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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 2:

  1. Renouncing Indian citizenship
  2. Lily Thomas case and Section 8(4) of RPA
  3. Multilateral Development Banks and issues with global financial safety institutions


GS Paper 3:

  1. Debt-Fossil Fuel Trap Report


Facts for Prelims (FFP)

  1. Ninth Commonwealth Parliamentary Association
  2. Advisory board on bank frauds
  3. Market Coupling
  4. MeitY-NSF research collaboration
  5. Pandemic Fund for Strengthening Animal Health System of India
  6. Gondia, Gadchiroli to host Maharashtra’s 1st elephant reserve



  1. Niger



Renouncing Indian citizenship

GS Paper 2

 Syllabus: Citizenship


Source: TH

 Context:  A growing number of Indians are relinquishing their citizenship, primarily seeking better economic opportunities and social security abroad.


What does Data show? 

  • Over 15 lakh Indians have given up their citizenship in the past decade, with many heading to the United States.
  • High-net-worth individuals are also leaving India (through investment migration), with around 6,500 expected to move out this year, making it the second-highest net outflow globally after China.
  • The USA remains the most preferred destination, followed by Canada, Australia, and the UK.
  • The MEA estimated the number of Indian nationals living abroad to be around 1.2 crore in 2021


Reasons for Renouncing Citizenship:

Reasons Explanation
Better Economic Opportunities Seeking improved job prospects and higher income abroad.
Improved Social Security Looking for better healthcare, education, and social welfare benefits in the new country.
Lifestyle Considerations Pursuing a better quality of life, safety, and overall living standards.
Friendly Tax Legislation Opting for countries with favourable tax laws and reduced financial burdens.
Education Opportunities Accessing higher education and specialized programs is not available in the home country.
Ease of Mobility Obtaining a passport that allows visa-free travel to more destinations globally.
Political Stability Escaping political instability, conflict, or governance issues in the home country.
Environmental Factors Moving to places with better environmental conditions and climate.
Family Reasons Reuniting with family members already settled in another country.
Investment and Business Opportunities Exploring entrepreneurial ventures or investment opportunities abroad.


What is Citizenship?

Citizenship is the legal and social relationship between an individual and a state, signifying full membership and allegiance to that state.

  • In India, there are citizens and aliens, with citizens being integral members of the nation and enjoying all civil and political rights.
  • This concept of citizenship creates an exclusionary distinction from non-citizens.
  • The Citizenship Act of 1955 prescribes five ways of acquiring citizenship, viz, birth, descent, registration, naturalisation and incorporation of territory.


Principle of Citizenship:

Two widely recognized principles determine the granting of citizenship: “jus soli,” which grants citizenship based on place of birth, and “jus sanguinis,” which considers blood ties.

  • India has leaned towards the concept of jus soli since the days of the Motilal Nehru Committee in 1928, rejecting the racial notion of jus sanguinis as it contradicted Indian values and ethos.


Ways to Renounce Citizenship in India:

Ways Details
Voluntary Renunciation An Indian citizen of full age and capacity can relinquish citizenship through their will.
When an individual gives up citizenship, minor children also lose Indian citizenship but can regain it at 18.
By Termination India follows single citizenship, meaning one can be a citizen of only one country at a time.
If a person becomes a citizen of another country, Indian citizenship automatically ends, except during war.
Deprivation by Government Government can terminate citizenship if a citizen:
o   Disrespects the Constitution
o   Acquired citizenship through fraud
o   Illegally traded or communicated with the enemy during war
o   Is sentenced to over 2 years in prison within 5 years of registration or naturalization
o   Lives outside India for 7 consecutive years



A successful, prosperous, and influential diaspora is an advantage for India, and our approach is to tap diaspora networks and utilise its reputation for national gain. The Government’s efforts are particularly aimed at encouraging the exchange of knowledge and expertise in a manner that would contribute to India’s national development


Insta Links:

 Renunciation of Indian citizenship is now simpler

Lily Thomas case and Section 8(4) of RPA

GS Paper 2

 Syllabus: RPA 1951


Source: TH

 Context: The article discusses the implications of the Lily Thomas case’s judgment that invalidated Section 8(4) of the Representation of People Act.


What is Lily Thomas case’s about and its judgement?

The Lily Thomas case pertains to the Supreme Court of India’s judgment that invalidated Section 8(4) of the Representation of People Act. This provision allowed a three-month period for convicted legislators to appeal before disqualification.

  • The court’s ruling led to instant disqualification upon conviction, impacting the careers of sitting legislators.
  • The judgment was based on the premise that Article 102(1) doesn’t distinguish between sitting members and candidates for disqualification.


Disqualification of MPs and MLAs under RPA, 1951:

  • Section 8(3) disqualifies MPs and MLAs convicted and jailed for 2+ years, leading to 6-year disqualification after release.
    • Convicted individuals on bail with pending appeals are ineligible for contesting elections.
  • Section 8(4) previously allowed convicted legislators to continue if they appealed within 3 months.
    • In Lily Thomas’s case, Supreme Court, July 2013, declared 8(4) unconstitutional, disqualifying on the date of conviction.


Issues with the Judgment in Lily Thomas Case:

Issues Description
1. Instant Disqualification E.g., Recently Rahul Gandhi was disqualified immediately after his conviction in a defamation case.
2. Adverse impact on Legislators Legislators lose their seats due to quick disqualification without proper recourse.
3. Insufficient time for the appeal process Limited time for legislators to appeal and present their case for reversal.
4. Slow court procedures Courts take extended periods for handling appeals, creating undue delays.
5. Differential Treatment Article 103 allows differentiation between sitting members and candidates for disqualification.
6. Role of President The suggested authority for declaring disqualification lies with the President under Article 103
7. Uncertainty about staying sentence/conviction Whether staying only sentence or both sentence and conviction can lift disqualification.
8. Limited impact on behaviour No significant change was observed in politicians’ criminal records and behaviour due to the judgment.


Measures needed to address the issues arising from the judgment in the Lily Thomas case:

  • Review and Amendment: Consider amending section 8(4) of RPA, allowing a reasonable period for appeal before disqualification takes effect.
  • Clear Guidelines: Establish clear guidelines for the application of disqualification, including the role of the President in declaring disqualification.
  • Timely Appeals: Implement measures to expedite the appeals process to ensure that legislators have a fair and timely opportunity to present their cases.
  • Constitutional Safeguards: Consider introducing a constitutional amendment in Article 102 that provides protection against abrupt disqualifications.


Insta Links:

Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act, 1951


Mains Links:

Q. What is the significance of Section 8(3) of the Representation of the People (RP) Act, 1951? Examine the issues that have made it a topic of debate and discussion among constitutional experts. (15M)

Multilateral Development Banks and issues with global financial safety institutions

GS2/GS3 Paper 

 Syllabus: International Institutions and their working


Source: IE

 Context: The article discusses that in the absence of significant governance reform, global financial safety institutions such as World Bank and IMF are losing effectiveness.

What are Multilateral development banks (MDB)?

They are international financial institutions for the purpose of encouraging economic development in poorer nations. MDBs provide loans and grants to member nations to fund projects that support social and economic development.


Role of Multilateral development banks in global stability and development

Role Examples
Funding Development Projects ADB’s support for Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor; World Bank’s assistance in National Waterway 1 on the Ganges River
Crisis Management IMF provides financial assistance during economic crises; World Bank’s support to India during the COVID-19 pandemic
Supporting SDG Implementation World Bank grants for education and healthcare programs; Alignment of national policies with SDGs
Policy Advice and Capacity Building IMF’s macroeconomic policy advice; Technical assistance for governance improvement


Despite playing a crucial role in promoting development and global stability, multilateral development banks (MDBs) face several challenges that need to be addressed.


What are India’s Options?

India’s options within the evolving global financial safety net involve:

  • Relying on bilateral swap lines with Japan and the IMF during macroeconomic and external crises.
  • Enhancing its financial safety
  • India should consider joining the “Chiang Mai Initiative Multilateralisation.”
  • India should persist in building substantial foreign exchange reserves for self-insurance. Caution is advised in opening the capital account, particularly to volatile debt inflows into its bond market.



The future global financial system is uncertain. The ongoing 16th quota review of IMF might not lead to increased quotas for emerging economies, as major member countries might not agree. With limited IMF governance reform prospects, its significance and effectiveness could decline.


To know about IMF Quota System and SDRs: Click Here


Mains Links:

Critically evaluate the working of Multilateral Development banks such as the World Bank and IMF in their efforts to promote global stability and development. Also, suggest measures to improve their effectiveness. (15M)


Prelims Links:

In the context of India, which of the following factors is/are contributors to reducing the risk of a currency crisis? (UPSC 2019)


  1. The foreign currency earnings of India’s IT sector
  2. Increasing the government expenditure
  3. Remittances from Indians abroad


Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. 2 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3


Ans: 2

Debt-Fossil Fuel Trap Report

GS Paper 3

 Syllabus: Environment Conservation


Source: IE

 Context: Poor countries burdened with heavy debts are compelled to rely on fossil fuels to generate revenue for repaying loans from richer nations, highlights the Debt-Fossil Fuel Trap report.

  • The Debt-Fossil Fuel Trap report has been released by the anti-debt campaigner’s Debt Justice and partners in affected countries.


Findings of the Report “The Debt-Fossil Fuel Trap”:

  • Fossil fuel extraction is seen as a means to generate revenue and alleviate debt for countries in the global south
    • Example of Suriname: Resource-Based Loans: Creditors are entitled to 30% of oil revenue until 2050, incentivizing continued oil exploitation.
    • Argentina supports fracking in Vaca Muerta (Northern Patagonia) to ease the debt crisis.
  • Revenues from fossil fuel projects often fall short of expectations, leading to further debt.
  • External debt payments for global south countries have risen by 150% between 2011 and 2023, reaching a 25-year high
  • 54 countries in a debt crisis, cutting public spending during the pandemic to repay loans
  • Extreme weather events force countries to borrow more money for adaptation and mitigation efforts.
    • For instance, Dominica’s debt as a percentage of GDP rose from 68% to 78% after Hurricane Maria hit the island in 2017.


The report recommends the following actions to address the issues highlighted:

Recommendations Description
Ambitious Debt Cancellation Implement comprehensive debt cancellation for countries in need, across all creditors, without imposing economic conditions.
Transition to Clean Energy Encourage the adoption of clean and renewable energy sources to reduce dependency on fossil fuels.
Wealthy Government Support Wealthy governments and institutions should play a role in supporting countries to exit the debt-fossil fuel trap.
Sustainable Development Promote sustainable development strategies that prioritize environmental protection and economic stability.
Ethical Investment Ensure that financing and investments align with environmental and social sustainability, rather than contributing to fossil fuel dependence.
Equitable Financing Offer fair and just financing terms that do not exacerbate debt burdens or perpetuate reliance on fossil fuels.


Insta Links:

How can methane released in livestock belches be reduced?


Prelims Links: (UPSC 2022)

Among the following crops, which one is the most important anthropogenic source of both methane and nitrous oxide?


  1. Cotton
  2. Rice
  3. Sugarcane
  4. Wheat


Ans: 2

Ninth Commonwealth Parliamentary Association

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: HT

 Context: The Ninth Commonwealth Parliamentary Association (CPA) India Region Conference took place in Udaipur, India, and was inaugurated by Lok Sabha Speaker.

  • In his address during the valedictory session, Lok Sabha Speaker emphasized the importance of updating outdated laws to suit the current times and needs of the country.
  • He highlighted the role of legislatures in enabling thorough debates and discussions to address present and future challenges.
  • He expressed concern over the decline in dignity and decorum in legislatures and stressed the significance of legislators’ behaviour in improving people’s lives.


The conference brought together Presiding Officers from 23 states and union territories, as well as Members of Parliament and Members of the Legislative Assembly of Rajasthan. The discussions focused on various aspects of parliamentary democracy and the need for the effective functioning of legislatures in addressing societal challenges and fostering democratic values.


About Commonwealth Parliamentary Association: 

The Commonwealth Parliamentary Association (CPA) serves Parliamentarians from Commonwealth countries by facilitating regular consultation and the exchange of ideas and information among members of the Commonwealth Parliament.

Founded in 1911 as the Empire Parliamentary Association (EPA) with administration by the UK Branch, the CPA adopted its current name in 1948 to reflect its evolving ties with the Commonwealth.

Advisory board on bank frauds

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: Business Line

 Context: The Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) has reconstituted the advisory board on Banking and Financial Frauds (ABBFF), responsible for conducting initial examinations of bank frauds before recommending further investigation by agencies like the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI).

  • The ABBFF’s authority encompasses examining the roles of officials and whole-time directors in public sector banks, insurance companies, and financial institutions when frauds amounting to ₹3 crores and above occur.

The CVC now requires all these entities to refer matters involving such fraud amounts to the ABBFF for advice before initiating criminal investigations. The ABBFF is also authorized to conduct periodic fraud analysis within the financial system, providing inputs for fraud-related policy formulation to the RBI and CVC.

 The ABBFF, headquartered in New Delhi, is mandated to provide advice within a month of receiving initial references from the Ministry, Department, CVC, or investigative agencies. Notably, the suggestion from the Indian Banks Association (IBA) for introducing a “sunset clause” to limit actions against bankers for credit decisions after a specific period hasn’t been accepted by the CVC.

Market Coupling

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: HBL

Context: The Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) has released a staff paper on implementing market coupling in India’s power sector.

What is Market coupling?

Market coupling is a process in the energy sector where bids from various power exchanges are matched to determine a uniform market clearing price for electricity trading.

  • It aims to optimize transmission infrastructure use, maximize economic surplus, and create simultaneous benefits for both buyers and sellers.
  • This process helps in efficient price discovery and integration of different electricity markets or geographies, promoting transparency and competition in the energy trading sector.


The CERC (Central Electricity Regulatory Commission) has introduced provisions for market coupling among power exchanges in the country under its CERC Power Market Regulations (PRC) 2021. However, these provisions are yet to be officially implemented.

The benefits of market coupling include:

  • Optimal utilization of transmission infrastructure.
  • Maximization of economic surplus by considering all bid types leads to the creation of simultaneous benefits for both buyers and sellers.

 India has three power exchanges:

  • Indian Energy Exchange (IEX): 90% market share
  • Power Exchange of India (PXIL)
  • Hindustan Power Exchange (HPX)

MeitY-NSF research collaboration

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: PIB

 Context: The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) has introduced its inaugural Joint Call for proposals in collaboration with the National Science Foundation (NSF) (USA) as part of its research partnership.

  • The initiative is based on areas of shared interest highlighted in a Joint Statement made by the governments of India and the United States.
  • The first Joint Call solicits proposals in the fields of semiconductor research, next-generation communication technologies/networks/systems, cybersecurity, sustainability and green technologies, and Intelligent Transportation Systems.


This collaborative effort aims to advance technology through various stages such as prototype development, pilot-scale demonstrations, field deployment, and technology transfer acceleration.



The National Science Foundation is an independent agency of the United States federal government that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. Its medical counterpart is the National Institutes of Health.

Pandemic Fund for Strengthening Animal Health System of India

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: PIB

 Context: The G20 Pandemic Fund has approved a $25 million proposal from India’s Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying, Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry & Dairying (DAHD).

The proposal focuses on “Animal Health Security Strengthening in India for Pandemic Preparedness and Response.”

  • The G20 Pandemic Fund, established during Indonesia’s G20 Presidency, finances crucial investments to enhance pandemic prevention, preparedness, and response capacities at national, regional, and global levels, with a specific emphasis on low- and middle-income countries.
  • The key components of the approved proposal include strengthening disease surveillance and early warning systems, expanding the laboratory network, improving interoperable data systems, enhancing capacity for data analytics and risk communication, fortifying health security for transboundary animal diseases, and facilitating regional cooperation through cross-border collaboration.



  • Beyond providing dedicated resources for pandemic prevention, preparedness, and response, the Pandemic Fund will encourage increased investments, improved collaboration among partners, and serve as an advocacy platform.
  • The project’s impact aims to decrease the risk of pathogens crossing from animals (both domesticated and wildlife) to humans, thereby safeguarding the health, nutrition, and livelihoods of vulnerable populations.


The project will be executed in partnership with the Asian Development Bank (ADB) as the lead implementing entity, alongside The World Bank and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).

Gondia, Gadchiroli to host Maharashtra’s 1st elephant reserve

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: The Print 

Context: A preliminary proposal for the feasibility of establishing an elephant reserve in the Gondia-Gadchiroli region of east Maharashtra has been submitted in response to the frequent movement of elephants in the area.

  • Given the frequent movement of elephants along the borders of Gondia, Gadchiroli, and Chhattisgarh, the establishment of an elephant reserve would aid the forest department in managing development more effectively.
  • Maharashtra has a relatively small elephant population, making the establishment of an elephant reserve crucial for their protection.

This initiative follows the Maharashtra government’s 2020 decision to designate nearly 3,000 hectares of forest land as an elephant reserve in the Sindhudurg district, marking the first instance of such a reserve being established in the state.




Source: TH

The African Union has suspended Niger from its institutions and activities due to the recent coup that overthrew the democratically elected president. The suspension will last until the restoration of constitutional order.

In Niger, the military coup has led to the detention of President Mohamed Bazoum. The coup plotters have named General Abdourahamane Tchiani as the new leader, citing security concerns related to jihadist violence.

Niger or the Niger is a landlocked country in West Africa. It is a unitary state bordered by Libya to the northeast, Chad to the east, Nigeria to the south, Benin and Burkina Faso to the southwest, Mali to the west, and Algeria to the northwest. Over 80% of its land area lies in the Sahara (Sahel Region).


About African Union:

The African Union (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Founder: Muammar Gaddafi) is a continental union consisting of 55 member states located on the continent of Africa. The AU was announced in the Sirte Declaration in Sirte, Libya, on 9 September 1999, calling for the establishment of the African Union.

/ 23 August 2023, Today's Article


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