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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 2:

  1. India signs the US-led Artemis Accords
  2. Restoring the WTO’s dispute settlement system


GS Paper 3:

  1. Intellectual property protection in agriculture


Content for Mains Enrichment

  1. Sir Elton John
  2. Sarpa App
  3. Educational Exposure Visit to Japan


Facts for Prelims (FFP)

  1. Marine Heatwaves
  2. GST Network (GSTN)
  3. Variable Rate Reverse Repo Auctions (VRRRs)
  4. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) air pollution
  5. Majorana zero modes
  6. ISRO to transfer SSLV to the private sector
  7. Global Peace Index 2023
  8. Cluster Bomb



  1. Football’s offside rule



  1. Churachandpur (Manipur)
  2. Indonesia


India signs the US-led Artemis Accords

GS Paper 2

 Syllabus: Bilateral, Regional and Global Groupings and Agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests


Source: IE


Context: During the Indian PM’s state visit to the US, India signed the Artemis Accords.


About the Artemis Accords:

  • They are a US-led international partnership (introduced in 2020 by NASA) signed by 27 countries till now, including Japan, Australia, the UK, France, and Canada – on planetary exploration and research.
  • They are a set of 13 principles, closely linked to the 2018 US Artemis Program, which aims to return astronauts to the lunar surface, build a space camp there, and carry out deep space exploration.
  • They are a non-binding bilateral arrangement based on the political understanding of the participating countries.
  • This means the Accords do not have the status of a multilateral treaty or a contract nor does it set out legal principles or rules by any stretch of imagination.




Why were the Artemis Accords created by the USA?

  • The US domestic law provides rights to private citizens to extract, own and bring back such asteroid or lunar resources they might commercially exploit.
  • However, such a law is consistent with the Outer Space Treaty, which prohibits national appropriation of space resources by claims of sovereignty, by use, by occupation or by any other means.
  • Therefore, the Accords enable the US to seek international support and partners for advancing the 2018 US Artemis Program, which aims off-Earth exploration and commercial mining of planetary resources.
  • It is important to note that the Accords document does not specifically refer to the commercial exploitation or mining of lunar and asteroid resources.


How can signing the Artemis Accords benefit India?

  • The Accords could fast-track India’s human spaceflight capabilities and ambitions cost-effectively and via collaborations.
  • The Accords could help catalyse a strong NASA-ISRO collaboration. For example, India can contribute to the Gateway – an upcoming NASA-led international lunar orbital station for Artemis astronauts. In return, India can get a crew seat.
  • This could help India shape the governance of the extraction (of prospecting resources on the Moon) as and when it becomes a reality.
  • The Indo-Japanese LUPEX Moon rover mission – targeted for launch in the 2026-2028 timeframe – will certainly feed into the critical data on which future crewed Artemis missions will depends.


Challenges for India:

  • ISRO’s upcoming space science missions have been facing delays due to budget shortages.
  • The signing of the Accords means India has completely sided with the West regarding space exploration.


India’s new space policy:

  • It explicitly encourages ISRO to undertake missions on in-situ resource utilisation, celestial prospecting and other aspects of extra-terrestrial habitability.
  • This would allow India to sufficiently leverage the Accords for helping shape its future on the Moon.


Conclusion: Space is all about geopolitics and international cooperation and mutual understanding are key pillars of international relations for every country. So, for India, it’s not a case of siding with the US but to fulfil its national interest.


Insta Links:

Artemis Accords

Restoring the WTO’s dispute settlement system

GS Paper 2

 Syllabus: Important International Institutions, agencies and fora – their Structure, Mandate


Source: TH

 Context: Since 2019, the WTO’s two-tiered dispute settlement system (DSS) remains paralysed.


About World Trade Organization (WTO):

  • It is an (“member-driven”, “consensus-based”) intergovernmental organisation that regulates and facilitates international trade between nations.
  • It is the world’s largest international economic organisation (HQ – Geneva, Switzerland), with 164 member states representing over 98% of global trade and global GDP.
  • It officially began operations on January 1, 1995, in accordance with the 1994 Marrakesh Agreement (marking the culmination of the 8-year-long Uruguay Round), thus replacing the 1948 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).


The mandate of WTO:

  • It facilitates trade in goods, services and intellectual property by providing a framework for negotiating trade agreements that typically aim to reduce or eliminate tariffs, quotas and other restrictions.
  • It oversees independent dispute resolution to ensure that participants follow trade agreements and resolve trade-related disputes.
  • It forbids trading partners from discriminating against one another, but it makes exceptions for environmental protection, national security and other important goals.


The organisational structure of WTO: 

The Dispute Settlement Body (DSB):

  • The General Council convenes as the DSB to deal with disputes between WTO members.
  • Such disputes may arise with respect to any agreement contained in the Final Act of the Uruguay Round.
  • The DSB has the authority to establish dispute settlement panels and decides the outcome of a trade dispute on the recommendation of such panels and possibly on a report from the Appellate Body (hear appeals from reports issued by panels).

Significance of the DSS of the WTO: It is a central element in providing security and predictability to the multilateral trading system.

 Issues faced by the DSS: The appellate body, which is the 2nd tier of the WTO’s DSS, is non-functional.


Why has the appellate body remained non-functional?

  • From 1995-2019, it upheld the international rule of law by holding powerful countries such as the US and the EU accountable for international law breaches.
  • As a result, its one-time supporter, the US, has become its biggest critic, blocking the appointment of its members.


The USA’s argument:

  • It is incumbent on the appellate body to ensure that there is consistency in the interpretation and application of the WTO agreements without creating a binding precedent.
  • Creating binding precedents through its decisions leads to judicial overreach – exceeding its assigned institutional mandate.
  • The appellate body rulings can neither add nor diminish the rights and obligations of WTO member countries.
  • Hence, there is a need to define precisely the appellate body’s role.


The larger game plan of the US – De-judicialisation of trade multilateralism:

  • In a neoliberal economic system, the ‘invisible hand’ of market competition should be complemented by the ‘visible hand’ of the law.
  • The WTO (not the national actors) became this ‘visible hand’ of the law to regulate global trade. This erodes the sovereignty of nations as they lose control over critical decision-making.
  • De-judicialisation is the reverse phenomenon where countries weaken international courts to take back decision-making power.


What lies behind this game plan?

Given the emerging geo-economic challenges posed by a rising China, the U.S. wants to exercise full power over its trade policies.


Recent efforts to keep trade multilateralism alive:

  • At the Geneva ministerial conference (June 2022), WTO member countries hammer out a face-saving deal (India played a vital role).
  • An important part of the deal was resurrecting the WTO’s DSS, also called WTO’s ‘crown jewel’, by 2024.


Way ahead: Other countries can opt for electing the appellate body members by resorting to voting at the WTO’s General Council meeting.


Insta Links:

WTO panel rules against India



What are the key areas of reform if the WTO has to survive in the present context of the ‘Trade War’, especially keeping in mind the interest of India? (UPSC 2018)

Intellectual property protection in agriculture

GS Paper 3

 Syllabus: Issues relating to Intellectual Property Rights

 Source: IE

 Context: The Delhi HC upheld an order by the Plant Variety Protection and Farmers’ Rights Authority (PPVFRA), revoking the intellectual property protection granted to PepsiCo India with respect to a potato variety developed by it.


What is the case about?

  • It pertains to FL 2027 – a potato variety with high dry matter and low sugar content (better suited for making chips) – grown by some 14,000 farmers in India via contract cultivation and buy-back at pre-fixed rates.
  • FL 2027 was developed in 1996 by a US breeder employed with a division of PepsiCo Inc – a manufacturer of potato chips sold under its Lay’s brand.
  • PepsiCo India was granted a certificate of registration (by PPVFRA) for FL 2027 for 6-years in 2016.
  • During this period nobody else could commercially produce, sell, market, distribute, import or export it without the breeder’s authorisation.


Revocation of registration:

  • PPVFRA revoked the registration for FL 2027 in 2021 and rejected PepsiCo India’s application for renewal of its registration, for lack of novelty.
  • PepsiCo challenged both orders before the Delhi HC. The court upheld the PPVFRA’s decision.
  • The HC has faulted PepsiCo for wrongly applying for registration of FL 2027 under the category of “new variety” and giving an incorrect date for its first commercialisation.


The Plant Variety Protection and Farmers’ Rights Act 2001: 


Objectives of the Act:

  • To establish an effective system for the protection of plant varieties, the rights of farmers and plant breeders.
  • To encourage the development of new varieties of plants.
  • To recognise and protect the rights of farmers towards conserving, improving and making available plant genetic resources for the development of new plant varieties.
  • To accelerate agricultural development in the country, protect plant breeders’ rights; stimulate investment for R&D for the development of new plant varieties.
  • Facilitate the growth of the seed industry in the country which will ensure the availability of high-quality seeds and planting material to the farmers.


Need for the Act:

  • To bring Indian legislation in conformity with the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV), 1978.
  • To implement TRIPs to support the specific socio-economic interests of all the stakeholders, including resource-constrained farmers.


Rights under the Act:

  • Breeders’ Rights: Breeders will have exclusive rights to produce, sell, market, distribute, import or export the protected variety.
  • Researchers’ Rights: Researchers can use any of the registered varieties under the Act for conducting experiments or research.
  • Farmers’ Rights:
    • A farmer who has evolved or developed a new variety is entitled to registration and protection in like manner as a breeder of a variety;
    • Farmers’ variety can also be registered as an extant variety – satisfying only the criteria of distinctiveness, uniformity and stability, but not a novelty.


Implementation of the Act: To implement the provisions of the Act, the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare established the PPVFRA in 2005.


 General functions of the Authority:

  • Registration of new plant varieties, essentially derived varieties (EDV), and extant varieties;
  • Developing DUS (Distinctiveness, Uniformity and Stability) test guidelines for new plant species;
  • Preservation of plant genetic resources of economic plants and their wild relatives;
  • Maintenance of the National Register of Plant Varieties;
  • Maintenance of National Gene Bank, etc.


Registration of varieties: A variety is eligible for registration if it essentially fulfils the criteria of Distinctiveness, Uniformity and Stability (DUS).


Insta Links:

Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Authority (PPV&FR)


Prelims Links: (UPSC 2019)

Consider the following statements:

  1. According to the Indian Patents Act, a biological process to create a seed can be patented in India
  2. In India, there is no Intellectual Property Appellate Board
  3. Plant varieties are not eligible to be patented in India

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3


Ans: 3


Content for Mains Enrichment

Sir Elton John

 Source: IE

Sir Elton John (British singer, pianist and composer), one of the greatest and most flamboyant musicians, is set to perform in his final concert. Known for his iconic hits like “Rocket Man” and “Candle in the Wind,” Elton John has had a legendary career spanning over 50 years. He revolutionized the music scene by infusing the sound of piano into rock n’ roll when guitars dominated the industry.

Elton John’s openness about his struggles with addiction, his personal life, and his identity as a gay man reflects the value of living authentically and being true to oneself.. Elton John also played a pivotal role in advocating for LGBTQ rights and founded the Elton John AIDS Foundation.

Use: His story can be used to show values of Creativity and Artistic Expression, Honesty and Transparency, Humanitarianism, Acceptance and Inclusion


Sarpa App

 Source: TH

The Sarpa (Snake Awareness Rescue and Protection) app developed by the Forest Department in Kerala, has significantly reduced snakebite deaths in the state. The app collects species-specific data, helping authorities identify hotspots with high incidence of snakebites and the most active times for different snake species. The app allows users to upload photos of snake sightings or hiding places to alert the nearest rescuer, promoting timely assistance and reducing risks.


With a network of 1,720 trained volunteers, the Forest Department conducts an average of 10,000 rescue operations annually. Before the app’s introduction, Kerala had an average of 110 snakebite deaths per year, but in 2022, only around 40 cases were reported.


The app aims to completely eliminate snakebite deaths and raise awareness about snakes and their habitats. The prime culprits for snakebite deaths in Kerala are the cobra, krait, Russell’s viper, and saw-scaled viper.

Use: The example can be used in Questions related to Disaster Management


 Educational Exposure Visit to Japan

 Source: PIB

The Ministry of Education in collaboration with the Japan Science and Technology (JST) Agency, flagged off a group of 63 students and escort teachers from Kendriya Vidyalayas and Navodaya Vidyalayas for an educational exposure visit to Japan.

The students, who are academically accomplished and aspiring for higher education, will visit various industrial organizations, museums, universities, and research institutions to gain firsthand knowledge and information.

Significance of such visits: These visits contribute to fostering a curiosity for science, nurturing scientific talent, and encouraging students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. They broaden horizons, stimulate creativity, and lay the foundation for future scientific exploration and innovation among children.

Use: The example can be used as way forward for reforms in Higher education as well as a way for encouraging more students in Science.


Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Marine Heatwaves


Source: DTE

 Context: The northern Bay of Bengal has been experiencing an intense marine heatwave, leading to extreme rainfall in India’s usually arid northwest region.

  • The warm temperatures in the Bay of Bengal are crucial for the southwest monsoon’s trajectory, as they enable the monsoon winds to cross into the Bay and bring moisture to the Indian subcontinent.

However, the current heatwave is warmer than usual and may be contributing to the extreme rainfall in northwest India. The intensity of marine heatwaves in the Bay of Bengal has increased, according to data from the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).


About Marine Heatwaves:

A marine heatwave is defined as when seawater temperatures exceed a seasonally-varying threshold (usually the 90th percentile) for at least 5 consecutive days. Marine heatwaves not only impact weather patterns but also have adverse effects on marine biodiversity, such as coral bleaching and potential harm to mangroves in the Sundarbans.

While marine heatwaves typically result in a drier monsoon for central India and increased rainfall in the southern peninsula. Various other factors, including changes in the timescales of depressions and the trajectory of the current depression, are contributing to above-average rainfall in northwest India. The warmer Bay of Bengal may be influencing these changes.


GST Network (GSTN)

 Source: IE

Context: The GST Network (GSTN) has introduced geocoding functionality in all states and union territories of India.

Geocoding converts location descriptions into geographic coordinates to ensure accurate address details in GSTN records and simplify verification process.

Related News:




Source: IE

Government has included the GSTN under the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA). It allows for the sharing of information between the GSTN, Enforcement Directorate, and other investigative agencies. The amendment to the 2006 notification enhances provisions under Section 66 of the PMLA, enabling disclosure of information.

Significance: This step aims to address rising cases of GST fraud and fake registrations. By bringing GSTN under the purview of money laundering laws, tax authorities gain more power to trace the original beneficiaries in cases of fraud.


About GSTN:

GSTN, the non-profit organization, provides IT infrastructure and services to Central and State Governments, taxpayers and other stakeholders for the implementation of GST


Variable Rate Reverse Repo Auctions (VRRRs)

 Source: HBL

 Context: The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has continued to conduct variable rate reverse repo auctions (VRRRs) to withdraw excess liquidity from the banking system since June 30.


What is Repo and Reverse Repo?

Repo rate is the rate at which the central bank lends money, while the reverse repo rate is the rate at which the central bank borrows money from commercial banks. These rates are used to influence liquidity, credit availability, and inflation in the economy.


What is VRRR?

Variable rate reverse repo (VRRR) auctions are a tool used by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to manage the amount of money in the banking system. The RBI conducts these auctions to absorb excess money from banks when there is too much liquidity. The VRRRs aim to maintain the overnight call money rate close to the target rate of 6.50%.

What is Liquidity?

It is a measure of how quickly an asset can be converted into cash. High liquidity means that an asset can be easily traded, while low liquidity indicates that it may be difficult to buy or sell the asset without affecting its price. Liquidity is essential for efficient functioning of financial markets and allows investors to enter or exit positions with minimal transaction costs.


  1. Excess liquidity: If there is too much money in the banking system, the RBI wants to reduce it to maintain stability.
  2. Auction process: The RBI offers to borrow money from banks through VRRR auctions. Banks participate by submitting bids, stating the interest rate at which they are willing to lend money to the RBI. This interest rate is called the reverse repo rate.
  3. Bid acceptance: The RBI reviews the bids and accepts those with the lowest interest rates first. For example, if Bank A offers a reverse repo rate of 6.5% and it is the lowest bid, the RBI accepts it.
  4. Lending money: Bank A then lends a specific amount of money to the RBI for a short period, usually overnight. In return, Bank A earns interest at the reverse repo rate of 6.5%.
  5. The RBI takes this borrowed money out of circulation, reducing the overall liquidity in the banking system.


Reasons for increased liquidity in the Indian market:

Factors contributing to the surplus liquidity include month-end government spending, deposit of ₹2,000 denomination banknotes, and the return of such banknotes by the public.


Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) air pollution


Source: HEAL

Context: A science review commissioned by the Health and Environment Alliance (HEAL) highlights the significant health impact of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) air pollution.


Key findings:

Exposure to NO2, mainly emitted by road transport and diesel engines, can lead to respiratory and circulatory premature death, asthma development in children and adults, bronchitis in children, and worsen the health of individuals with respiratory or cardiovascular diseases.


WHO Recommendations:

The World Health Organization (WHO) has now recommends a stricter maximum annual average concentration of NO2 in the air, reducing it from 40μg/m3 to 10μg/m3 based on the growing body of evidence.


Recommendation of HEAL:

HEAL urges policymakers to change the legally binding limit value for NO2, improve information and air quality indices, enhance monitoring efforts, and regularly review the health effects of NO2 and other pollutants.


About NO2

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a reddish-brown gas with a pungent odour. It is a highly reactive air pollutant primarily released from combustion processes, such as vehicle emissions and power plants. NO2 plays a significant role in the formation of smog and contributes to respiratory problems. It also contributes to the formation of acid rain and the depletion of the ozone layer.


About HEAL 

The Health and Environment Alliance (HEAL) is the leading not-for-profit organisation addressing how the environment affects human health in the European Union (EU) and beyond.


Global Peace Index 2023

 Source: Visionofhumanity

 Context: The 17th edition of the Global Peace Index (GPI) was released, ranking 163 independent states and territories based on their level of peacefulness.


Important findings:

  • Most Peaceful: Iceland retaining its position as the most peaceful country, followed by Denmark, Ireland, New Zealand, and Austria.
  • Least Peaceful: Afghanistan remains the least peaceful country, followed by Yemen, Syria, South Sudan, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
  • India: It has climbed two spots to the 126th position, showing over 3% improvement in peacefulness attributed to reductions in violent crime, improved relations with neighboring countries, and decreased political instability.
  • An overall deterioration in global peacefulness: Over the past fifteen years, the global average score of peacefulness has declined by five percent, indicating a decline in peace worldwide.


What is the Global Peace Index?

Produced by the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP), the Global Peace Index (GPI) is the world’s leading measure of global peacefulness. It measures the state of peace across three domains:

  • the level of Societal Safety and Security,
  • the extent of Ongoing Domestic and International Conflict,
  • the degree of Militarisation.


About Institute for Economics and Peace

The Institute for Economics and Peace is a global think tank headquartered in Sydney, Australia. It aims to create a paradigm shift in the way the world thinks about peace. Other reports published by IEP is Global Terrorism Index, Ecological Threat Report, Safety Perceptions Index.


Majorana zero modes

 Source: TH

 Context: Researchers at Microsoft have announced a breakthrough in creating Majorana zero modes, a type of particle that could greatly advance quantum computing.


About Majorana zero modes:

Majorana zero modes are unique particles that could make quantum computers less fragile and more computationally powerful.

  • The particles, also known as Majorana fermions, were first proposed by Italian physicist Ettore Majorana in 1937. They possess special properties that make them their own antiparticles, which is advantageous for building quantum computers.
  • Majorana zero modes can be used as qubits, the fundamental units of information in quantum computing, and have the potential to protect encoded information from decoherence, a major challenge in quantum computing.


Additionally, these particles could enable topological quantum computing, which offers computational advantages and additional degrees of freedom for algorithms. Despite the promising potential, Majorana zero modes have not been directly observed yet, and further research and improvements in technology are needed to fully realize their benefits.


ISRO to transfer SSLV to the private sector


Source: TH

 Context: The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is planning to transfer its Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV) to the private sector after conducting two successful flights of the rocket.

  • The SSLV is designed to provide on-demand services for launching satellites weighing up to 500 kg into low-Earth orbit. Small rockets like the SSLV are specifically designed for nano and micro-satellites, offering dedicated launch services without the need for larger rockets.
  • The move to transfer the SSLV to the private sector aligns with India’s goal of increasing private sector participation in the space industry. The commercial satellite launch services sector in India is expected to contribute $13 billion to the economy by 2025, according to a recent report.


Cluster Bomb

 Source: TH

 Context: The Biden administration has announced an $800 million security assistance package to Ukraine, which includes the provision of cluster munitions, despite their ban by 111 countries.


What are Cluster Bombs?

Cluster munitions are weapons that disperse explosive submunitions over a wide area, causing significant civilian casualties and posing long-term risks due to unexploded ordnance.

Convention to Ban it:

The Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM) prohibits the use, stockpiling, production, and transfer of cluster munitions. However, major countries like the U.S., Russia, China, India, Israel, Pakistan, and Ukraine, along with several NATO countries, are not party to the convention.

Is India Party to it?

According to Cluster Munition Monitor 2022, sixteen countries that have refused to sign the convention and who produce cluster munitions included Brazil, China, Egypt, Greece, Iran, Israel, India, North Korea, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russia, Singapore, South Korea, the United States and Turkey.



Football’s offside rule

 Source: TH

Context: FIFA is set to trial a proposed change to football’s offside rule, as put forward by Arsene Wenger. The new rule suggests that a player would be offside only if their entire body is ahead of the last defender’s line.


Why this change?

This change aims to address the controversies and challenges posed by the introduction of Video Assistant Referee (VAR) technology, which has led to conflicting decisions based on fine margins. The proposed rule would provide more leeway for attacking players and promote more offensive football.

What is Offside in Football?

In football, a player is considered offside if they are closer to the opponent’s goal line than both the ball and the second-to-last defender (excluding the goalkeeper) when the ball is played to them.

When an attacking player is in an offside position and becomes involved in active play by receiving a pass or interfering with an opponent, the referee will blow the whistle and award an indirect free kick to the opposing team from the spot where the offside infringement occurred.


This rule encourages a balanced and level playing field by preventing players from cherry-picking behind the defence and constantly being in goal-scoring positions.



 Churachandpur (Manipur)

 Source: IE

 The name ‘Churachandpur’ in Manipur is being challenged amidst ongoing violence in the region. Kuki-Zomi organizations have been using the name ‘Lamka’ instead, reflecting their desire for autonomy from the state’s Meitei leadership. The names ‘Lamka’ and ‘Churachandpur’ are both over a hundred years old, with ‘Lamka’ originating from the Anglo-Kuki War in 1917-1919.

The name ‘Churachandpur’ was introduced in 1921 after the Maharaja Churachand Singh, but its current use is contested by those who view it as a symbol of colonization.



 Source: BBC

 The rush for nickel mining in Indonesia, driven by the growing demand for the metal in green technologies, is raising concerns about its environmental impact and threatening the traditional way of life for indigenous communities


Nickel is a versatile metal widely used in stainless steel, rechargeable batteries and renewable energy storage systems. Indonesia has world’s largest reserve as well as is the largest producer of Nickel in the world. Nickel is primarily found in Odisha (93% of India’s reserve) (mainly Cuttack and Mayunrbhanj). Jharkhand, Nagaland, and Karnataka also produce some.


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