Print Friendly, PDF & Email

[Mission 2024] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 2 August 2023

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

1. While natural tectonic processes are the primary drivers of earthquakes, anthropogenic activities can trigger seismic events under specific conditions. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question: Why the question: 

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2024 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about causes of earthquakes and natural and anthropogenic causes behind it.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining an Earthquake.

Body:

In first part, give a brief about the mechanism of an earthquake and how it occurs.

Next, write about the various natural causes of earthquakes – movement of plates at divergent, convergent, and transform boundaries. Volcanic activity and faulting etc.

Next, write about anthropogenic causes of earthquakes – dam construction, mining operations, nuclear tests etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing about the importance of preparedness to deal with earthquakes.

Introduction

An earthquake is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth‘s lithosphere that creates seismic waves. It is a natural event. Earthquake is the form of energy of wave motion transmitted through the surface layer of the earth. The location below the earth’s surface where the earthquake starts is called the hypocenter, and the location directly above it on the surface of the earth is called the epicenter.

Body

Natural Causes

Fault Zones

  • The release of energy occurs along a fault. A fault is a sharp break in the crustal rocks.
  • Rocks along a fault tend to move in opposite directions. As the overlying rock strata press them, the friction locks them together.
  • However, their tendency to move apart at some point of time overcomes the friction. As a result, the blocks get deformed and eventually, they slide past one another abruptly.
  • This causes earthquake in the form of release of energy, and the energy waves travel in all directions.

Plate tectonics

  • The most common ones are the tectonic earthquakes.
  • The Earth’s crust consists of seven large lithospheric plates and numerous smaller plates.
  • Tectonic plates (Lithospheric plates) are constantly shifting as they drift around on the viscous, or slowly flowing, mantle layer below.
  • This non-stop movement causes stress on Earth’s crust. When the stresses get too large, it leads to cracks called faults.
  • When tectonic plates move, it also causes movements at the faults. Thus, the slipping of land along the faultline along convergent, divergent and transform boundaries cause earthquakes.

Volcanoes

  • A special class of tectonic earthquake is sometimes recognised as volcanic earthquake. However, these are confined to areas of active volcanoes.
  • Earthquakes produced by stress changes in solid rock due to the injection or withdrawal of magma (molten rock) are called volcano earthquakes.
  • These earthquakes can cause land to subside and can produce large ground cracks. These earthquakes can occur as rock is moving to fill in spaces where magma is no longer present.
  • Volcano-tectonic earthquakes don’t indicate that the volcano will be erupting but can occur at any time.

Anthropogenic causes

  • In the areas of intense mining activity, sometimes the roofs of underground mines collapse causing minor tremors. These are called collapse earthquakes.
  • Blasting of rock by dynamites for construction purposes.
  • Deep underground tunnel excavations
  • Ground shaking may also occur due to the explosion of chemical or nuclear devices. Such tremors are called explosion earthquakes.
  • The earthquakes that occur in the areas of large reservoirs are referred to as reservoir induced earthquakes. E.g: Koyna reservoir earthquake in Maharastra
  • Hydrostatic pressure of man-made water bodies like reservoirs and lakes.
  • Huge gatherings of population. Eg: Taylor Swift‘s recent concerts in Seattle have caused seismic waves comparable to a 2.3 magnitude earthquake, according to seismologists.

Conclusion

Unlike other disasters, the damages caused by earthquakes are more devastating. Since it also destroys most of the transport and communication links, providing timely relief to the victims becomes difficult. It is not possible to prevent the occurrence of an earthquake; hence, the next best option is to emphasis on disaster preparedness and mitigation rather than curative measures.

 

Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

2. What is temperature inversion? Explain the several mechanisms that can lead to temperature inversions. What are the impacts of temperature inversions? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2024 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the mechanism of temperature inversions, its types and impact.

Directive word: 

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining temperature inversion.

Body:

First, explain the various Types of Temperature Inversion – Ground Inversion, Turbulence Inversion, Subsidence Inversion, Air drainage type of Inversion and Frontal Inversion etc.

Next, explain the impact of temperature inversion on agriculture, air quality, energy consumption, transportation, and other sectors

Conclusion:

Conclude by Summarising.

Introduction

Temperature inversion, also called thermal inversion, a reversal of the normal behaviour of temperature in the troposphere (the region of the atmosphere nearest Earth’s surface), in which a layer of cool air at the surface is overlain by a layer of warmer air. (Under normal conditions air temperature usually decreases with height.) Inversions play an important role in determining cloud forms, precipitation, and visibility.

Body

The various mechanisms of inversions of temperature

There are five kinds of inversions: ground, turbulence, subsidence, air drainage and frontal.

Ground Inversion:

  • A ground inversion develops when air is cooled by contact with a colder surface until it becomes cooler than the overlying atmosphere; this occurs most often on clear nights, when the ground cools off rapidly by radiation.
  • If the temperature of surface air drops below its dew point, fog may result.
  • Topography greatly affects the magnitude of ground inversions.
  • If the land is rolling or hilly, the cold air formed on the higher land surfaces tends to drain into the hollows, producing a larger and thicker inversion above low ground and little or none above higher elevations.

Turbulence Inversion

  • A turbulence inversion often forms when quiescent air overlies turbulent air.
  • Within the turbulent layer, vertical mixing carries heat downward and cools the upper part of the layer.
  • The unmixed air above is not cooled and eventually is warmer than the air below; an inversion then exists.

Subsidence Inversion:

  • A subsidence inversion develops when a widespread layer of air descends.
  • The layer is compressed and heated by the resulting increase in atmospheric pressure, and, as a result, the lapse rate of temperature is reduced.
  • If the air mass sinks low enough, the air at higher altitudes becomes warmer than at lower altitudes, producing a temperature inversion.
  • Subsidence inversions are common over the northern continents in winter and over the subtropical oceans; these regions generally have subsiding air because they are located under large high-pressure centres.

Air drainage type of Inversion

  • Sometimes, the temperature in the lower layers of air increases instead of decreasing with elevation. This happens commonly along a sloping surface.
  • Here, the surface radiates heat back to space rapidly and cools down at a faster rate than the upper layers. As a result the lower cold layers get condensed and become heavy.
  • The sloping surface underneath makes them move towards the bottom where the cold layer settles down as a zone of low temperature while the upper layers are relatively warmer.
  • This condition, opposite to normal vertical distribution of temperature, is known as Temperature Inversion.
  • In other words, the vertical temperature gets inverted during temperature inversion.
  • This kind of temperature inversion is very strong in the middle and higher latitudes. It can be strong in regions with high mountains or deep valleys also.

Frontal Inversion

  • A frontal inversion occurs when a cold air mass undercuts a warm air mass and lifts it aloft; the front between the two air masses then has warm air above and cold air below.
  • This kind of inversion has a considerable slope, whereas other inversions are nearly horizontal. In addition, humidity may be high, and clouds may be present immediately above it.

Economic importance of temperature inversion

  • Sometimes, the temperature of the air at the valley bottom reaches below freezing point, whereas the air at higher altitude remains comparatively warm.
  • As a result, the trees along the lower slopes are bitten by frost, whereas those at higher levels are free from it.
  • Due to inversion of temperature, air pollutants such as dust particles and smoke do not disperse in the valley bottoms.
  • Because of these factors, houses and farms in intermontane valleys are usually situated along the upper slopes, avoiding the cold and foggy valley bottoms.
  • For instance, coffee growers of Brazil and apple growers and hoteliers of mountain states of Himalayas in India avoid lower slopes.
  • Fog lowers visibility affecting vegetation and human settlements.
  • Less rainfall due to stable conditions.

Conclusion

Thus, Inversions play an important role in determining cloud forms, precipitation, and visibility. Climate change has led to more temperature inversions and the rise of ‘super pollution events’

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Role of civil services in a democracy.

3. A comprehensive reform of the policing system is essential to create a just, transparent, and responsive policing system that can effectively tackle evolving crime scenarios while respecting the rights of individuals. Comment. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

The article emphasizes the urgent need for reforming the policing system to address contemporary challenges and ensure effective law enforcement.

Key Demand of the question:

To about various reforms that are needed in the police force.

Directive word: 

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by mentioning importance of police in maintaining law and order in the country.

Body:

First, write about the need for reforms – mention systemic factors, attitudinal factors, and political factors etc which are responsible for this. Use recent to substantiate your points.

Next, mention the steps to be taken in this regard to have an efficient, empathetic, sensitive, responsive and an accountable police force. Cite various committees and SC recommendations in this regard as well.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction

The primary role of police forces is to uphold and enforce laws, investigate crimes and ensure security for people in the country. Under the Constitution, police is a subject governed by states. There has been almost 30 years of debate on policing and reform in India. The present Indian police system is largely based on Police act of 1861. Police reforms has been on the agenda of Governments almost since independence but even after more than 70 years, the police is seen as selectively efficient, unsympathetic to the under privileged.

The Supreme Court has stated that the landmark judgment of Prakash Singh v. Union of India (2006), which dealt with police reforms, is used periodically only as a mantra, to suit the occasion whenever it arises.

Body

Need for Police Reforms:

  • If India is to achieve its status as a great power, it is absolutely essential that police is restructured and modernised.
  • Without the police ensuring good law and order in the country, the other services would find it difficult to operate.
  • To transform the colonial police structure of the country into a progressive, modern force sensitive to the democratic aspirations of the people.
  • To eliminate the undue political interference. The police of today are victims of politicization as well as criminalization.
  • To instil the confidence of the people in the institution of police by making police more people friendly.
  • The security of the society and the welfare of the people is dependent on the efficiency of the police.

Key reasons hindering both police reforms:

  • An overburdened police force:
    • Police force is overburdened especially at lower levels where constabulary is forced to work continuously 14-16 hrs and also for 7 days a week. It adversely impacts their performance.
    • While the sanctioned police strength was 181 police per lakh persons in 2016 when the United Nations recommended standard is 222 police per lakh persons.
    • 86% of the state police comprises of constabulary. Constables are typically promoted once during their service. This could weaken their incentive to perform well.
  • Improving police infrastructure:
    • Failure of police infrastructure like vehicles, weaponry. Also audits have found that the POLNET network is non-functional in various states.
    • For example, an audit of the Gujarat police force reported that the network had not been operationalised till October 2015 due to non-installation of essential infrastructure, such as remote subscriber units and generator sets.
    • Funds dedicated for modernisation of infrastructure are typically not utilised fully. For example, in 2015-16, only 14% of such funds were used by the states.
  • Political influence:
    • Second Administrative Reforms Commission has noted that ministers have used police forces for personal and political reasons.
  • Police accountability:
    • Police forces have the authority to exercise force to enforce laws and maintain law and order in a state. However, this power may be misused in several ways.
  • Poor quality of investigation:
    • Crime per lakh population has increased by 28% over the last decade (2005-2015). However, convictions have been low. So it shows the poor quality of investigation.
    • The Law Commission and the Second Administrative Reforms Commission have noted that state police officers often neglect investigation because they are understaffed and overburdened with various kinds of tasks.
    • Further, they lack the training and the expertise required to conduct professional investigations.
    • They also have insufficient legal knowledge and the forensic and cyber infrastructure available to them is both inadequate and outdated. In light of this, police forces may use force and torture to secure evidence.
    • Crime investigations may be influenced by political or other extraneous considerations
  • Forensic labs:
    • Expert bodies have however said that these laboratories are short of funds and qualified staff. Further, there is indiscriminate referencing of cases to these labs resulting in high pendency.
  • Lack of co-ordination between centre and states is matter related to maintenance of law & order results in ineffective functioning of police force.
  • Police force is not in the position to tackle present problems of cybercrime, global terrorism, Naxalism because of structural weaknesses.
  • Prevalence of Rank system within the police force results in abuse of power by top level executive over lower level personnel.

Reforms needed:

  • Directions of the Supreme Court in Prakash Singh vs Union of India:
    • Fixing the tenure and selection of the DGP to avoid situations where officers about to retire in a few months are given the post.
    • In order to ensure no political interference, a minimum tenure was sought for the Inspector General of Police so that they are not transferred mid-term by politicians.
    • Postings of officers should be done by Police Establishment Boards (PEB) comprising police officers and senior bureaucrats to insulate powers of postings and transfers from political leaders.
    • Set up State Police Complaints Authority (SPCA) to give a platform where common people aggrieved by police action could approach.
    • Separate investigation and law and order functions to better improve policing.
    • Set up of State Security Commissions (SSC) that would have members from civil society.
    • Form a National Security Commission.
  • Independent Complaints Authority:
    • The Second Administrative Reforms Commission and the Supreme Court have observed that there is a need to have an independent complaints authority to inquire into cases of police misconduct.
    • Example is that of the New York City Police which has a Civilian Complaint Review Board comprising of civilians appointed by local government bodies and the police commissioner to investigate into cases of police misconduct.
  • Investigation:
    • Experts have recommended that states must have their own specialized investigation units within the police force that are responsible for crime investigation.
  • Padmanabhaiah commission:
    • It has also been recommended that constables, and the police force in general, should receive greater training in soft skills given they need to deal with the public regularly.
  • Housing:
    • Importance of providing housing to the constabulary (and generally to the police force) to improve their efficiency and incentive to accept remote postings has also been emphasised by expert bodies, such as the National Police Commission.
  • Community policing: Janamaithri Suraksha in Kerala
    • This project is an initiative of the Kerala Police to facilitate greater accessibility, close interaction and better understanding between the police and local communities. For example, Beat Constables are required to know at least one family member of every family living in his beat area.
    • Meira Paibi (Torch-bearers) in Assam: The women of the Manipuri Basti in Guwahati help with improving the law and order problem in their area, by tackling drug abuse among the youth. They light their torches and go around the basti guarding the entry and exit points, to prevent the youth of the area from going out after sunset
  • Courts:
    • The Madras High Court has said that the state government should contemplate giving policemen a day off in a week like other government officials in order to spend time with their families.
    • The court suggested introducing an 8-hour, three-shift system for police personnel. It will help them rejuvenate themselves and relieve them from stress.
  • Evidence based policing is gaining credibility day by day – Indian police force must be exposed to it.
  • Second ARC recommended that the government should declare certain crimes as “federal” and entrust their investigation to a Central agency.
  • Police need to have the operational freedom to carry out their responsibilities professionally, and satisfactory working conditions, while being held accountable for poor performance or misuse of power.
  • Gender Parity in Police force: The 2nd Administrative Reform Commission recommended that the representation of women in police at all levels should be increased through affirmative action so that they constitute about 33% of the police.
  • Improvement in Intelligence gathering: The intelligence gathering machinery in the field needs to be strengthened and at the same time, made more accountable. Human intelligence should be combined with information derived from diverse sources with the focus on increased use of technology.

Conclusion

The police force needs to be freed from the stranglehold of the executive and given functional autonomy to enforce the rule of law. Police should be a SMART Police -a police which should be strict and sensitive, modern and mobile, alert and accountable, reliable and responsible, tech-savvy and trained.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices;

4. A legal guarantee for Minimum support price (MSP) should be part of a broader agricultural reform strategy that includes market reforms, technology adoption, and improving farmers’ access to credit and infrastructure. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Indian ExpressInsights on India

Why the question:

The article emphasizes the importance of legally establishing the Minimum Support Price (MSP) for agricultural products in India

Key Demand of the question:

To write about tory the various issues in the MSP regime and how a statutory backing can help solve the issues and other measures required to have comprehensive reforms.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by writing about MSP, its aims and objectives.

Body:

Next, mention the limitations associated with MSP. Non-realisation of Price, Lack of procurement, only beneficial for selected crops, Lack of quality control and payment immediacy etc.

Next, write about legal guarantee for MSP and how it can help overcome the above issues.

Next, write about the systemic measures that are needed for farmers to get remunerative prices. Increasing procurement efficacy, increasing awareness level of farmer and considering price deficiency payments etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction

Minimum Support Price (MSP) is the rate at which the government buys grains from farmers. Currently, it fixes MSPs for 23 crops grown in both Kharif and Rabi seasons.

For the last few years, farmers have been agitating for a legal guarantee of Minimum Support Price (MSP) for their crop, calculated as per the Swaminathan Commission formula. The historic farmer’s movement had demanded a legal guarantee of MSP and the withdrawal of the three agricultural laws.

Body

The various issues that prevent MSP from becoming a mechanism of income support for the farmers

The trouble with MSP is that while it is touted as an all-important factor for farmers promising an instant rise in their income and stability, it also has many drawbacks in implementation. This affects the price realisation of farmers, in reality for several reasons.

  • Methodology: MSP covers numerous costs such as the cost of sowing (A2) and labour (FL). These considerations are controversial with suggestions that it should be based on comprehensive costs (C2), which also include land rent costs.
  • Inflation: Too much of a hike on MSP either paves way for inflationary effects on the economy, with a rise in prices of food grains and vegetables, or loss to government treasury if it decides to sell at a lower price as compared to the higher MSP it bought at.
  • Diverse factors: MSP is a nationwide single price policy. However, the actual costing for production varies from place to place, more severely so in areas lacking irrigation facilities and infrastructure. Thus, not all farmers have equal benefits.
  • Procurement at MSP is flawed: First, procurement of wheat and paddy for meeting the requirement of the public distribution system (PDS) is undertaken largely by state governments.
    • Of the total procurement of wheat and paddy from farmers, the Food Corporation of India’s (FCI’s) share is less than 10%.
    • In the north-east and many other states, procurement operations are almost nonexistent and farmers are forced to sell below MSP.
    • As the experiences of these schemes show, the benefit of higher MSPs for kharif crops or rabi, is unlikely to be available to most farmers as the states lack adequate storage capacity, working capital and manpower for undertaking large-scale procurement of all commodities
    • The MSP-based procurement system is also dependent on middlemen, commission agents and APMC officials, which smaller farmers find difficult to get access to.
  • Agri-Infrastructure: Hiking the MSP without investing in infrastructure is just a short-term play. While it does deliver immediate results, long-term developments to back-it up are also important.
  • Environmental harm: It degrades the soil because of irrespective of the soil condition, some crops are preferred which have MSP over them which results in exploitation of group water resources, alkalinity, decrease in the production of the crops in long run and much harm to environment.

Rationale behind the legal guarantee for MSP

  • The Centre currently announces the MSPs of 23 crops. They include 7 cereals (paddy, wheat, maize, bajra, jowar, ragi and barley), 5 pulses (chana, tur/arhar, moong, urad and masur), 7 oilseeds (rapeseed-mustard, groundnut, soyabean, sunflower, sesamum, safflower and nigerseed) and 4 commercial crops (sugarcane, cotton, copra and raw jute).
  • While the MSPs technically ensure a minimum 50% return on all cultivation costs, these are largely on paper.
  • In most crops grown across much of India, the prices received by farmers, especially during harvest time, are well below the officially-declared MSPs.
  • And since MSPs have no statutory backing, they cannot demand these as a matter of right.
  • The unions want the Modi government to enact legislation conferring mandatory status to MSP, rather than just being an indicative or desired price.

Challenges of granting statutory guarantee to MSP in India

  • Statutory MSP is unsustainable: A policy paper by NITI Aayog’s agricultural economist Ramesh Chand argued against legalising MSP. It reasoned that any fixed pre-determined price will push away private traders whenever production is more than demand, and there is a price slump in the market. This, in turn, will lead to government de-facto becoming the primary buyer of most farm produce for which MSP is declared, which is unsustainable.
  • Huge scope for corruption and recycling/leakage of wheat and rice, from godowns, ration shops or in transit.
  • Disposal problems: While cereals and pulses can be sold through the public distribution system, disposal becomes complicated in the case of niger seed, sesamum or safflower.
  • Inflation: Higher procurement cost would mean increase in prices of foodgrains, leading to inflation, which would eventually affect the poor.
  • It will also impact India’s farm exports, if the MSP is higher than the prevailing rates in the international market. Farm exports account for 11% of the total exports of commodities.
  • With a legally guaranteed higher MSP, India will face stiff opposition at the WTO. The US had successfully won a case against China at the WTO in 2019 which was concerned with China’s domestic support to agriculture in the form of Market Price Support (MPS).
  • It would lead to a huge burden on the exchequer, since the government would have to procure all marketable surplus in the absence of private participation.
  • Demands from other sectors: If the Centre makes a law to guarantee 100% procurement in all the 23 crops where MSP is announced, farmers cultivating fruits and vegetables, spices, and other crops will also demand the same.

Legal backing for MSP alone will not solve the agricultural sector woes

  • Farmers face many other issues other than price, which itself is not guaranteed given the influence of politicians and cartels in mandis.
  • They lack information on which crop to grow, when to sow, apply plant nutrients and which pest is attacking their crop.
  • Farmers are also short of post-harvest technologies to ensure a better shelf life for their produce.
  • In addition, they do not get adequate facilities to irrigate their lands, with nearly 50 per cent of the land being rain-fed and lacking ample warehouses to store their produce at the village level, besides proper roads to connect them to the mandis.
  • Legal backing for the MSP could also lead to the danger of the trade keeping away from places where the law is implemented vigorously.
  • For example, when Punjab said it would make MSP legal and binding, wheat traders said they would keep off the state to avoid trouble for themselves.

Conclusion

The government should shift its focus from providing only price support to farmers and focus on building better infrastructure, minimizing the gap between farmers and the market, land reforms, policy reforms to increase flow of credit to farmers, establishing food-processing industries for perishable goods, providing better irrigation facilities etc so, that agriculture emerges as a viable means of sustenance.

 

Topic: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

5. Digital Public Infrastructure in India has evolved significantly in the past decade, creating a strong foundation for digital transformation across various sectors. As India continues its journey towards a digital economy, the effective utilization and expansion of DPI will be crucial in realizing the country’s vision of inclusive and sustainable growth. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

The article discusses the concept of Digital Public Infrastructure (DPI) and emphasizes its global significance.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about DPI, its components and their growth and opportunities it offers.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining DPI

Body:

First, write about the key components of DPI in India – Aadhaar, Digital Locker, Bharat Bill Payment System (BBPS), Unified Payments Interface (UPI), and National Knowledge Network (NKN) and its their usage.

Next, write about the growth of DPI and their applications in the various sectors.

Next, write about the opportunities in DPI for the future and how India can harness it.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

Digital public infrastructure (DPI) refers to blocks or platforms such as digital identification, payment infrastructure and data exchange solutions that help countries deliver essential services to their people, empowering citizens and improving lives by enabling digital inclusion.

India, through India Stack, became the first country to develop all three foundational DPIs, Digital identity (Aadhar), Real-time fast payment (UPI) and Account Aggregator built on the Data Empowerment Protection Architecture (DEPA).

Body

About DPI

  • DPIs mediate the flow of people, money and information. First, the flow of people through a digital ID System. Second, the flow of money through a real-time fast payment system. And third, the flow of personal information through a consent-based data sharing system to actualize the benefits of DPIs and to empower the citizen with a real ability to control data.
  • These three sets become the foundation for developing an effective DPI ecosystem.
  • Each DPI layer fills a clear need and generates considerable value across sectors.
  • India, through India Stack, became the first country to develop all three foundational DPIs, Digital identity (Aadhar), Real-time fast payment (UPI) and Account Aggregator built on the Data Empowerment Protection Architecture (DEPA).
  • DEPA creates a digital framework that allows users to share their data on their own terms through a third-party entity, who are known as Consent Mangers.

 

Growth of DPI

  • Digital Infrastructure Development: Over the past decade, India has invested in the creation of robust digital infrastructure, including high-speed internet connectivity, data centres, and improved telecommunications networks. Initiatives like Digital India and Bharat Net have played a crucial role in expanding internet access to rural and remote areas, bridging the digital divide and empowering citizens with digital services.
  • Digital Governance: The Indian government has made efforts to digitize various public services, enabling citizens to access government services online easily. This move has increased efficiency, reduced bureaucracy, and enhanced transparency in governance. Initiatives like Aadhaar, the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI), have provided a secure digital identity to millions of Indians, enabling easy access to various services and benefits.
  • E-Governance and Service Delivery: DPI has facilitated the delivery of essential services like education, healthcare, financial inclusion, and social welfare schemes to remote and underserved regions. Initiatives like e-governance portals, telemedicine, and direct benefit transfer (DBT) have positively impacted the lives of millions by reducing inefficiencies and leakages in the system.
  • Digital Payments and Financial Inclusion: India has seen a remarkable rise in digital payment platforms and fintech solutions, promoting financial inclusion. Government-led initiatives like Jan Dhan Yojana, Unified Payments Interface (UPI), and BHIM have made digital payments accessible to the unbanked and underbanked population, fostering greater economic participation.
  • Digital Entrepreneurship and Startups: The DPI has contributed to the growth of India’s startup ecosystem. The availability of digital infrastructure and ease of doing business has encouraged entrepreneurs to create innovative solutions, fostering economic growth and employment opportunities.
  • Data Privacy and Security Concerns: As DPI continues to expand, data privacy and security challenges have emerged. With the increasing digital footprint, there is a need to strengthen cybersecurity measures and ensure responsible data handling to protect citizens’ personal information.
  • Internet Penetration and Digital Literacy: While India has made strides in improving internet penetration, there is still a need to enhance digital literacy, especially in rural areas. Promoting digital literacy will empower citizens to leverage digital services effectively.
  • Leveraging Emerging Technologies: As DPI evolves, India has the opportunity to leverage emerging technologies like artificial intelligence, blockchain, and the Internet of Things (IoT) to further enhance service delivery and governance.

Conclusion

Overall, India’s progress in developing its Digital Public Infrastructure has laid a strong foundation for a digital economy. However, to realize the vision of inclusive and sustainable growth, continuous efforts are needed to address challenges related to data privacy, security, and digital literacy. Additionally, adapting to emerging technologies and fostering innovation will be crucial for India to maintain its momentum towards becoming a digital-first nation.

Value addition

  • Aadhaar:
  • Aadhaar is a strategic policy tool for social and financial inclusion, public sector delivery reforms, managing fiscal budgets, increasing convenience and promoting hassle-free people-centric governance.
  • Aadhaar holders can voluntarily use their Aadhaar for private sector purposes, and private sector entities need not seek special permission for such usage.
  • DigiYatra:
  • DigiYatra is a Biometric Enabled Seamless Travel (BEST) experience based on a Facial Recognition System (FRS).
  • Air passenger traffic in India was estimated to be over 188 million in airports across India in the financial year 2022, out of whom over 22 million were international passengers.
  • DigiLocker:
  • DigiLocker has 150 million users, six billion stored documents, and done with a tiny budget of RS 50 crore over seven years.
  • The users can store their documents such as insurance, medical reports, PAN card, passport, marriage certificate, school certificate and other documents in the digital format.
  • UPI:
  • UPI (Unified Payment Interface) has crossed eight billion transactions per month and transacts a value of USD 180 billion a month, or about a staggering 65% of India’s GDP per annum.
  • UPI is currently the biggest among the National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) operated systems including National Automated Clearing House (NACH), Immediate Payment Service (IMPS), Aadhaar enabled Payment System (AePS), Bharat Bill Payment System (BBPS), RuPay etc.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

6. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“States are doomed when they are unable to distinguish good men from bad.” ― Confucius.

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2024 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote and highlighting its core meaning about selflessness.

Body:

Write about the presence of good and bad people in the country and societies across the world. It is pertinent for the state to identify them. Good people should be encouraged and bad people should be punished. If good people are punished and bad people rewarded, states are bound to be doomed. Substantiate with examples.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of the quote in the present day.

Introduction

There are good and bad people in the country and societies across the world. It is pertinent for the state to identify them. Good people should be encouraged and bad people should be punished. If good people are punished and bad people rewarded, states are bound to be doomed. For instance, if corrupt people in government are tolerated perpetually, nation goes into crisis. Sri Lanka’s example is a case in point.

Body

Bad men must be punished and stopped at their roots. The biggest example in history is that of Hitler’s Germany. Hitler’s agenda led to holocaust and genocide of jews which remains one of the worst incidents in history. Likewise, those who encouraged wars due to aggression spelled doom in their nations.

It is important to make a role model out of great personalities who inspire to do good work than glorify those who have an ulterior motive. Gandhiji, Nelson Mandela, Martin Luther King, the world is replete with such personalities.

Positive reinforcement and presenting the tragic history as is without any propaganda can make a nation more resilient against bad intentions of people. As a society one must recognize the bad elements and make the system strong to weed these people out of the society and shun them from their agenda.

Conclusion

Thus, states are the ultimate beneficiary or losers based on their ability to identify good people from the bad. Issues of corruption, cronyism, dictatorship, wars are a result of such bad people taking powerful place in the nation. Only an aware citizenry can prevent such people from gaining seats of power in the society and the country.

 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

7. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“The purpose of life is not to be happy. It is to be useful, to be honorable, to be compassionate, to have it make some difference that you have lived and lived well.” – Ralph Waldo Emerson

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2024 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote and highlighting its core meaning about selflessness.

Body:

Write about people looking beyond their own happiness and consider how they can positively affect the lives of others. It aligns with the idea that a meaningful and purposeful life involves giving back, showing compassion, and leaving a positive mark on the world, even if it means sacrificing some personal desires in the process. Substantiate with examples.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of the quote in the present day.

Introduction

A question that intrigues all human beings as they grow is what is the purpose of our life. Most of us believe that being happy ultimately is the only purpose. But happiness is not a goal in itself. The author here says that happiness is a byproduct of being usefulIt is not the length of life, but the depth that matters.

Body

Happiness is a very subjective concept. What makes us happy today, may not make us happy tomorrow, or even the next moment. We may think that a good vacation, a good home etc brings us happiness. But they are momentary and are not durable or long-term.

What really makes us happy is when we are useful. When we create something that others can use. One doesn’t have to change the world or anything. Just make it a little bit better than you were born.

Life is an experiment. The more experiments we do the better. It is one of the most beautiful compensations of life, that no man can sincerely try to help another without helping himself. There is a time in every man’s education when he arrives at the conviction that envy is ignorance; that imitation is suicide; that he must take himself for better, for worse, as his portion; that though the wide universe is full of good, no kernel of nourishing corn can come to him but through his toil bestowed on that plot of ground which is given to him to till. The power which resides in him is new in nature, and none but he knows what that is which he can do, nor does he know until he has tried.

Being compassionate to fellow human suffering motivates us to be useful. Mother Teresa took care of so many Indians that she is revered even today. To be so self-less requires a different kind of courage. Compassion invokes empathy and empathy spurs us into doing good for the welfare of the larger community. This is the single most reason why Gandhiji, Ambedkar, Nelson Mandela are some of the greatest humans that walked the earth.

Conclusion

Be not the slave of your own past. Plunge into the sublime seas, dive deep and swim far, so you shall come back with self-respect, with new power, with an advanced experience that shall explain and overlook the old. Happiness is a perfume you cannot pour on others without getting some on yourself.

 


Join our Official Telegram Channel HERE

Please subscribe to Our podcast channel HERE

Subscribe to our YouTube ChannelHERE

Follow our Twitter Account HERE

Follow our Instagram ID HERE

Follow us on LinkedIn : HERE