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Old Parliament Building

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: IE, TH

 Context: Parliament proceedings will soon shift to the new Parliament Building

The Sansad Bhavan is India’s parliamentary seat, home to the Lok Sabha (lower house) and Rajya Sabha (upper house).


Historical aspects:

  • Foundation: The foundation stone was laid on February 12, 1921, by the Duke of Connaught
  • Architect: The architects, Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker, incorporated Indian motifs and styles into the building’s design.
  • Inauguration: The building was inaugurated on January 18, 1927, by Lord Irwin, the Viceroy of India at the time. It initially housed the Imperial Legislative Council.
  • The Constituent Assembly of India took control after independence, and it became the Parliament of India in 1950.
  • Former Home of the Supreme Court: The Chamber of Princes in the Parliament Building was also used by the Federal Court of India before independence. Afterwards, it served as the Supreme Court’s location for over ten years before the court moved to its own building.


Architectural Aspects:

  • Blend: The building is renowned for its architectural blend of Western and Indian styles. While it incorporates classical Western elements, it also features Indian architectural motifs, such as the use of columns and domes.
  • It was inspired by the Ekattarso Mahadeva Temple (Chausath Yogini Temple) in Madhya Pradesh
  • The perimeter of the building is circular, with 144 columns on the outside.
  • The building is surrounded by large gardens and the perimeter is fenced off by sandstone railings (jali).