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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 2:

  1. Due process clause and the basic structure doctrine
  2. Data Protection Bill: Content, concerns


GS Paper 3:

  1. India’s creative economy


Content for Mains Enrichment

  1. Robots for SDGs
  2. Bharat Internet Utsav
  3. Dalai Lama


Facts for Prelims (FFP)

  1. Bastille Day
  2. 2,200 earthquakes in Iceland in 24 hours
  3. Permanent Court of Arbitration
  4. S. destroys last of its declared chemical weapons
  5. UNESCAP’s Global Survey on Digital and Sustainable Trade Facilitation
  6. World Investment Report
  7. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR)
  8. X-class solar flare
  9. LIGO-India
  10. UAE and Space
  11. Ex SALVEX



  1. Khazan Land (Goa)
  2. Antarctica’s Blood Falls
  3. Zanzibar (Tanzania)



Due process clause and the basic structure doctrine

GS Paper 2

 Syllabus: Structure, Organization and Functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary


Source: TH

 Context: The Supreme Court of India provided two safety devices for the natural rights of the citizenry – namely, the due process clause and the basic structure doctrine.


The due process of law:

  • Taken from: The due process clause is an American
  • Based on natural laws: The term ‘law’ in the due process clause stands for natural law. Natural law, as higher law, renders state-made laws invalid when the state-made laws are contrary to natural law.
  • Meaning: No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law. Due process has two aspects –
    • Substantive due process: It anticipates that the substantive/ fundamental provisions of any legislation should be rational and not arbitrary in nature, and
    • Procedural due process: It refers to the general procedures that must be followed before a person’s life, liberty, or property can be taken from him.


The debate in the Constituent Assembly of India:

  • The leading members of the Assembly agreed on the idea that the due process clause must be incorporated into the Constitution.
  • However, the prominent opposers (like GB Pant) of the clause believed that the clause would be a hurdle in the implementation of social reform laws such as the abolition of the zamindari system.
  • The drafting committee dropped the due process clause from the draft and replaced it with ‘except according to procedure established by law’ – a term borrowed from the Japanese Constitution of 1946.


The resurrection of due process: In Maneka Gandhi vs Union of India (1978), the SC held that when ‘personal liberty’ under Article 21 was affected by any law, courts would seriously interrogate and probe the purpose, rationale, and legitimacy of the law.


Significance of the judgement:

  • The Court has not used ‘due process’ to invalidate social welfare legislation (which the Constitution makers fear).
  • In fact, the Court has used due process doctrines to protect the interests of vulnerable sections of society such as pavement dwellers and prisoners.


The basic structure doctrine:

  • It is a judicial creation enunciated by the SC in the Kesavananda Bharati case (1973).
  • A 13-judge Constitution Bench of the SC (with a 7-6 majority) redefined the relationship between Parliament and the Constitution by ruling that the “basic structure” of the Constitution is inviolable, and cannot be amended by Parliament.
  • While the Parliament had vast powers to amend the Constitution, certain parts (“basic structure”) are so inherent and intrinsic to the Constitution that even Parliament cannot touch it.
  • While parliamentary democracy, fundamental rights, judicial review, and secularism are all held by courts as basic structures, the list is not exhaustive (decided by the court on a case-by-case basis).
  • The basic structure doctrine (origins are found in the German Constitution) has formed the bedrock of judicial review of all laws passed by the Indian Parliament.


Comparing the two doctrines:

  • Unlike the basic structure doctrine, the due process clause was duly discussed by the Constituent Assembly.
  • The due process clause has a splendid place in the constitutional history of the world.
  • It is the due process clause, not the basic structure doctrine, that offers a surer guarantee for the citizen’s natural rights.
  • Hence, the due process clause must be firmly embedded in the constitutional architecture of India and incorporated into the constitutional text.


Conclusion: As the basic structure doctrine highlighted in the Kesavanada Bharati case has touched 50 years, its efficacy to protect the natural rights of the citizen in relation to the due process clause is worth examining.

/ 08 July 2023, Today's Article

Data Protection Bill: Content, concerns

GS Paper 2

 Syllabus: Government policies and issues arising out of it


Source: IE

 Context: The Union Cabinet cleared the Digital Personal Data Protection (DPDP) Bill.



  • With the Union Cabinet’s approval, the Centre has made a 2nd attempt at framing legislation for the protection of data.
  • The Bill is expected to be tabled in Parliament’s Monsoon Session that begins on July 20.
  • The Bill, once it becomes law, will play a crucial role in India’s trade negotiations with other nations, especially regions like the EU, whose General Data Protection Rules (GDPR) are among the world’s most exhaustive privacy laws.


The Digital Personal Data Protection Bill:

  • It will apply to the processing of digital personal data within and outside (if it is done for offering goods or services or for profiling individuals) India.
  • It requires entities that collect personal data/ data fiduciaries to maintain the accuracy of data, keep data secure, and delete data once their purpose has been met.
  • It is expected to allow “voluntary undertaking”, which means that organisations who violate its rules can bring it up to the data protection board – an adjudicatory body that will deal with privacy-related grievances and disputes.
    • The board may decide to stop legal action against the organisation by accepting settlement payments.
    • Higher financial penalties may be imposed for similar offences committed repeatedly.
  • The highest penalty – to be levied for failing to prevent a data breach – has been prescribed at Rs 250 crore per instance.


What changes are likely from the original version (proposed in Nov 2022)?

  • Cross-border data flows to international jurisdictions: Moving from a ‘whitelisting’ (where personal data of Indian citizens can be transferred) approach to a ‘blacklisting’ mechanism.
  • A provision on “deemed consent” could be made stricter for private entities, while allowing government departments to assume consent while processing personal data on grounds of national security and public interest.


What is the significance of privacy law?

  • Considering the dramatic expansion of the digital economy in the country, bringing in a robust data protection architecture is of critical importance.
  • The Bill is a crucial pillar of the overarching framework of technology regulations, which also includes the Digital India Bill, the draft Indian Telecommunication Bill 2022, and a policy for non-personal data governance.


What are the concerns around the draft Bill?

  • Largely retained the contents of the original version.
  • Wide-ranging exemptions for the central government and its agencies, were among the most criticised provisions of the previous draft.
  • The central government can exempt “any instrumentality of the state” from adhering to the provisions on account of national security, relations with foreign governments, maintenance of public order, etc.
  • The control of the central government in appointing members of the data protection board and determining the terms and conditions of their service.
  • The definition of “per instance” is subjective and is open to interpretation by the data protection board on a case-by-case basis.
  • The law could dilute the Right to Information (RTI) Act, as the personal data of government functionaries is likely to be protected under it.


Comparing India’s proposal with other countries:

  • According to the UNCTAD, 137 out of 194 countries have put in place legislation to secure the protection of data and privacy.
  • Africa and Asia show 61% (33 countries out of 54) and 57% (34 countries out of 60) adoption respectively.
  • Only 48% of Least Developed Countries (22 out of 46) have data protection and privacy laws.
EU model It has been criticised for being excessively stringent and imposing many obligations on organisations processing data, but it is still the template for most of the legislation drafted around the world.
US model Privacy protection is largely defined as “liberty protection” focused on the protection of the individual’s personal space from the government.
China model The Personal Information Protection Law (PIPL) gives Chinese data principals new rights as it seeks to prevent the misuse of personal data.



The Data Security Law (DSL) requires business data to be categorised by levels of importance and puts new restrictions on cross-border transfers.


Conclusion: This Bill needs to go through a process of extensive discussion in Parliament. The provisions need to be tightened, ambiguities removed, and discretion minimised.


Insta Links:

New draft digital data protection bill: How it compares with the older version and  laws elsewhere


Mains Links:

The Digital Personal Data Protection Bill must ensure that individuals’ personal data is collected and processed in a manner that respects their privacy rights under Article 21 of the Indian constitution. Comment.

India’s creative economy

GS Paper 3

 Syllabus: Effects of Liberalization on the Economy


Source: TH

 Context: The creative economy is one of the youngest and fastest-growing sectors, with unique challenges that often go unnoticed by public and private investors.


What is the creative economy?

The creative economy refers to the intersection of culture, creativity, and commerce. It encompasses economic activities that are based on creative and cultural products and services, such as arts, design, media, entertainment, and technology.

  • The creative industries include advertising, architecture, arts and crafts, design, fashion, film, video, photography, music, performing arts, publishing, etc.
  • They are also considered an important source of commercial and cultural value.
  • Digital platforms and technology have enabled Indian artists and artisans to reach wider audiences.


India’s creative economy: It is estimated to contribute ~8% of the country’s employment, much higher than the corresponding share in Turkey (1%), Mexico (1.5%), Australia (2.1%), etc.


Advantages for the Indian economy:

  • Pay reasonably well – 88% higher than the non-creative ones.
  • Contribute ~20% to the nation’s overall GVA.
  • Can help encourage India’s soft power by creating an ecosystem of innovative technology-based start-ups.



  • Economic sustainability, market access, digital divide and the preservation of traditional art forms in a rapidly changing society.
  • Crime in the art world includes art theft, copyright infringement, forgery, fraud, and illicit trafficking.
  • India’s creative exports ($121 billion in 2019, out of which services accounted for almost $100 billion) are only one-tenth of those of the People’s Republic of China.



  • Recognising the economic importance of culture, the UNESCO World Conference on Cultural Policies and Sustainable Development (MONDIACULT 2022) was held.
  • The goal was to share a vision for the future of cultural policies and to reaffirm the international community’s commitment to leveraging culture’s transformative power for sustainable development.


Way ahead:

  • Government initiatives to provide financial assistance, training programmes, and opportunities for artists to exhibit their work.
  • A collaborative model promoting cultural economy and providing guidance, technical support, infrastructure, access to investors, and networking opportunities.
  • Promote contemporary artists as brands and ensure equal representation and financial assistance.
  • Increased security measures, international cooperation, public awareness, and advanced technology for authentication and tracking.
  • Regular audits of acquired artworks can enhance trust and preserve a collection’s integrity.
  • Leveraging the latest ICT tools to enhance their participation in the business ecosystem.


Conclusion: Seeing the economic and cultural significance of the creative economy in India, a facilitation mechanism should support the growth and development of the sector.

Robots for SDGs

Content for Mains Enrichment


Source: DTE


The United Nations (UN) introduced 51 robots, including nine humanoid robots, at the AI for Good Global Summit held in Geneva. The summit aimed to accelerate the achievement of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030.


These robots were equipped with functions aligned with the SDGs, such as healthcare robots capable of understanding emotions and displaying empathy, E.g.,

  • Grace an advanced nursing humanoid robot developed by Hanson Robotics
  • SingularityNET assists elderly individuals


Use: The example can be used to show how technology can help in achieving SDGs

Bharat Internet Utsav


Source: PIB

 Context: The Department of Telecommunications (DoT) has launched the “Bharat Internet Utsav” to celebrate the power of the Internet.


It aims to highlight the transformative role of the internet by encouraging citizens to share their stories of how the internet has positively impacted their lives. It recognizes the internet as an essential tool for connectivity, knowledge-sharing, and socio-economic development.


Use: The example can be quoted as an example for the promotion of the use of the Internet for Socio-economic purposes.

Dalai Lama


Source: TH

U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken expressed his admiration for the Tibetan spiritual leader, Dalai Lama, on the occasion of his 88th birthday.

He also reaffirmed the United States’ commitment to supporting the linguistic, cultural, and religious identity of Tibetans, including their freedom to choose and venerate their religious leaders without interference.


Life Lessons from Dalai Lama:

Life Lesson Example
Practising compassion and forgiveness leads to inner peace Despite facing tremendous oppression and violence from the Chinese government, Dalai Lama has always preached non-violence and compassion towards his oppressors.
Education and knowledge are powerful tools for personal growth and societal progress He himself is a voracious reader and has even established educational institutions in India to provide modern and traditional education to Tibetan refugees.
Building strong relationships and connections is essential for a fulfilling life He has formed deep and meaningful relationships with people all over the world.
Embracing change Dalai Lama has faced many challenges and changes in his life, including being forced into exile, losing his country and people, and being constantly under threat. However, he has always remained optimistic and adaptable, embracing change and looking for opportunities to grow and progress.
Cultivating self-awareness and mindfulness Dalai Lama believes that cultivating self-awareness and mindfulness can help us identify and overcome negative emotions such as anger, fear, and anxiety.


Usage: His life story can be used in Essay/Ethics to illustrate points and highlight the values of Compassion, Nonviolence, Respect for diversity, Humility, and morality.

Bastille Day

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: PIB

 Context: The Indian Navy Marching Contingent is set to participate in the Bastille Day Parade in Paris, France on July 14, 2023.


The Indo-French strategic partnership, which celebrates its 25th anniversary this year, extends to the maritime domain and includes collaboration in shipbuilding.

  • Collaborations: Construction of Scorpene class submarines by Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited in collaboration with Naval Group, France
  • Naval exercise: Varuna (initiated in 1993)


About Indian Navy:

The Indian Navy is one of the largest navies in the world, equipped with a diverse range of ships, submarines, and aircraft. Their motto, “Sam No Varunah,” meaning “May the lord of oceans be auspicious unto us,” (from Rig Veda) reflects their commitment to excellence. It boasts its own aircraft carriers, destroyers, frigates, and nuclear submarines.

2,200 earthquakes in Iceland in 24 hours


Source: Hindustan Times

 Context: Nearly 2,200 earthquakes have been recorded in the vicinity of Reykjavik, the capital of Iceland in the past 24 hours.

  • The country’s meteorological office has warned that this seismic activity could be a signal of an impending volcanic eruption.

Iceland experiences frequent volcanic activity, due to its location both on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a divergent tectonic plate boundary, and over a hot spot. Nearly thirty volcanoes are known to have erupted in the Holocene epoch; these include Eldgjá, the source of the largest lava eruption in human history.


The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a mid-ocean ridge (a divergent or constructive plate boundary) located along the floor of the Atlantic Ocean and part of the longest mountain range in the world. In the North Atlantic, the ridge separates the North American from the Eurasian Plate and the African Plate, north and south of the Azores Triple Junction. 

Permanent Court of Arbitration

Facts For Prelims


Source: TH

 Context: India has stated that it cannot be forced to participate in “illegal” proceedings at the Permanent Court of Arbitration regarding the Kishenganga and Ratle hydropower projects in Kashmir.

  • The court ruled that it has the authority to consider the dispute between India and Pakistan on the matter. India has argued that it will not join the proceedings initiated by Pakistan as the dispute is already being examined by a neutral expert under the Indus Waters Treaty.


About Indus Water Treaty:

The treaty, brokered by the World Bank in 1960, deals with cross-border river matters. India believes that the parallel processes initiated by Pakistan violate the provisions of the treaty. India has been participating in the neutral expert proceedings and has been in talks with Pakistan for treaty modification.


About Permanent Court of Arbitration:

  • Established in 1899. An international intergovernmental institute has been established in order to resolve disputes between states.
  • The PCA has a three-part organisational structure that includes the Administrative Council, which oversees its policies and finances, Members of the Court, a panel of independent prospective arbitrators, and the International Bureau, which is led by the Secretary-General.
  • It has a Financial Assistance Fund, which attempts to assist poor nations in meeting a portion of the expenses associated with international arbitration or other forms of dispute resolution offered by the PCA.

U.S. destroys last of its declared chemical weapons


Source: TH

Context: The United States has completed the destruction of its declared chemical weapons stockpile (rockets filled with GB nerve agent), marking a significant milestone in the history of warfare dating back to World War I.


The deadline:

The U.S. faced a Sept. 30 deadline to eliminate its remaining chemical weapons under the International Chemical Weapons Convention, which took effect in 1997 and was joined by 193 countries.



  • The destruction of the stockpile is seen as a defining moment for arms control efforts globally and sets an example for other countries to follow.
  • This achievement fulfils the US commitment under the International Chemical Weapons Convention and sends a message that such weapons are no longer acceptable on the battlefield.


About the Convention: 

Chemical Weapons Convention is a multilateral treaty banning chemical weapons and requiring their destruction within the stipulated time. It makes it mandatory to destroy old and abandoned chemical weapons.

  • India signed the treaty in January 1993.
  • Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) was formed (in 1997) under the Convention. It implements and enforces the terms of the CWC. It reports to the UN. It was awarded Nobel Peace Prize in 2013


India passed Chemical Weapons Convention Act, 2000 to implement the CWC.

It provided for the establishment of a National Authority for Chemical Weapons Convention or NACWC (formed in 2005), as a chief liaison between the government of India and the OPCW.


About GB nerve agent:

Sarin (military designation GB) is a nerve agent (chemicals that affect the nervous system) that is one of the most toxic of the known chemical warfare agents. It is generally odourless and tasteless. Exposure to sarin can cause death in minutes. Other examples of nerve agents are: soman (GD), tabun (GA), Mustard agent and VX


About Chemical Weapons:

Chemical weapons were first used in modern warfare in World War I, where they were estimated to have killed at least 100,000. Despite their use being subsequently banned by the Geneva Convention, countries continued to stockpile the weapons until the treaty called for their destruction. Besides US stocks, some parties to the convention, particularly Russia and Syria, still possess undeclared chemical weapons stockpiles.

UNESCAP’s Global Survey on Digital and Sustainable Trade Facilitation


Source: PIB

 Context: India has achieved outstanding performance in the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia Pacific’s (UNESCAP) Global Survey on Digital and Sustainable Trade Facilitation.


Trade facilitation refers to the simplification, harmonization, and streamlining of international trade procedures and processes. It involves reducing trade barriers, improving customs procedures, enhancing logistics and infrastructure, and promoting digitalization to make trade more efficient, cost-effective, and predictable.



  • Score: The survey places India at the forefront of global trade facilitation efforts with an impressive score of about 93% in 2023, an improvement from 90% in 2021.
  • India’s success in various sub-indicators: Perfect scores of 100% in Transparency, Formalities, Institutional Arrangement and Cooperation, and Paperless Trade.
  • A substantial improvement in the “Women in Trade Facilitation” component, increasing from about 66% in 2021 to about 78% in 2023, highlighting its commitment to gender inclusivity and empowering women in the trade sector.
  • Notable Initiatives: Turant Customs ( it encompasses Faceless Customs, Paperless Customs, and Contactless Customs.), Single Window Interface for Facilitation of Trade (SWIFT), Pre-Arrival data processing, and e-Sanchit
  • India stands as the best-performing country in the South Asia region, surpassing several developed nations including Canada, France, the UK, and Germany


Significance: These measures have contributed to enhancing India’s ease of doing business and fostering a trade-facilitative environment in the country.


About the Survey:

The UNESCAP survey, which is fact-based rather than perception-based, covers a range of trade facilitation measures categorized into eleven sub-groups. It covers over 140 economies and evaluates 60 trade facilitation measures



The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (HQ: Bangkok; founded in 1947) is one of the five regional commissions under the jurisdiction of the United Nations Economic and Social Council.

World Investment Report


Source: ET

 Context: Recently, UNCTAD released the World Investment Report 2023.


About World Investment Report:

  •  The World Investment Report focuses on trends in foreign direct investment (FDI) worldwide, at the regional and country levels and emerging measures to improve its contribution to development.
  • It also provides an analysis of global value chains and the operations of multinational enterprises, with special attention to their development implications.


Key Findings:

  • India and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) were the top recipients, with a 10% and 5% increase respectively. Asia accounted for over 50% of global FDI.
  • The FDI growth in developing countries was concentrated in a few large emerging economies, with India, China, Singapore, Hong Kong, and the United Arab Emirates accounting for nearly 80% of FDI flows to the region.
  • India saw a 10% increase in FDI, making it the third-largest host country for greenfield project announcements and the second-largest for international project finance deals.
  • Singapore was the largest recipient of FDI in the Southeast Asian region.
  • The report highlights the widening investment deficit in developing countries as they strive to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), particularly in energy, water, and transport infrastructure.


The World Investment Report 2023 calls for a compact outlining priority actions, including financing mechanisms and investment policies, to ensure sustainable energy for all. The report also provides an analysis of FDI trends, rankings of transnational corporations, policy recommendations, and statistical data at the country level.

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR)


Source: HT

Context: An outbreak of a highly contagious disease, known as “sheep and goat plague,” has resulted in the death of around 60 sheep and goats, with over 200 animals falling sick in the Hadsar pasture near Tindi of Lahaul-Spiti.


PPR is a highly contagious viral disease, caused by a morbillivirus closely related to the rinderpest virus, and affects goats, sheep, and some wild relatives of domesticated small ruminants, as well as camels. It is characterized by severe morbidity and mortality rates. The virus does not infect humans.

X-class solar flare


Source: Science Alert


Context: Recently, a powerful solar flare, classified as an “X-class” flare, hit Earth, causing an eruption of X-ray and ultraviolet radiation.

  • The flare resulted in a radio blackout for about an hour in parts of southeast Asia, Australia, and New Zealand due to the ionization of the upper atmosphere.
  • This event follows a series of strong solar activities, including coronal holes and eruptions, which even led to the appearance of the Northern Lights as far south as Arizona.
  • The Sun has already produced three moderate “M-class” flares in the past day, and there is a forecast for more M-class flares in the coming days, with a slight chance of another X-class flare.


The frequency of solar flares and eruptions is expected to increase as the Sun approaches the peak of its 11-year solar cycle in 2025.



Source: TH 

Context: LIGO-India, a new gravitational-wave observatory, is set to put India on the research map and contribute to our understanding of the Universe.

  • Currently, there are two LIGO setups in the US, and a third one will be built in the Hingoli district of Maharashtra, India. The facility’s construction is expected to be completed by 2030.


LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory) is a physics experiment designed to detect gravitational waves, which are ripples in the fabric of spacetime caused by massive objects in accelerated motion.


What are Gravitational Waves?

Gravitational waves are ripples in the fabric of space and time that travel at the speed of light. They are created by the motion of massive objects, such as black holes or neutron stars, which generate gravitational waves when they orbit or collide with each other.

According to Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity, any object with mass warps the space-time around it. When two massive objects orbit each other or collide, they produce ripples or waves in space-time that propagate outward at the speed of light.

Gravitational waves are extremely weak and difficult to detect. They were first directly detected by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) in 2015, a century after they were predicted by Einstein’s theory.


Know more about LIGO-India: Here

UAE and Space


Source: TH

 Context: The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has made significant strides in its space exploration ambitions, with a focus on becoming a global power in the sector.


Key aims and achievements:

  • The UAE has established a National Space Fund of AED 3 billion (₹6,600 crores) to strengthen its position in the space industry and diversify its economy.
  • Projects launched: Emirates Mars Mission, which aims to study the atmosphere and climate of Mars
  • Planning to launch Rashid Rover, UAE’s Moon Mission
  • Arab Space Pioneers program which trains young talents in space technologies.
  • It sent astronauts to the International Space Station
  • It launched satellites for remote sensing and urban planning purposes
  • UAE’s long-term goals include building a human settlement on Mars by 2117 and exploring the asteroid belt.


Other Gulf countries: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, and Saudi Arabia have also invested in their space programs, with Saudi Arabia even sending the first female Arab astronaut to space.


India- UAE Space Cooperation: 

ISRO and UAE Space Agency (UAESA) signed an MoU to facilitate cooperation in the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes in 2016. UAE’s first nanosatellite, ‘Nayif-1, was launched by PSLV from Siriharikota to collect environmental space data.



Source: Financial Express


Context: The Indian Navy and the US Navy recently collaborated for the seventh edition of the IN-USN Salvage and Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) exercise, known as SALVEX.

  • During the ten-day exercise, the teams engaged in knowledge and experience sharing in maritime salvage. They focused on various disciplines, including mine detection and neutralization, wreck location, and salvage.


Through joint training, the participants developed lasting bonds and improved their operational capabilities, promoting interoperability and adopting the best practices from each other’s maritime traditions.

  • SALVEX 2023 is regarded as a significant milestone in naval cooperation, highlighting the dedication to excellence in salvage operations and EOD expertise demonstrated by the Indian and US Navies.

Khazan Land (Goa)


 Source: TOI

Recently, NGT highlighted the failure of the Goa Coastal Zone Management Authority to follow environmental rules for construction on Khazan land at Cavelossim.


Khazans are coastal wetlands of Goa. They were reclaimed from mangrove forests (in the pre-Christian Era) by an intricate system of dykes, sluice gates and canals and put to multiple productive uses such as agriculture, aquaculture and salt panning. They are low-lying, saline water-logged areas.

Antarctica’s Blood Falls


Source: WION

After more than a century of curiosity, scientists have finally unravelled the mystery behind Antarctica’s Blood Falls, a bright red waterfall that flows from Taylor Glacier. The iconic red hue is caused by the presence of small “iron-rich nanospheres” (various elements such as iron, silicon, calcium, aluminium, and sodium) in the water.


The Taylor Glacier is an Antarctic glacier about 54 kilometres long, flowing from the plateau of Victoria Land into the western end of Taylor Valley, north of the Kukri Hills, south of the Asgard Range.

Zanzibar (Tanzania)


Source: HT

 India is set to establish its first Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) campus outside the country in Zanzibar, Tanzania. This move aligns with India’s National Education Policy 2020 and aims to enhance educational cooperation between the two nations.

Zanzibar is a Tanzanian archipelago off the coast of East Africa. It is Stone Town, a historic trade centre with Swahili and Islamic influences.

Tanzania is an East African country known for its vast wilderness areas. They include the plains of Serengeti National Park, populated by the “big five” game (elephant, lion, leopard, buffalo, rhino), and Kilimanjaro National Park, home to Africa’s highest mountain.


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