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Manual for Disaster Management Plan (DMP)

GS Paper 3

 Syllabus: Disaster Management

 

Source: PIB

 Context: The Union Ministry of Jal Shakti has released the Manual for Disaster Management Plan (DMP).

 

About the Manual for DMP:

  • Developed by: The Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Jal Shakti, based on the Advisory issued by the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), under the Disaster Management Act 2005.
  • Objective:
    • To ensure safety, uninterrupted supply and minimum loss of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) assets and services involving stakeholders at the national, state, district, and village levels.
    • Enhance WASH resilience to reduce disaster vulnerability.
    • Establish a robust environment, fund and coordination mechanism to achieve the desired goals.
    • Develop a plan which caters to disaster preparedness, response, recovery, reconstruction, and mitigation.
  • The plan includes Gender-based vulnerabilities, and issues concerning SC/ST, elderly, children and people with disabilities.
  • The Plan aligns with The two-flagship programmes on WASH implemented by the Department namely the Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) and Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin (SBM-G).

 

In case of disaster, 3 kinds of assessment need to be conducted:

  • Before the disaster: A Hazard-Vulnerability-Capacity mapping to guide the preparedness activities most needed,
  • During Response: A Rapid Needs Assessment (RNA) which can be completed in a day and point out the immediate needs of the affected population,
  • During Recovery and Reconstruction: A detailed Post-Disaster Needs Assessment (PDNA) which –
    • Highlights the long-term needs of the community and
    • Helps the administration “build back better” and “update” to mitigate against future disasters.

 

Other Indian efforts towards reducing the risk of disasters:

  • G20 Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) Working Group: India has established the first G20 Working Group on DRR to elevate DRR as a priority for G20 through its presidency.
  • Expanding disaster early warning: During Cyclone Biparjoy, effective systems for end-to-end early warning and action helped achieve zero deaths from the event in India.
  • UN Secretary General’s Early Warnings for All Initiative: India is working to realise the goal of the initiative, which seeks to create universal coverage for everyone by the end of 2027.
  • Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CRDI): India launched CRDI with the UN in 2019, to spur policy development and capacity support for disaster resilient infrastructure, especially in developing countries.

 

Best practices – Disaster response in Odisha:

  • Sneha Abhiyaan: Under this, self-help groups (SHGs) in the village are entrusted with managing cyclone shelters, including the distribution of cooked food.
  • Mamta Gruhas: These safe spaces provide comprehensive care for women, children and other vulnerable sections of society.
  • Training and capacity building of frontline workers (ASHAs, SHGs): SDRF provides training in first aid, shelter management, rescue operations, government regulations concerning trafficking and compensation norms.

 

Way ahead:

  • To build resilience within affected communities, it is essential to focus on long-term rehabilitation.
  • The leadership of women collectives plays a vital role in this process.

 

Conclusion: As the world is at the midpoint of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, a renewed sense of urgency and a people-centred approach can significantly reduce disaster losses by 2030.

 

Insta Links:

India can guide G20’s disaster management initiatives

 

Mains Links:

Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) involves proactively identifying and addressing the underlying risks and vulnerabilities that can lead to disasters. Analyse in the context of India’s adoption of the National Disaster Management Plan.