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[ Day 63 – Synopsis ] 75 Days Mains Revision Plan 2023 – GS3 & Ethics



Q1. Analyse the impacts of the cross-border supply of illicit drugs on India’s public health, social fabric, and national security? (10M)


Positioned between the world’s foremost illicit opium production zones, the Golden Crescent and the Golden Triangle, India has historically been deemed vulnerable due to its dual role as a recipient and conduit for opiates from these regions. Global trend of purchasing drugs over the Internet, particularly on ‘dark net’ trading platforms using crypto currencies has already spread across South Asia, including India.


Impacts of the cross-border supply of illicit drugs on India’s public health, social fabric, and national security:

Public health:

  • Health risks and diseases: Injecting drug use, prevalent among illicit drug users, has contributed to the spread of infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS and hepatitis.
    • 9% of drug users in India were HIV-positive.
  • Mental Health Challenges: National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) Surveys have revealed that substance abuse accounted for a significant proportion of mental health cases in India.
  • Strain on Healthcare System: The treatment of drug-related health issues diverts resources from other critical healthcare needs, affecting overall public health outcomes.
  • Challenging treatment: The influx of synthetic drugs with unknown compositions makes treatment challenging, as medical practitioners often lack appropriate protocols for such cases.

Social fabric

  • Youth Vulnerability: The youth, particularly vulnerable to peer pressure and experimentation, are often drawn into drug abuse due to the availability of illicit substances.
    • AIIMS study suggests that a significant percentage of drug addicts in India are aged between 15 and 35.
  • Erosion of Social Values: Drug abuse often leads to changes in behaviour, strained relationships, and a breakdown in familial bonds. E.g. Punjab
  • Education and Employment: Individuals caught in the grip of addiction often drop out of school or lose their jobs, perpetuating a cycle of poverty and marginalization.
  • Increase in Criminal Activities: Individuals desperate to sustain their addiction often resort to theft, robbery, and other illicit means to acquire money for drugs. This rise in criminality poses a direct threat to public safety.

National security

  • Terrorism Financing and Criminal Networks: The insurgent groups operating in regions like Jammu and Kashmir have been known to exploit drug trafficking routes to finance their activities.
  • Border Infiltration and Insurgency: Reports suggest that areas affected by left-wing extremism and insurgency often overlap with regions witnessing a significant flow of illicit drugs.
  • Corruption and Weakening of Institutions: Instances of corrupt officials collaborating with drug traffickers for financial gains have been documented. This compromises the integrity of security agencies and hinders effective countermeasures.
    • For instance, the recent removal of Punjab AIG serves as an example of this issue.

Way forward:

  • Modernize border surveillance technologies and enhance coordination among border agencies.
  • Collaborate with neighbouring countries to share intelligence, conduct joint operations, and coordinate efforts against cross-border drug trafficking. E.g. India – Nepal joint operations.
  • Launch targeted awareness programs in schools and communities to educate citizens about the dangers of drug abuse and trafficking. E.g. Say Yes to Life, No to Drugs Pledge by
  • Establish community-driven initiatives to provide support and rehabilitation for individuals affected by drug abuse. E.g. Nasha Mukt Bharat Abhiyan.
  • Review and update existing laws related to drug trafficking to ensure they are comprehensive and adaptable to changing trends.
  • Implement sustainable development projects in areas vulnerable to drug trafficking, offering residents viable alternatives to illicit activities.


Prevention of drug trafficking has to be accorded greater priority. At present it forms part of the larger mandate of the border guarding forces to ‘prevent smuggling and any other illegal activity’. Special measures need to be formulated to check trafficking of drugs through the borders.


Q2. Despite the downward trend, discuss the factors that contribute to Left-Wing Expremisim’s resilience and continued presence in certain core areas of the country? How are security agencies countering them? (15M)


In India, Left-Wing extremism (LWE) has emerged as a significant internal security challenge, primarily rooted in underdevelopment and governance issues. This phenomenon has been met with a strategic blend of developmental initiatives and counterinsurgency operations by security forces, leading to a noteworthy reduction in LWE activities.


Factors that contribute to Left-Wing Extremism’s resilience and continued presence in certain core areas of the country; –

  • Inefficient policy implementation: The failure of land reforms especially land redistribution after independence.
    • Socio-economic inequities, unemployment, despair about the future.
    • The benefits of the resource exploitation are not passed on to the local people.
  • Non-inclusive development: The widening wealth divide between a backward region and the rest of the country became the fuel for Naxalism to spread like wildfire.
    • 40% of rural households have no land or less than half an acre of land, increased marginal landholdings, no land reforms, insecurity and exploitation of tenants.
  • Displacement and forced eviction: Forced Displacements caused by mining, irrigation, and power projects without adequate arrangements for rehabilitation. As a result, livelihoods were lost.
    • Poor implementation of laws prohibiting transfer of tribal land to the non-tribals in the Fifth Schedule areas.
  • Compensation: Large-scale land acquisition for ‘public purposes’ without appropriate compensation or rehabilitation.
  • Governance issue
    • Political deprivation leading to hopelessness or a sense of powerlessness among the deprived classes.
    • Governance deficit in the remote parts of Red Corridor regions.
    • Nexus between local administration and political mafia.


Role of security agencies in countering LWEs:

  • Counter-insurgency operations: for instance, Andhra Pradesh established an elite force called Greyhounds to successfully crack down on naxal leaders.
    • Similarly, states like Bihar, Telangana, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, etc. has set up a special task force and Special Auxiliary Police for counter-insurgency operations.
  • Multidisciplinary force: Union ministry of home affairs has formed multi-disciplinary groups with officers from central agencies, including the IB, NIA, CBI, ED and DRI, and state police to choke the financial flow to Maoists.
  • Community Engagement and Development: Chhattisgarh Police’s ‘Amcho Bastar, Amcho Police’ initiative involves building trust with local communities by organizing medical camps, skill development programs, and sports events.
  • Technology Adoption: Security forces are increasingly using drones for surveillance and monitoring in remote areas. The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) aids in tracking movements of LWE cadres and ensures better situational awareness.
  • Surrender and Rehabilitation Programs: State governments often run surrender and rehabilitation programs to encourage LWE cadres to give up arms and join mainstream society.
    • These initiatives provide ex-extremists with education, vocational training, and a chance at a new life.
  • Focused Operations Against Leadership: so as to disrupt the command structure of extremist groups, weakening their operations. e.g.
  • Innovative Approach to Winning Hearts and Minds: Security agencies engages with tribal communities through interactive sessions and cultural events. This approach bridges gaps, breaks the cycle of violence, and gains community support. E.g. SAMVAAD initative.



Thus, an ideology based on violence and annihilation is doomed to fail in a democracy that offers legitimate forums of grievance redressal. Through a holistic approach focusing on development and security-related interventions, the LWE problem can be successfully tackled.




Syllabus: “Strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance;”

Q3. Though our governance framework tries to incorporate concepts like- “Sarvodaya” and “Antodaya”, its implementation has often been inadequate. In the context of this observation, explain the reasons behind this situation. Also, how can we tackle this situation? (10M)


“Sarvodaya” and “Antodaya” are noble ideals that encompass the principles of welfare for all and upliftment of the weakest sections of society, respectively. Despite these lofty concepts being integral to our governance framework, their practical implementation has often fallen short of expectations.


Reasons for inadequate implementation:

  • Bureaucratic inefficiency: Complex bureaucratic processes, red tape, and lack of accountability within government institutions often hinder the effective execution of welfare programs.
  • Corruption and leakages: Widespread corruption and leakages in the distribution of resources and benefits undermine the intended impact of welfare schemes.
  • Lack of political will: Short-term political gains may take precedence over long-term inclusive development as measurement of Sarvodaya-Antyodaya intending schemes may be well over the electoral horizons.
  • Inadequate resource allocation: Limited budgetary allocations, misallocation of resources, and inefficient utilization of funds can impede the effective implementation of welfare programs, leading to incomplete or subpar outcomes.
  • Inadequate monitoring and evaluation: Weak monitoring and evaluation mechanisms prevent accurate assessment of program effectiveness, making it difficult to identify and rectify implementation gaps.

Tackling the situation:

  • Strengthening governance and accountability: Enhance transparency and accountability in government processes through digital platforms, citizen feedback mechanisms, and rigorous monitoring such as CPGRAMS and PRAGATI.
  • Streamlining bureaucracy: Simplify administrative procedures, reduce paperwork, and introduce technology-driven solutions to streamline the delivery of welfare programs and minimize delays.
  • Anti-corruption measures: Implement robust measures, such as stringent penalties for corrupt practices, social audits, whistleblower protection, and digital payment systems like DBT to minimize leakages and ensure resources reach the intended beneficiaries.
  • Allocation of adequate resources: Ensure adequate budgetary allocations and efficient utilization of resources for construction of infrastructure to reach the vulnerable sections and adequately fund welfare measures.
  • Public awareness and education: Raise awareness among citizens about their entitlements and rights under various welfare schemes. Educate them about the importance of holding authorities accountable for proper implementation.
  • Strengthening political will: Foster a culture of prioritizing long-term inclusive development over short-term gains, and greater politicisation of long-term views on all steps to influence electoral outcome.


We must heed the wisdom of Mahatma Gandhi, who said, “The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others.”

It is imperative for policymakers, administrators, and society at large to recognize that the implementation of “Sarvodaya” and “Antodaya” is not a mere formality, but a moral imperative. By addressing the identified reasons behind the shortcomings and adopting the suggested strategies, we can bridge the divide between rhetoric and action, creating a more inclusive, equitable, and compassionate society where every individual’s well-being is genuinely valued and upheld.

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