Investing in girls’ education provides them with the knowledge and skills to break free from restrictions while sensitising boys from a young age and freeing them of normative demands.
  • Beti Bachao Beti Padhao initiative of the government has seen laudable success in terms of girl child education. Critical thinking in education to remove gender stereotypes must be furthered by the implementation of the New Education Policy 2020.
  • Role of various media: Media platforms, when used positively, can challenge stereotypes and promote gender equality. Objectification of women and men, and derogatory media representation must become a thing of the past.
  • The recent trend of allowing “Plus-sized” models and diverse representation in popular media has helped the case.


As we navigate this path, we must embrace the words of Alice Walker: “The most common way people give up their power is by thinking they don’t have any.” The power to challenge and change these harmful norms is within each of us, and it is through collective effort that we can overcome and transcend these limitations to build a more just and equal society for all.

/ ESSAY 2023 Section B

6. Mathematics is the music of reason.



Srinivasa Ramanujan, the brilliant Indian mathematician born in 1887, embodies the profound connection between mathematics and human reason. His life story illustrates how mathematics transcends conventional boundaries, becoming an intricate symphony of insight and imagination.

Growing up in colonial India with limited formal education, Ramanujan’s innate mathematical talent blossomed against all odds. Despite his humble beginnings, his relentless pursuit of mathematical truths led to the creation of remarkable theorems, identities, and conjectures, recorded meticulously in his notebooks. In 1913, his work caught the attention of British mathematician G.H. Hardy, marking the beginning of a transformative collaboration. Ramanujan’s contributions to number theory, mock modular forms, and modular functions were groundbreaking, unveiling a world of mathematical beauty and complexity.

Ramanujan’s story encapsulates the statement that “Mathematics is the music of reason.”


Essence of the topic:

The essence is brought out by recognizing that mathematics serves as a unique bridge between the world of reason and the world of imagination. Just as music evokes emotions and tells stories, mathematics unravels the narratives of the universe, allowing us to grasp the intricate interplay of patterns and relationships that govern our reality.


Thesis statement:

This essay will progress by first delving into the historical roots of mathematics as a fundamental tool for problem-solving and scientific advancement. Subsequently, it will explore the creative aspects of mathematics, highlighting its role in inspiring innovation and artistic expression similar to music. Ultimately, it can be concluded that mathematics is a universal language with inherent beauty that explains rationality and the universe.


Mathematics: History, Purpose, and Impact

  • Quote: “Nature is written in mathematical language.” — Galileo Galilei
  • What it is: Mathematics, often described as the “queen of sciences,” has a rich history that spans millennia, with India playing a significant role in its development. It is the systematic study of numbers, quantities, shapes, and patterns.
  • Rich history:
  • Mathematics in Ancient Civilizations: In India, mathematical achievements date back to the Indus Valley Civilization, where an advanced system of weights and measures was in use. Ancient Indian mathematicians, including Aryabhata and Brahmagupta, made significant contributions to number theory and algebra.
  • The Arabic Renaissance: Indian mathematical texts were translated into Arabic during the Islamic Golden Age, contributing to the development of algebra and the spread of mathematical knowledge.
  • The European Enlightenment: European mathematicians, influenced by Indian and Arabic mathematical ideas, made groundbreaking advancements, including the development of calculus by Newton and Leibniz.
  • Problem-Solving Tool: Mathematics is a universal tool for solving complex problems in various fields, from physics and engineering to economics and cryptography.
  • Scientific Advancement: It plays a pivotal role in scientific discoveries, enabling us to model natural phenomena, predict outcomes, and unravel the mysteries of the cosmos.
  • Technological Innovation: The development of computers and digital technology relies heavily on mathematical principles, driving innovation in communication, healthcare, and transportation.
  • Economic Growth: Financial institutions and markets rely on mathematical models for risk assessment, investment strategies, and economic forecasting, impacting global economies.

Mathematics & Reason: The Music

  • Quote: “Mathematics is, in its way, the poetry of logical ideas. ” — Albert Einstein
  • Boundless discipline: Just as music has a seemingly endless array of melodies, harmonies, and rhythms, mathematics boasts an infinite realm of theorems, equations, and patterns waiting to be discovered.
  • Discovery or invention: Some mathematicians argue that mathematical concepts exist independently, waiting to be unearthed, much like a composer discovering a new melody. Others view mathematics as a human invention, a carefully constructed symphony of abstract ideas, akin to composing a piece of music.
  • The Language of Science and Technology: From the laws of motion formulated by Sir Isaac Newton to Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity, mathematics provides the grammar and vocabulary to express the fundamental principles that govern the physical world. Thus, it is the language of logic beautifully expressed as the music of reason.
  • Artistic expression in mathematics: While mathematics is often associated with logic and rigour, it also possesses an artistic dimension. From Da Vinci to Jacobus Verhoeff, many artists have been inspired by mathematics to create art.
  • Examples:
  • The Golden Ratio: It is an irrational number approximately equal to 1.618. It appears in various aspects of art, architecture, and nature, including the proportions of the Parthenon in Athens and the spiral patterns of nautilus shells.
  • Fibonacci Sequence: The Fibonacci sequence is a mathematical pattern where each number is the sum of the two preceding ones (e.g., 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, …). This sequence is found in nature, such as in the growth patterns of sunflowers and pinecones.
  • Fractals: Fractals are complex, self-replicating geometric patterns that can be generated through iterative mathematical equations. Examples include the Mandelbrot set and the Koch snowflake.
  • Game Theory: Game theory applies mathematical concepts to analyze decision-making in strategic situations. It has applications in economics, political science, and evolutionary biology.

Math Today: An Evolving Symphony of Ideas

  • Quote: “Mathematics knows no races or geographic boundaries; for mathematics, the cultural world is one country.” – David Hilbert
  • Global collaboration: Mathematicians from diverse backgrounds collaborate on research projects, contributing to a collective pool of knowledge. For instance, the collaborative nature of the Polymath Project aims to solve complex mathematical problems.
  • Physical science and technology: Mathematics plays a crucial role in solving global issues like climate change with modelling. In other areas like space exploration, it is proving to be foundational human knowledge with renewed space race to the moon with missions like Chandrayaan-3 and Artemis.
  • Awards and recognition: The Fields Medal, often described as the “Nobel Prize of Mathematics,” is awarded to mathematicians under the age of 40 for outstanding contributions. Such recognition promotes this beautiful discipline.
  • Spread of Reason and Logic: Mathematics education transcends borders through digital platforms, open-access textbooks, and international math competitions. The International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO) brings together young mathematical talents. Organizations like the Global Math Project aim to share the joy of mathematics with people of all ages and backgrounds worldwide.
  • Inclusivity and Diversity: Organizations like the Association for Women in Mathematics (AWM) and initiatives like “Girls in STEM” are working to break gender and cultural barriers, ensuring that mathematics truly knows no boundaries.


“Mathematics is not about numbers, equations, computations, or algorithms: it is about understanding.” – William Paul Thurston

As we appreciate the elegance and universality of mathematics, we recognize that its symphony of ideas harmonizes with the human spirit’s quest for knowledge and understanding. In this timeless endeavour, mathematics remains an instrument through which we unlock the mysteries of the world and compose a collective melody of enlightenment and progress.

/ ESSAY 2023 Section B

7. A society that has more justice is a society that needs less charity.



In the realm of justice and societal welfare, the words of philosopher John Rawls resonate with profound significance: “Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of systems of thought.” Rawls, a prominent figure in political philosophy, underscored the paramount importance of justice as the foundational principle upon which harmonious and equitable societies are built.

Justice, as he contended, stands as the foremost virtue in social institutions—a virtue that, when upheld, can alleviate the need for excessive charity. Charity, though a noble and compassionate endeavour, often addresses the symptoms of societal injustices rather than their root causes. However, Rawls’s insight prompts us to consider that a just society strives not merely to provide for the disadvantaged but also to rectify the systemic issues that breed inequality, poverty, and social disparities.


Essence of the topic:

It underscores the idea that while charity serves as a compassionate response to immediate needs, a just society seeks to address the systemic issues that give rise to those needs. In essence, the more just a society is, the less it relies on charity as a means of mitigating inequality, poverty, and social disparities.


Thesis statement:

In this essay, we delve into the profound correlation between justice and charity, exploring how societies that prioritize justice can significantly reduce their reliance on charitable acts.


Justice in Society:

  • Quote: “Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.” – Martin Luther King Jr.
  • Defining Justice: Justice, at its core, is the fair and impartial treatment of individuals and groups within a society. It encompasses notions of equality, human rights, and the rule of law.
  • Philosophers of Justice: Philosophers like John Rawls, Amartya Sen, and Martha Nussbaum have contributed significantly to our understanding of justice. Rawls’s theory of justice as fairness and Sen’s capability approach offer frameworks for creating just societies.
  • Fostering Equality: Justice serves as the cornerstone of an equitable society. It ensures that all individuals have equal access to opportunities, resources, and protections, regardless of their background or circumstances.
  • Legal Justice: Legal systems are designed to uphold justice by ensuring that laws are applied consistently and fairly. Examples of legal justice include the right to a fair trial and the presumption of innocence until proven guilty.
  • Social Justice: Social justice addresses systemic inequalities and discrimination. It strives to rectify historical injustices and create a society where everyone has a chance to thrive. Initiatives like affirmative action aim to achieve social justice.
  • Economic Justice: Economic justice seeks to reduce disparities in wealth and income. Progressive taxation, minimum wage laws, and social welfare programs are mechanisms that promote economic justice.

Relationship between Justice and Charity:

  • Quote: “Charity is injurious unless it helps the recipient to become independent of it.” – John D. Rockefeller
  • Complementary but distinct concepts: While justice focuses on systemic fairness and equitable treatment, charity addresses immediate needs through voluntary acts of giving.
  • Charity as a response to injustice: Often, charity arises from the recognition of injustices within society. It provides temporary relief to those who have been disadvantaged by systemic inequalities.
  • Charity’s limitations: Charity, while compassionate, does not address the root causes of inequality and suffering. It can perpetuate dependency and fail to rectify systemic injustices.
  • Justice as a preventive measure: A just society seeks to prevent the need for excessive charity by addressing inequalities, poverty, and social disparities through fair laws, policies, and practices.
  • Equal access to basic needs: Justice ensures that all individuals have equal access to basic needs like education, healthcare, and employment, reducing the reliance on charity to meet these needs.
  • Examples:
  • The civil rights movement in the United States sought justice for racial inequalities, eventually leading to policy changes that reduced the need for charity.
  • Countries with robust social welfare systems, such as Sweden and Denmark, have lower poverty rates and, consequently, less reliance on charity.

Critical view:

  • Quote: “Justice delayed is justice denied. In the meantime, charity can provide solace to those in need.”
  • Complementary roles: Charity and justice often operate in tandem, with each playing a distinct yet complementary role in addressing societal issues. While justice seeks systemic change, the charity provides immediate relief.
  • Addressing urgent needs: In situations of dire need, such as natural disasters or humanitarian emergencies, the charity provides swift assistance that justice-oriented policies may not be equipped to deliver in the short term.
  • Limitations of justice: Achieving justice can be a lengthy and complex process, often entangled in bureaucratic hurdles, legal proceedings, and political challenges. In the interim, charity can alleviate suffering.
  • Philanthropy’s role: Charitable organizations and philanthropists often bridge the gap between charity and justice by advocating for systemic changes while addressing immediate needs.
  • Examples:
  • In cases of mass displacement due to conflict or disaster, charities like the Red Cross provide essential aid.
  • NGOs like Akshaya Patra are co-opted even by the government to offer charity to those in immediate need, while long-term solutions like affordable housing policies and social safety nets are being worked upon.


“Charity is no substitute for justice withheld.” – Saint Augustine

In the grand goal of societal betterment, both justice and charity have their rightful places. Justice provides the foundation upon which we build lasting change, while charity extends a compassionate embrace to those in immediate distress. Together, they harmonize to create a world where suffering is alleviated not only through benevolence but through systemic fairness and equal opportunity.

/ ESSAY 2023 Section B

8. Education is what remains after one has forgotten what one has learned in school.


 Introduction: Imagine two individuals: one is a brilliant mathematician who can recite complex formulas and theorems but struggles to adapt to the demands of the real world. The other, perhaps less academically distinguished, possesses an uncanny ability to solve practical problems, connect with people, and navigate life’s challenges with grace and resilience. These traits match with personalities of S. Ramanujan and Thomas Edison. While both may have received formal education and achieved much in life, it is the latter who exemplifies the profound truth behind the quote, “Education is what remains after one has forgotten what one has learned in school.”

This quote, often attributed to Albert Einstein, underscores a fundamental aspect of education that transcends mere rote memorization.


Essence of the topic:

The quote from Albert Einstein centres on the enduring value of education. It asserts that education is not confined to textbooks and examinations but encompasses the development of critical thinking, problem-solving abilities, and a thirst for lifelong learning.


Thesis statement:

This essay explores the profound truth behind the quote, delving into the enduring significance of education beyond the confines of the classroom. Critically, it will also examine how education equips individuals with the tools to adapt, evolve, and contribute to society, even as they forget specific details learned in school.


Life-long Learning: Education Beyond School

  • Quote: “Education is not preparation for life; education is life itself.” – John Dewey
  • Curiosity: Lifelong learners are fuelled by curiosity. They remain inquisitive throughout their lives, asking questions, seeking answers, and exploring the world around them.
  • Practical and vocational knowledge: Education goes beyond theoretical knowledge when individuals acquire practical skills like managing personal finances and vocational expertise like handy-work and civic duties.
  • Awareness over knowing: Lifelong learners prioritize awareness over simply knowing facts. They strive to understand the underlying principles and contexts behind information, enabling them to apply knowledge in various situations.
  • Positive social impact: “Educated” Individuals engage in community service, advocacy, and philanthropy, using their knowledge and skills to address societal challenges.
  • Examples:
  • Visionary entrepreneurs like Jeff Bezos and Elon Musk continuously adapt to the ever-evolving tech industry.
  • Environmental activists like Greta Thunberg educate themselves outside of the school curriculum about climate change, inspiring global climate action.

Critical view: Importance of Formal Education

  • Quote: “Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.” – Nelson Mandela
  • Structured learning: Formal education provides a structured curriculum designed by experts to impart essential knowledge and skills. It offers a foundation on which individuals can build their understanding of various subjects.
  • Credibility and credentials: Many professions require formal education as a prerequisite for entry. Degrees and certifications serve as credentials.
  • Access to resources: Formal educational institutions offer access to resources that may be challenging to obtain through self-education. Libraries, laboratories, specialized equipment, and expert instructors enhance the learning experience. Interactions with peers, professors, and alumni can lead to mentorship, collaboration, and job opportunities.
  • Research and innovation: Formal education often includes research components that contribute to advancements in various fields. Universities and research institutions are hubs of innovation, driving progress in science, technology, and academia.
  • Legal and ethical training: Some professions, such as law and medicine, require formal education to ensure practitioners are well-versed in legal and ethical responsibilities. This helps safeguard the well-being of individuals and society.
  • Examples:
  • Medical doctors undergo years of formal education, including medical school and residencies, to ensure they possess the knowledge and skills necessary to save lives and promote health.
  • Engineers receive formal training to design and build infrastructure, ensuring safety and functionality in the construction of bridges, buildings, and technology.
  • Lawyers acquire legal expertise through formal education and bar examinations, allowing them to uphold justice and navigate the legal system effectively.

Future of education:

  • Critical thinking: The future of education is to emphasize critical thinking, problem-solving, and creativity. Students are being encouraged to analyse complex issues, think critically, and propose innovative solutions.
  • Practical and vocational training: Vocational and skills-based programs prepare students for diverse careers, bridging the gap between education and employment.
  • Technological enablement: Technology plays a central role in the education of the future. Virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), artificial intelligence (AI), and immersive simulations enhance learning experiences, making education engaging and interactive.
  • Internet as a repository: The Internet serves as a vast repository of knowledge and resources. Open-access educational content, including lectures, e-books, and research materials, is readily available to learners worldwide.
  • Transnational collaboration: Educational institutions and students engage in transnational collaboration. Online platforms facilitate global partnerships, enabling students to work with peers and experts from diverse cultures and backgrounds.
  • Examples:
  • Collaborative online projects like Wikipedia showcase the potential for global knowledge sharing and transnational collaboration.
  • Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) like Coursera and India’s Swayam have already revolutionized online education, offering courses from top universities and institutions worldwide.


In the words of Mahatma Gandhi, “Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever.” As we move forward, let us embrace the idea that education is an ongoing process, a lifelong companion that empowers us to face the unknown, conquer challenges, and unlock the limitless potential of the human mind. The future of education invites us to live and learn with a sense of purpose and curiosity, recognizing that the pursuit of knowledge is not bound by time or age.

/ ESSAY 2023 Section B


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