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[Mission 2024] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 26 July 2023

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

1. The Second World War was caused by several interconnected factors that contributed to the outbreak of the war. Elaborate. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2024 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write in detail the factors that caused the Second World War

Directive word: 

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context.

Body:

First, Mention the causes of world war-II – Harsh conditions imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles after World War I, Rise of totalitarian regimes with aggressive foreign policies (Hitler, Mussolini, Hirohito), Policy of appeasement by Western democracies and Failure of the League of Nations etc.

Next, write about its impact.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

The instability created in Europe by the First World War (1914-18) set the stage for another international conflict—World War II—which broke out two decades later and would prove even more devastating. Rising to power in an economically and politically unstable Germany, Adolf Hitler, leader of the Nazi Party, rearmed the nation and signed strategic treaties with Italy and Japan to further his ambitions of world domination.

Body:

Factors responsible for Second World war:

Treaty of Versailles

  • Following World War, I, the victorious Allied Powers met to decide Germany’s future. Germany was forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles.
  • Under this treaty, Germany had to accept guilt for the war and to pay reparations. Germany lost territory and was prohibited from having a large military.
  • The humiliation faced by Germany under this treaty, paved the way for the spread of Ultra-Nationalism in Germany.

Failure of the League of Nations

  • The League of Nations was an international organization set up in 1919 to keep world peace.
  • It was intended that all countries would be members and that if there were disputes between countries, they could be settled by negotiation rather than by force.
  • The League of Nations was a good idea, but ultimately a failure, as not all countries joined the league.
  • Also, the League had no army to prevent military aggression such as Italy’s invasion of Ethiopia in Africa or Japan’s invasion of Manchuria in China.

Rise of Fascism

  • Victors’ stated aims in World War I had been “to make the world safe for democracy,” and post-war Germany was made to adopt a democratic constitution, as did most of the other states restored or created after the war.
  • In the 1920s, however, the wave of nationalistic, militaristic totalitarianism known by its Italian name, fascism.
  • It promised to minister to peoples’ wants more effectively than democracy and presented itself as the one sure defence against communism.
  • Benito Mussolini established the first Fascist, European dictatorship during the interwar period in Italy in 1922.

Rise of Nazism

  • Adolf Hitler, the Leader of the German National Socialist (Nazi) party, preached a racist brand of fascism.
  • Hitler promised to overturn the Versailles Treaty, restore German wealth & glory and secure additional Lebensraum (“living space”) for the German people, who he contended deserve more as members of a superior race.
  • In 1933 Hitler became the German Chancellor, and in a series of subsequent moves established himself as dictator.
  • Moreover, in 1941 the Nazi regime unleashed a war of extermination against Slavs, Jews, and other elements deemed inferior by Hitler’s ideology.

Policy of Appeasement

  • Hitler openly denounced the Treaty of Versailles and began secretly building up Germany’s army and weapons.
  • Although Britain and France knew of Hitler’s actions, they thought a stronger Germany would stop the spread of Communism from Russia.
  • An example of appeasement was the Munich Agreement of September 1938. In the Agreement, Britain and France allowed Germany to annex areas in Czechoslovakia where German-speakers lived.
    • Germany agreed not to invade the rest of Czechoslovakia or any other country. However, in March 1939, Germany broke its promise and invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia.
    • Even then, neither Britain nor France was prepared to take military action.

Great Depression of 1929

  • The worldwide economic depression of the 1930s took its toll in different ways in Europe and Asia.
  • In Europe, political power shifted to totalitarian and imperialist governments in several countries, including Germany, Italy, and Spain.
  • In Asia, a resource-starved Japan began to expand aggressively, invading China and manoeuvring to control a sphere of influence in the Pacific.

Ideological Conflict:

  • Dictatorship vs. Democracy.
  • Another cause of World War II was the ideological conflict between dictatorships on the one hand and democracies on the other.
  • Germany, Italy and Japan (Axis states) stood for dictatorship, war and imperialism, while Britain, France and the U.S.A. stood for democracy, peace and status quo.
  • The ideological conflict between the former and the latter prevented the adoption of a peaceful and balanced approach to the settlement of their disputes.

Problem of National Minorities:

  • The Paris Peace Conference failed to solve the problem of settling the minorities.
  • US President Wilson had advocated the need to base the peace treaty on the principle of self-determination.
  • But due to several social, cultural, religious, economic and military factors, it was found difficult to operationalize this principle.
  • Consequently, in many states minorities opposed to each other were left under an alien rule.
  • For example, a large number of Germans were left in Poland, Czechoslovakia and Austria.

Conclusion:

After the end of the war, a conference was held in Potsdam, Germany, to set up peace treaties. The countries that fought with Hitler lost territory and had to pay reparations to the Allies. Germany and its capital Berlin were divided into four parts. The zones were to be controlled by Great Britain, the United States, France and the Soviet Union. The three western Allies and the Soviet Union disagreed on many things and as time went on Germany was divided into two separate countries: East Germany, which had a Communist government and West Germany, which was a democratic state. This laid the foundation of the Cold War.

 

Topic: History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

2. World War I played a significant role in the beginning of the Russian Revolution, which culminated in the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of a communist government. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2024 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the causes of Russian revolution and how world war I influenced the revolution in Russia.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Write about the outbreak of Russian revolution during the course of World War-I.

Body:

In the first part, mention the causes of the Russian Revolution – Political, Administrative, Economic and ideological – Link how the world war exacerbated these causes which made the revolution inevitable.

Next, write in detail, the role of World War-I in the outbreak of the revolution.

Conclusion:

Summarise that chain of events led to the collapse of monarchy in Russia and marked the demise of Romanov dynasty.

Introduction

In 1913, Tsar Nicholas II celebrated the tercentenary of Romanov rule in Russia. He and his dynasty ruled over a huge empire, stretching from central Europe to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic to the borders of Afghanistan.

Just five years after the celebrations, Nicholas and his family would be dead, executed by the Bolsheviks, while his empire would be defeated in the World War and wracked by revolutions, civil wars and foreign interventions.

Body

World War I fuelled the Russian revolution

During the war: 1914-1916

  • At Tannenberg and the First Battle of the Masurian Lakes, in 1914, Russia lost two entire armies (over 250,000 men).
  • This failed Russian advance into East Prussia did disrupt Germany’s Schlieffen Plan and thus probably prevented the fall of Paris, but it also signalled the beginning of an unrelenting Russian retreat on the northern sector of the Eastern Front.
  • By the middle of 1915 all of Russian Poland and Lithuania, and most of Latvia, were overrun by the German army.
  • Fortunately for the Russians, they did better in 1916. The supply of rifles and artillery shells to the Eastern Front was vastly improved, and in the Brusilov Offensive of June 1916, Russia achieved significant victories over the Austrians
  • However, the country’s political and economic problems were greatly exacerbated by the war. Many factors – including the militarisation of industry and crises in food supply – threatened disaster on the home front.
  • Added to this cocktail were rumours that the tsarina, Alexandra, and her favourite, the infamous Rasputin, were German spies.
  • The rumours were unfounded, but by November 1916 influential critics of the regime were asking whether Russia’s misfortunes – including 1,700,000 military dead and 5,000,000 wounded – were a consequence of ‘stupidity or treason’.

1917: From February to October

  • Food riots, demonstrations and a mutiny at the Petrograd Garrison in February 1917 forced Nicholas II to abdicate as war still continued.
  • A Provisional Government led by liberals and moderate socialists was proclaimed, and its leaders hoped now to pursue the war more effectively.
  • Real power in Russia after the February Revolution, however, lay with the socialist leaders of the Petrograd (later All-Russian) Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies, who were elected by popular mandate (unlike the ministers of the Provisional Government).
  • Against this background, the war minister Kerensky of the Provisional Government hoped to strengthen Russia’s hand with a new Russian offensive on the Eastern Front in June.
  • Anarchist and Bolshevik agitators played their own part in destroying the Russian Army’s ability to fight.
  • Many anti-war radicals, along with the Bolshevik leader, Vladimir Lenin, were ferried home from exile in Switzerland in April 1917, courtesy of the German General Staff.
  • The summer offensive was a disaster. Peasant soldiers deserted enmasse to join the revolution, and fraternisation with the enemy became common.
  • Meanwhile, in an attempt to restore order and resist the German counter-offensive, most of the generals and forces of the political right threw their weight behind a plan for a military coup, under the Russian Army’s commander-in-chief, General Kornilov.
  • The coup failed and the generals and the conservatives who had backed Kornilov felt betrayed by Kerensky
  • The only winners were the Bolsheviks, with Lenin at their head, who were able to topple Kerensky and take power in the October Revolution of 1917- without significant resistance from either the government or the army.

Conclusion

Thus, we can see that the turn of events for a liberal rule from 1905 got entangled with the Russia’s entry into WW-1. The events in WW-1 inturn aggravated the Russian revolution.

 

Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

3. What is a geological era, and how does it contribute to our understanding of Earth’s history? Explain. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question: 

Our planet is more than four billion years old – a staggering amount of time for humans to contemplate. To ease this task, experts have divided earth’s history into pieces of time, called aeons, eras, periods, and epochs.

Key Demand of the question:

To provide an explanation of geological eras, their significance in the study of geology, and their role in understanding Earth’s history and the evolution of life.

Directive word: 

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define geological eras and their relevance in the field of geology.

Body:

Write about how geological eras provide a framework for organizing and studying Earth’s history, allowing scientists to comprehend the progression of geological events over billions of years. Describe how geological eras contribute to our understanding of major geological events like continental drift, mountain-building, and mass extinctions etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

Geological eras(Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic) are major divisions of geologic time that represent long periods in the Earth’s history. They are part of the geological time scale, which is a chronological framework used by geologists to organize and study the Earth’s history. The geological time scale divides Earth’s history into various intervals based on significant geological events, changes in the fossil record, and other key markers.

Today, scientists around the world are locked in a debate about whether we are currently in a new geological time period, dubbed the “Anthropocene”, marked by the oft-devastating effects of human presence on earth.

Body

Geological eras and time scale

  • Precambrian Era: This is the earliest and longest geological era, encompassing the time from the formation of the Earth (around 4.6 billion years ago) to approximately 541 million years ago. It includes the Hadean, Archean, and Proterozoic eons.
  • Paleozoic Era: Following the Precambrian, the Paleozoic Era extends from about 541 million years ago to 252 million years ago. It is known for significant evolutionary events, including the appearance of complex life forms such as fish, amphibians, and reptiles. The Paleozoic Era concludes with the Permian-Triassic mass extinction, one of the most extensive extinction events in Earth’s history.
  • Mesozoic Era: The Mesozoic Era covers the period from approximately 252 million years ago to 66 million years ago. This era is often referred to as the “Age of Dinosaurs” because dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates during this time. The Mesozoic Era concludes with the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event, which led to the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs.
  • Cenozoic Era: The Cenozoic Era began about 66 million years ago and continues to the present day. It is characterized by the diversification and dominance of mammals and the eventual emergence and proliferation of humans. The Cenozoic Era is further divided into the Paleogene and Neogene periods, as well as the ongoing Quaternary period.

Contribution to understanding history

  • Precambrian
    • Formation of Earth: The Precambrian Era covers the earliest part of Earth’s history, including the formation of the planet and its early geological processes. Studying this era helps us comprehend the conditions under which the Earth and its crust evolved.
    • Early life and evolution: The Precambrian includes the rise of life on Earth, from simple single-celled organisms to more complex life forms. The study of ancient fossils and geological evidence from this era sheds light on the early stages of biological evolution.
    • Formation of continents: During the Archean and Proterozoic eons, the first continents began to form through various geological processes like tectonics and volcanic activity. Understanding this era helps us trace the development of Earth’s landmasses.
  • Paleozolic
    • Explosion of life: The Paleozoic Era is known for the “Cambrian explosion,” a period of rapid diversification and evolution of complex life forms. The appearance of diverse marine invertebrates, fish, amphibians, and early reptiles is well-documented from this era.
    • Formation of major landforms: During the Paleozoic, significant mountain-building events and the assembly of the supercontinent Pangaea occurred. Studying this era helps us understand the geological processes that shaped Earth’s surface.
    • Mass extinctions: The end of the Paleozoic Era is marked by the Permian-Triassic extinction event, which had a profound impact on life. Understanding mass extinctions from this era provides valuable insights into how environmental changes can lead to dramatic loss of biodiversity.
  • Mesozoic Era:
    • Age of Dinosaurs: The Mesozoic Era is renowned as the “Age of Dinosaurs” because dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial animals during this time. The study of fossils from this era has significantly contributed to our understanding of dinosaur biology and behavior.
    • Breakup of Pangaea: The Mesozoic witnessed the breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea into the modern continents. This era’s geology helps us comprehend plate tectonics and the dynamics of Earth’s crust.
    • Rise of mammals and birds: While dinosaurs were dominant, the Mesozoic also saw the rise of early mammals and birds, which eventually paved the way for their evolutionary success in the Cenozoic Era.
  • Cenozoic Era:
    • Mammalian evolution: The Cenozoic is the “Age of Mammals,” during which mammals diversified and became the dominant land vertebrates. This era includes the evolution of primates, leading eventually to the emergence of humans.
    • Quaternary glaciations: The Cenozoic Era includes the Quaternary period, marked by periodic glaciations and interglacial periods. Understanding these climatic changes is vital for comprehending past and present climate dynamics.
    • Human history: The Cenozoic Era encompasses the entire history of human evolution, from early hominids to the development of modern humans and the rise of human civilizations.

Conclusion

In summary, each geological era contributes critical information about the Earth’s formation, biological evolution, climatic changes, geological processes, and the history of life. By studying the rocks, fossils, and other geological evidence from these eras, scientists can piece together the puzzle of Earth’s history and gain insights into the factors that have shaped our planet over billions of years.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4. Discuss the impact of PM- Wi-Fi Access Network Interface (PM-WANI) on digital inclusion and internet penetration in rural areas. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express , Insights on India

Why the question:

The article emphasizes that this innovative approach to internet provision could lead to socio-economic development and a more inclusive society.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about how PM-Wani can bring about digital transformation and create new opportunities in education, health and governance etc.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Briefly explain about PM-WANI and its aims and objectives.

Body:

In the first part, mention about the inadequacies in the digital sector like low penetration, lack of infrastructure, high costs or subscriber fees etc. which hinder the digital transformation.

In the second part, mention as to how PM-WANI aims to overcome the above mentioned issues to achieve a digital transformation.

In the next part, mention the opportunities PM-WANI creates for community organisations, libraries, educational institutions, health panchayats and small entrepreneurs.

Conclusion:

Give a way forward that is needed to ensure that PM-WANI can achieve its intended aims and objectives.

Introduction

PM WANI (Prime Minister Wi-Fi Access Network Interface) Scheme launched in 2020 aims to bring large scale deployment of Wi-Fi hotspots through the country to drive up connectivity options and improve digital access.

The scheme envisages setting up of public Wi-Fi networks and access points by local Kirana and neighborhood shops through public data offices (PDO will be set up on the lines of Public Call Offices (PCOs)) that will not involve any license, fee or registration.

Apart from, Public Wi-Fi being a low-cost option to reach unserved citizens and grow the economy, it can revolutionize the tech world and significantly improve Wi-Fi availability across the length and breadth of India.

Body:

PM WANI: digital inclusion and internet penetration in rural areas

  • Instead of redundant networks by ISPs to compete for top users, PM WANI allows them to interoperate and focus on connecting the last user.
  • It is built on unbundling 3 As – access, authorization and accounting.
  • There are two dimensions along which PM-WANI has broken away from the past — regulatory and technology.
  • PM-WANI has liberalized the resale of bandwidth. PM-WANI allows to resell internet to its customers without a license and without fees by installing a wireless router, they can get on the PM-WANI network and start selling connectivity. These small vendors will be called Public Data Offices (PDOs), in a deliberate hark back to the Public Call Offices of yore. PCOs became centres of economic activity, providing small businesses with a steady trickle of clients that they could then sell other sachet-sized products.
  • PM-WANI builds on Digi locker and Aadhar to authenticate its users. This architecture also allows a central data balance and central KYC, that users can use inter-operably across all PDOs. The network operators then settle accounting between them.  The end result is unlike other countries, Indians can log in once and enjoy access on all available Wi-Fi networks. Having such a public network also allows international travelers to take advantage of India’s connectivity, without paying exorbitant roaming charges to their home networks.

Intended Benefits of PM WANI

  • New Wave of Internet Users: PM WANI will be able to connect a new wave of users not just to commercial and entertainment options, but also to education, telehealth and agriculture extension, and bring greater accountability to the government by boosting transparency and interactivity.
  • Enabler for Digital India: The scheme would enable small shopkeepers to provide Wi-Fi service. This will boost incomes as well as ensure youth gets seamless internet connectivity.
    • It can also strengthen the Digital India mission.
  • Cutting the Red Tape: Through PM WANI, the government is hoping that by cutting through layers of bureaucracy and eliminating licenses and fees, it can make it easy even for a tea shop owner to register online as a service provider, opening up new income avenues.
  • Domino Effect on Economy: According to the TRAI report, public Wi-Fi system on the WANI architecture can lead to a 10% rise in net penetration which in turn can lead to a 1.4% increase in GDP.
  • Bridging the Digital Divide: PM WANI can result into a rapid scale-up of the Internet in rural India, which will be transformative, given the low level of penetration — 27.57 subscribers per 100 populations in 2019.
    • Wi-Fi linked to broadband fiber service can be the fastest route to bridging the existing gap.
  • Low-Cost Alternative: Upcoming mobile technologies such as 5G may provide good quality data, but they involve high investment in the new spectrum, connectivity equipment and regular subscriber fees.
    • The WANI system offers a way forward to connect low revenue consumers.

Issues Regarding PM WANI

  • Security Risks: A public Wi-Fi network has several security issues. That’s because several people access the network at the same time on the same spot.
    • Thus, public Wi-Fi is at a high risk of sending out confidential data (like passwords, pins etc.) over the network.
  • Low Speed: As public Wi-Fi network is usually accessed by several people at the same time, it results in a considerable loss of bandwidth resulting in a slow network speed
    • It is due to this fact, Google and Facebook’s attempts to provide public Wi-Fi got shut down earlier this year.
  • Cheap Mobile Data: As per TRAI in 2019, India now has among the cheapest mobile data per GB in the world, with mobile data prices having reduced by 95% in the last five years.
  • As 4G has become cheap and widely accessible, is there still a need to drive Wi-Fi in this manner, rather than the “leapfrogging” of technology that people have frequently talked about in the context of India

Way Forward

  • Strong Cyber-Security Architecture: What the citizen expects is robust service, protection of data integrity, transparency on commercial use of data, and security against cyberattacks.
  • PM WANI should ensure the public data is protected and safe. In this context, the enactment of the public data protection bill, 2019, is the need of the hour.
  • Ensuring Competition: The government must also ensure true unbundling of hardware, software, apps and payment gateways in the WANI system, as advocated by TRAI, to prevent monopolies.
  • Also, increased competition will address the low data speed issue.

Conclusion

If executed properly, the public data offices (PDOs) of PM WANI can do what the PCOs did for phone calls, going well beyond ‘ease of doing business’ to genuinely empower citizens and providing “ease of living”.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. Discuss the benefits of adopting a circular economy approach in terms of sustainability, resource efficiency, and environmental conservation. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The article highlights the importance of transitioning from the traditional linear economic model of “take-make-dispose” to a circular economy, considering its positive impacts on sustainability and resource management.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the significance of embracing a circular economy, elucidating the advantages it offers

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.        

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define a circular economy.

Body:

First, write about the Advantages of a Circular Economy – reduced environmental impact, lower resource consumption, and minimized waste generation, such as reduced greenhouse gas emissions, decreased pollution, and conservation of natural resources etc. Cite examples to substantiate.

Next, write about the challenges and potential Solutions in transitioning towards a circular economy.

Conclusion:

Suggest further steps that are needed to be taken in this regard.

Introduction

The circular economy is a model of production and consumption, which involves sharing, leasing, reusing, repairing, refurbishing and recycling existing materials and products as long as possible. In this way, the life cycle of products is extended.

Recognising the need to switch from the ‘take-make-dispose’ to ‘reduce-reuse-recycle’ model. India has prioritized ‘Resource Efficiency and Circular Economy’ as one of the three core themes for deliberations in the G-20 forum.

Body

This is a departure from the traditional, linear economic model, which is based on a take-make-consume-throw away pattern. It relies on large quantities of cheap, easily accessible materials and energy.

Principles of circular economy

The following ‘5R’ principles lies at the heart of achieving circularity in any product, process or service:

  • Reduce: The emphasis is on achieving resource efficiency by prioritizing use of regenerative and restorative resources.
  • Reuse: This encompasses two aspects – first is to reuse the useful parts / components of a product, wherever possible and second is to promote greater use of product-as-a-service through sharing platforms.
  • Recycle: Focus is on creating a closed loop system to utilize discarded material as a source of secondary resource, through extensive recycling.
  • Re-manufacture: To create new products by utilizing waste streams through cooperation and collaboration between multi-sector industry actors.
  • Repair/refurbish: The aim is to preserve and extend the life of a product that is already made by designing for the future

Need for circular economy in India

  • Rise in consumerism: The robust economic growth coupled with rising household incomes have resulted in increased consumer spending, which is expected to reach USD 4 trillion by 2025. The rise in consumerism has led to more frequent replacement of assets on account of increased spending power and economies of scale.
  • High resource demand: Increased domestic resource extraction due to urbanisation exerts increasing pressure on natural resources such as land, forest, air and water. At the current rate of growth of the economy, India’s resource requirements are projected to be nearly 15 billion tonnes by 2030. Therefore, an urgent need for decoupling economic growth from resources, which can be achieved through a circular economy approach.
  • Import dependence: India’s dependence on the international market for accessing critical resources like rare earth minerals etc. due to shrinking reserves, technical constraints etc.
  • Waste creation: The traditional linear economy approach results in massive waste generation at all stages of a product life cycle right from resource extraction, processing, value addition, consumption to end of life stage.

Steps by the government:

  • The Government has been working towards the adoption of biofuels.
  • The Pradhan Mantri JI-VAN Yojana provides financial support to integrated bio-ethanol projects to set up second generation (2G) ethanol projects.
    • 2G bioethanol technology produces bioethanol from waste feedstock such as crop residues and municipal solid waste that would otherwise have no value.
  • India has also made it mandatory for coal-burning thermal power plants to use a 5% blendof biomass pellets along with coal.
  • The Galvanizing Organic Bio-Agro Resources (GOBAR) Dhan scheme was launched to convert cattle dung and other organic waste into compost, biogas, and biofuels to promote sustainable agriculture and reduce pollution.
    • The scheme has helped create rural livelihoods and ensured improved sanitation.
  • The Sustainable Alternative Towards Affordable Transportation (SATAT) Scheme(2018)to promote the use of Compressed BioGas (CBG) as an alternative green transportation fuel.
    • It has aided the bioenergy sectorby accelerating the development of infrastructure for the production, storage and distribution of CBG.

Way forward

  • In the collective global endeavor to ensure sustainable development and realize the Sustainable Development Goals, decoupling resource utilization from economic growth is going to be the key.
  • Industries are crucial in advancing resource efficiency and circular economy practices, India has envisioned an industry coalition in these areas. The coalition will aim to achieve
    • enhanced technological collaboration
    • build advanced capabilities across sectors
    • mobilize de-risked finance
    • facilitate a proactive private sector engagement.
  • Need for Legislation to promote the circular economy in the country. Several countries have recognised the centrality of the circularity as the new paradigm for sustainable development.
  • Policies like Zero Effect, Zero Defectin manufacturing stage, National Electricity Mobility Mission Plan in consumption stage, and the various Waste Management Rules in disposal stage, if tweaked properly, can be the ideal for integrating circular economy into the fabric of the Indian economy.
  • Ensuring the transition to circular economy call for extensive collaborative efforts between key stakeholders, including regulators, policy makers, corporates, and financial institutions would need to work to adopt circular business models.
  • Adequate financing needed for realization of these newer opportunities through innovative financing instruments, such as green bonds, municipal bonds, SDG-aligned bonds.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

6. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“Silence becomes cowardice when occasion demands speaking out the whole truth and acting accordingly.”- Mahatma Gandhi

Difficulty level: Easy

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2024 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote.

Body:

With examples mentions how civil servants are targeted for speaking truth to those in power – transfers, punishment posting, threats, suspensions and even harm to their life etc.

Mention steps to protect and safeguard those who speak truth to the authorities.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of the quote in the present day.

Introduction

The quote highlights the significance of speaking out and acting truthfully when the situation requires it. In essence, it suggests that remaining silent in certain circumstances can be seen as an act of cowardice, especially when the truth needs to be expressed and appropriate actions need to be taken.

Body

The quote emphasizes that there are moments when it is crucial to speak the complete truth, without withholding any relevant information. Additionally, it suggests that speaking out is not enough; taking appropriate action based on the truth is also necessary.

This idea can be applied to various scenarios where individuals may be hesitant to voice their opinions or stand up for what they believe in due to fear of backlash or negative consequences. However, remaining silent when confronted with injustice, wrongdoing, or important issues can lead to perpetuating the problem or enabling harmful behavior.

Speaking out the whole truth means being honest and forthright, even when it might be uncomfortable or challenging. It’s about having the courage to express your beliefs and values, even in the face of opposition or adversity. Additionally, the quote emphasizes the importance of acting in accordance with the truth you speak, as mere words without action may have limited impact.

“The price of inaction is far greater than the cost of making a mistake.”

If we were to find a toddler drowning in a bathtub, we would feel morally obliged to act and to save her life, particularly because doing so would not require us to assume any significant risk to ourselves.  Inaction in this case would be morally wrong and unjustifiable.  This illustrates the fact that inaction is not morally neutral; it requires justification. Silence is also a form of inaction.

In essence, the quote encourages individuals to be brave and forthright, especially when facing circumstances that require them to speak up about the truth and act accordingly. It reminds us that silence can be detrimental when it enables injustice, dishonesty, or harmful actions to persist unchecked. Courageous individuals are those who have the strength to voice their opinions and stand up for what they believe in, even when it might be challenging or unpopular to do so.

Conclusion

Morality and ethics have grey areas and at times it is impossible to overcome the dilemma as either choices would lead to moral turpitude. Yet, values such as compassion, empathy, honesty and integrity help in aiding us to take the right decisions. To act or not to act is a challenge and the above values can guide one better.

 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

7. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“The test of our progress is not whether we add more to the abundance of those who have much; it is whether we provide enough for those who have too little.” – Franklin D. Roosevelt

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2024 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote and highlighting its core link of poverty and inequalities in the society.

Body:

Elaborate on the various dimensions of the above quote which shows how poverty is an outcome of injustice in the society – Excessive greed, corruption, hoarding of wealth etc.

Substantiate the about with facts and examples.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of the quote in the present day and measures to create social justice.

Introduction

In many ways, this quote addresses the issue of economic inequality and social justice. It suggests that a fair and just society should focus on addressing the needs of the underprivileged and ensuring that everyone has access to basic necessities like food, shelter, education, healthcare, and opportunities to improve their lives.

Body

Adding more wealth and prosperity to those who are already well-off might boost the overall economic indicators of a nation, but it doesn’t necessarily translate into genuine progress if it leaves the less fortunate behind, struggling to meet their basic needs.

The quote serves as a reminder to policymakers, governments, and individuals that the success of a society should be measured by how effectively it uplifts the disadvantaged and vulnerable members of the community. True progress lies in creating a more equitable and inclusive society, where everyone has the chance to thrive and live a dignified life, irrespective of their socioeconomic background. By providing enough for those who have too little, we can work towards building a more just and compassionate world.

In many societies, progress is often measured by economic growth and the accumulation of wealth, which tends to benefit those who are already in advantageous positions. However, true progress should be gauged by the extent to which we uplift and support those who are facing poverty, deprivation, or lack of basic necessities.

We have to prioritize creating a society where everyone has access to essential resources and opportunities, rather than concentrating resources among a select few. It points towards the importance of promoting social justice, equal opportunities, and sustainable development.

Conclusion

From a moral standpoint, this calls upon us to be mindful of our responsibility to the less privileged members of society and to work towards addressing the root causes of poverty and inequality. It encourages us to develop policies and initiatives that are aimed at providing enough for those in need and ensuring that everyone’s basic needs are met.


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