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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 2:

  1. Uniform Civil Code
  2. WHO: Guidelines to protect children from the harmful effects of food marketing


GS Paper 3:

  1. One Health Priority Research Agenda on Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
  2. Solar Geoengineering to counter global warming


Content for Mains Enrichment

  1. Neeraj Chopra
  2. Hachiko


Facts for Prelims (FFP)

  1. Lord Lansdowne
  2. Centre announces scheme for minor rape victims
  3. Bharat 6G Alliance
  4. Joint ocean expedition to study maritime changes
  5. Trafficking in Border Areas



  1. Pichavaram region
  2. Bogibeel in Dibrugarh
  3. Kenya


Uniform Civil Code

GS Paper 2

 Syllabus: Indian Constitution


Source: TH

 Context: The push for a Uniform Civil Code is raising concerns about religious rights and personal laws, as the Supreme Court’s inquiry on religious freedom remains unresolved.


What is UCC?

Uniform Civil Code refers to the proposition of having a uniform set of civil laws for all citizens of a country, irrespective of their religious or cultural affiliations.


The principle behind UCC:

The concept of a UCC is rooted in the idea of equality and uniformity before the law and it aims to replace the personal laws based on religious practices that currently govern matters such as marriage, divorce, inheritance, adoption, and succession.


Historical Perspectives on UCC

  • British rule: There was a lack of uniformity in civil matters as personal laws based on religious customs and traditions were recognized for different communities. The idea of a UCC emerged as a response to this fragmentation and as a means to promote a common civil identity.
  • Portuguese rule: When Goa was under Portuguese rule until 1961, a Uniform Civil Code based on the Portuguese Napoleonic code was implemented.
  • Nehruvian Vision: Jawaharlal Nehru envisioned a modern and progressive India and saw the UCC as an essential element of nation-building. He believed that a UCC would help eliminate divisions based on religion and promote equality among citizens.
  • Hindu Code Bill: The Hindu Code Bill sought to codify and modernize Hindu personal laws relating to marriage, divorce, adoption, and inheritance. It was seen as a step towards a UCC, as it aimed to bring uniformity in personal laws within the Hindu community.
  • Shah Bano Case: The Supreme Court judgment, in this case, sparked debates on the need for a UCC to ensure gender justice and equal rights for women across religious communities.


Constitutional Perspectives on UCC

  • Constituent Assembly Debates: During the framing of the Indian Constitution, the debates witnessed diverse viewpoints, with some members advocating for a UCC as a way to promote gender equality and secularism, while others expressed concerns about preserving religious and cultural rights.
  • Directive Principles of State Policy: Article 44 of the Indian constitution states that the state shall endeavour to secure for its citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India.
  • Secularism: The Indian Constitution enshrines the principle of secularism, which mandates the separation of religion and the state. A UCC is seen as a way to promote secularism by ensuring equal treatment of all citizens irrespective of their religious affiliations.
  • Equality and Non-Discrimination: The Constitution of India guarantees equality before the law under Article 14, and prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth. UCC would uphold these principles by ensuring equal rights and equal treatment for all citizens, regardless of their religious backgrounds.
  • Gender Justice: The Constitution also guarantees the right to equality and the right against discrimination based on gender. A UCC is seen as a means to promote gender justice.



How do Personal laws govern different communities?

Muslims, Hindus, Jains, Buddhists, Sikhs, Parsis, and Jews are governed by their own personal laws.
Goa has UCC, which retained its common family law known as the Goa Civil Code after it was liberated from Portuguese rule in 1961. The rest of India follows different personal laws based on their religious or community identity.
All Hindus Reformed Hindu Personal Law Applies to Hindus after the enactment of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. Renounced Hindus still under Hindu Law
Hindu Personal Law in Special Marriage Act Hindus married under the Special Marriage Act, 1954 are still governed by Hindu Personal Law.
Muslims Muslim Personal Law Muslims married under the Special Marriage Act, 1954 are no longer governed by Muslim Personal Law.

Argument in favour of UCC:

Benefits of UCC Explanation
National Integration and Secularism UCC would create a common identity among citizens, fostering national integration. It promotes secularism by treating all religions equally and reducing communal conflicts.
Gender Justice and Equality UCC ensures gender justice by removing discriminatory laws and granting equal rights to women in marriage, divorce, inheritance, etc. It empowers women and upholds their fundamental rights.
Simplification and Rationalisation of Legal System UCC simplifies the legal system by eliminating the complexities and contradictions of multiple laws. It harmonizes civil and criminal laws and enhances accessibility for the common people.
Modernisation and Reform of Outdated Practices UCC modernizes and reforms outdated practices, aligning personal laws with human rights and constitutional values. It abolishes practices like triple talaq and child marriage.


Argument Against UCC:

Challenges Explanation
Diverse Personal Laws and Customary Practices Harmonizing India’s diverse laws and practices to establish uniformity is complex, especially when many laws are undocumented or contradictory.
Resistance from Religious and Minority Groups Some religious and minority groups argue that it could impose majority views and undermine their constitutional rights, particularly under Article 25 guaranteeing freedom of religion.
Lack of Political Will and Consensus Concerns exist regarding potential communal tensions and conflicts arising from its implementation.
Practical Difficulties and Complexities Implementing UCC would involve substantial efforts such as drafting, codifying, harmonizing, and rationalizing personal laws and practices.


Law Commission Views:

  • 21st Law Commission of India: It said the “issue of uniform civil code is vast, and its potential repercussions, untested in India”. It said that “ UCC is neither necessary nor desirable at this stage”.
  • The government had asked the 22nd Law Commission of India to undertake an examination of various issues relating to UCC.


SC-related cases:

Landmark Cases Ruling and Implications
Shah Bano Case (1985) The Supreme Court upheld the right of a Muslim woman to claim maintenance from her husband even after the Iddat period.
It highlighted the need for a UCC to remove contradictions based on ideologies.
Sarla Mudgal (1995) The Supreme Court stated that a Hindu husband cannot convert to Islam and marry without dissolving his first marriage.
It emphasized that a UCC would prevent fraudulent conversions and bigamous marriages.
Shayara Bano case (2017) The Supreme Court declared triple talaq as unconstitutional and violative of Muslim women’s dignity and equality.
It recommended that Parliament enact a law to regulate Muslim marriages and divorces.



The implementation of a Uniform Civil Code (UCC) in India requires a balanced approach that respects multiculturalism and diversity. Inclusive discussions with stakeholders, including religious leaders and legal experts, are essential to ensure diverse perspectives are considered. The focus should be on eliminating practices that hinder equality and gender justice while avoiding reactive culturalism. The reform process of Muslim Personal Law should be led by the Muslim clergy, and Muslims should critically examine practices to promote equality and justice. The aim is to develop a just and inclusive UCC that upholds constitutional values.


Quotes related to UCC:

  • “The implementation of a Uniform Civil Code (UCC) will promote the integration of India by establishing a shared platform for diverse communities” 
  • “The Uniform Civil Code may potentially enforce a code that is influenced by Hindu practices in all communities”
  • “It is imperative to ensure that certain groups or marginalised segments of society are not subjected to disadvantageous treatment during this endeavour”


Insta Links:

Strike a fine balance, have a just civil code


Mains Links:

Constitutional Morality’ is rooted in the Constitution itself and is founded on its essential facets. Explain the doctrine of ‘Constitutional Morality’ with the help of relevant judicial decisions. (UPSC 2021)


Prelims Links:

Q1. Consider the following provisions under the Directive Principles of State Policy as enshrined in the Constitution of India: ( UPSC 2012)


  1. Securing for citizens of India a uniform civil code
  2. Organising village Panchayats
  3. Promoting cottage industries in rural areas
  4. Securing for all the workers reasonable leisure and cultural opportunities


Which of the above are the Gandhian Principles that are reflected in the Directive Principles of State Policy?

(a) 1, 2 and 4 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4


Ans: B

One Health Priority Research Agenda on Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)

GS Paper 2

 Syllabus: Issues relating to health


Source: DTE

 Context: The Quadripartite – comprising the FAO, UNEP, WHO and the World Organisation for Animal Health (WOAH) – released the One Health Priority Research Agenda on Antimicrobial Resistance.


The agenda defines ‘One Health’: The concept acknowledges the health of humans, domestic and wild animals, plants, and the larger environment, including ecosystems, are inextricably linked and interdependent.


The link between ‘One Health’ and AMR:

  • At this One Health interface, addressing global health issues necessitates a multisectoral, multidisciplinary response to AMR.
  • Using a mixed-methods approach, global experts identified five key pillars as well as three cross-cutting themes, as follows:


Five key pillars:

  • Transmission: This pillar focuses on the environment, plant, animal, and human sectors where AMR transmission, circulation and spread occur.
  • Integrated surveillance: This pillar aims to identify cross-cutting priority research questions in order to improve common technical understanding and information exchange among One Health stakeholders.
  • Interventions: This pillar focuses on programmes, practises, tools, and activities aimed at preventing, containing, or reducing the incidence, prevalence, and spread of AMR.
  • Behavioural insights and change: It focuses on research addressing human behaviour that affects AMR, including ways to combat it.
  • Economics and policy: This pillar takes into account the cost-effectiveness of an AMR investment case, financial sustainability, and long-term financial impact.


Purpose of priority research agenda:

  • To better advocate for increased research and investment in antimicrobial resistance (AMR).
  • To guide a variety of stakeholders in generating new evidence to address AMR, with a focus on low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).
  • The agenda also emphasises the importance of developing research capacity in LMICs, which will be critical for addressing research gaps and developing evidence.


Significance of the agenda:

  • It will serve as a guide for countries, research institutes and funding bodies to support One Health AMR research.
  • It will also allow policymakers, researchers, and the multidisciplinary scientific community to collaborate across sectors.


 Other similar efforts: WHO also launched a global research agenda for AMR in human health, prioritising 40 research topics for evidence generation to inform policy and interventions by 2030.


Way ahead: The priority research agenda requires contextualisation at the regional and country level and the development of specific research relevant to the needs of different countries and One Health settings.


Conclusion: Implementing this research agenda will address the threat of AMR and support the national action plan (NAP) implementation and achievement of the SDGs for 2030.


Insta Links:

A ‘One Health’ approach that targets people, animals


Mains Links:

What do you understand about the ‘one health approach’? Examine its role in preventing outbreaks of various infections. (250 words)

Solar Geoengineering to counter global warming

GS Paper 3

 Syllabus: Environment and Conservation/ Science and Technology- Developments and their Applications and Effects in Everyday Life.


Source: DTE

 Context: The US is eyeing a controversial tool to counter global warming: Solar geoengineering.


What is Solar geoengineering?

  • Solar geoengineering, also referred to as solar radiation management (SRM) describes a set of proposed approaches to reflect sunlight (back to space) to rapidly cool the Earth.
  • Within solar geoengineering, researchers are considering two main approaches.


Different SRM methods:

  • Stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI): It involves injecting tiny reflecting particles, known as aerosols, into the upper atmosphere to cool the planet.
  • Marine cloud brightening (MCB): It would use sea salt to stimulate cloud formation over the ocean, which would also help reflect sunlight in the region.


Why is solar geoengineering being considered?

  • The Paris Agreement’s target requires limiting global temperature increase well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C.
  • For this, nations need to bring net global CO2 emissions to zero by no later than mid-century.
  • Despite these ambitious goals, solar geoengineering is being considered to prepare for the possibility that global efforts may fall short.


The USA’s plan:

  • The White House stated that public or private actors could carry out activities such as injecting aerosols and MCB to reflect more sunlight into space.
  • It called for research to enable better-informed decisions about the potential risks and benefits of the tool as part of its climate policy, in addition to mitigation and adaptation.
  • This comes amid concerns raised by the experts over the high environmental (changes in precipitation patterns, ozone amounts, sea-level rise, ocean acidification, etc), social, and geopolitical risks that come with SRM.


Solar geoengineering risks:

  • Moral hazard: The danger is that the technology will become an excuse to slow emissions reductions and stop moving toward a low-carbon economy.
  • Little is known about its impacts: Research to scope the risks and potential of solar geoengineering has mostly been conducted through computer-based modelling and natural observations (volcanic eruption).


Way ahead: Because solar geoengineering has global implications, its consideration as a climate response requires

  • Effective international governance/ Mechanisms for oversight.
  • Outdoor experimentation and funding for experiments should come only from governments.
  • Ways to involve the public in decision-making.



  • Given the ethical and environmental risks these activities can present, atmospheric experiments to assess these technologies deserve timely public scrutiny and debate.
  • Even as researchers assess the potential feasibility and effectiveness of geoengineering approaches, mitigation and adaptation must remain our first-line solutions.


Insta Links:

Cooling the Earth down


Mains Links:

What is solar Geoengineering? Discuss the benefits and shortcomings linked with this technology.

Neeraj Chopra

Content for Mains Enrichment

Source: TH

He is the reigning Olympic championWorld Championships silver medallist and the Diamond League champion in the javelin throw. He is the first Asian athlete to win an Olympic gold medal in men’s javelin throw. He is the first track and field athlete to win a gold medal for India at the Olympics

  • With his recent win in Lausanne, he is now at the top of the Diamond League list and well on his way to qualifying for the 2023 Finals.


However, he remains grounded and true to his identity, embodying the values of humility and authenticity. From his early days as a young athlete, Neeraj demonstrated a quiet self-belief that has guided him through both successes and failures.


Moreover, Neeraj has used his platform to support and motivate fellow athletes, emphasizing the importance of recognizing and highlighting their achievements.


Beyond his athletic prowess, Neeraj has shown integrity and compassion off the field. He has been vocal in supporting fellow athletes and addressing relevant issues within the sporting community.


As a role model, he has inspired aspiring athletes not only to excel in their respective sports but also to strive for personal growth and be better individuals.


Usage: His example can be used to show various values in Ethics/Essay paper


Content for Mains Enrichment

Source: IE

 Hachiko, the world’s most loyal dog, turns 100 this year. Born in November 1923 in Odate, Japan, Hachiko was sold to Hidesaburo Ueno, an agricultural scientist, as a puppy. Hachiko’s enduring legacy stems from his unwavering loyalty to his master. Ueno would commute by train from Shibuya Station, and Hachiko would accompany him to the station and wait for his return. Unfortunately, Ueno passed away suddenly in 1925, but Hachiko continued to wait at the station every day, hoping to find his beloved master.


When Hachiko passed away in 1935 at the age of 11, his funeral was attended by hundreds of people, and statues were erected in his honour.


Usage: Hachiko’s story has become a symbol of loyalty and devotion, inspiring books, and movies, and teaching children about his remarkable qualities. The example can be used in Ethics/ Essay paper.

Lord Lansdowne

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: IE

 Context: The Lansdowne Cantonment Board has decided to rename the hill station of Lansdowne in Uttarakhand, India, as Jaswantgarh in honour of Rifleman Jaswant Singh Rawat, Maha Vir Chakra recipient and hero of the 1962 war with China.


About Lord Lansdowne (served as the Viceroy of India from 1888 to 1894):

Title Lord Lansdowne
Background Lord Lansdowne arrived on the subcontinent when revenue was dwindling for the British, a constrained scheme for political reform, and unsettled relations with the amir of Afghanistan and the peoples of the northwestern frontier.
Indian National Congress Lord Lansdowne legitimized the work of the Indian National Congress, recognizing the rise of Indian nationalism as an inevitable byproduct of the British administration.
Indian Factory Act, 1891 The Indian Factory Act, 1891 was passed when Lord Lansdowne was the Viceroy of India.


Categorizing of Civil Services


On Aitchison Commission recommendations (1889), Statutory Civil Service was abolished. The government’s civilian officers were divided into three classes: Imperial Indian Civil Service, Provincial Civil Service, and Subordinate Civil Service.
Age of Consent Act, 1891


The Age of Consent Act, 1891, was enacted in British India in 1891, raising the age of consent for sexual intercourse for all girls, married or unmarried, from ten to twelve years in all jurisdictions, with violations punishable as rape.
Indian Councils Act Lord Lansdowne introduced the Indian Councils Act of 1892, which established additional members in the central and provincial legislative councils and introduced an indirect election system for council members. It was a step toward a representative government in India.
Setting up Durand Commission (1893) Durand Line agreement was signed to secure the north-west and Afghanistan
Opium Commission In 1893, a royal commission was issued to inquire into the results of using opium in India, and the possibility of prohibiting it. The commission’s findings favoured the continued use of opium and led to the shelving of the idea of imposing a ban.

Bharat 6G Alliance

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: PIB


Context: The Bharat 6G Alliance (B6GA) has been formed as a collaborative platform involving public and private companies, academia, research institutions, and standards development organizations.

  • The alliance aims to foster international collaboration, forge coalitions with global 6G alliances, and drive the design, development, and deployment of 6G technologies in India.


Objectives of B6GA:

  • To enable India to become a leading global supplier of intellectual property, products and solutions of affordable 5G and 6G and other future telecom solutions.
  • To deploy 6G technologies to act as a powerful force multiplier for India by 2030.
  • To understand the business and societal needs of 6G beyond technology requirements.
  • To develop recommendations for Bharat 6G Vision implementation readiness in India.


Other initiatives launched

Two agreements were signed for projects under Telecom Technology Development Fund (TTDF). TTDF scheme was launched by Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF) in 2022.

USOF is a body under DoT. 5% of annual collections from USOF are available for TTDF for funding R&D in rural-specific communication technology applications and form synergies among academia, start-ups, and industry to build and develop a telecom ecosystem.

/ 05 July 2023, Today's Article

Joint ocean expedition to study maritime changes

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: TOI

 Context: Scientists from Bangladesh and Mauritius have joined forces with Indian maritime experts for a landmark joint ocean expedition.

  • The expedition involves research on ocean data to better understand and manage changes in the marine environment and oceanic parameters.
  • The Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) is leading the expedition, which resulted from the CSC Oceanographers and Hydrographers.
  • The research vessel ‘Sagar Nidhi,’ operated by the National Institute of Ocean Technology, is facilitating the expedition.
  • Sagar Nidhi is a multidisciplinary vessel equipped with advanced technology for conducting geoscientific, meteorological, and oceanographic research.
  • It has the capability to navigate in blue-water conditions and has previously ventured into Antarctic waters.

Trafficking in Border Areas

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: TH

Context: The government has announced plans to assist border states and union territories in setting up homes for the rehabilitation of trafficking victims, particularly children and minors.


Ministry: The Women and Child Development Ministry will provide financial aid to these regions to establish shelters that will offer protection, rehabilitation, and support services to victims of trafficking.


Provisions: These homes will provide essentials such as shelter, food, clothing, counselling, and primary healthcare facilities.


What is Human trafficking?

Human trafficking refers to the illegal trade and exploitation of individuals through force, coercion, or deception for various purposes such as forced labour, sexual exploitation, and organ trafficking. It involves the recruitment, transportation, harbouring, or receipt of people by means of threat, fraud, or abduction for the purpose of exploitation.


India’s Status:

India is both a source and destination country for human trafficking, with neighbouring countries like Nepal, Bangladesh, and Myanmar being the main sources.


Constitutional Status:

  • Article 23 prohibits human trafficking and begar (forced labour without payment).
  • Article 24 forbids the employment of children below the age of 14 years in dangerous jobs like factories and mines.



  • The Women and Child Development Ministry have been providing financial assistance under the Nirbhaya Fund to establish Anti Human Trafficking Units (AHTU) across the country, including in border guarding forces like the BSF and SSB.
    • As of now, 788 AHTUs, including 30 in border guarding forces, are functional.
  • Sponsorship under the Mission Vatsalya Scheme, which focuses on the protection and welfare of children.
  • Anti-Trafficking Nodal Cell  (Ministry of Home Affairs)

Pichavaram region


Source: TH

The Tamil Nadu Forest Department has formulated a comprehensive plan to restore coastal habitats and rehabilitate degraded mangroves in the Cuddalore district, particularly in the Pichavaram region.


Pichavaram consists of a number of islands interspersing a vast expanse of water covered with mangrove forest. The Pichavaram mangrove Forest is one of the largest mangrove forests in India covering about 45 sq km of area. It is separated from the Bay of Bengal by a sand bar. 

Bogibeel in Dibrugarh


Source: PIB

The Union Minister of Ports, Shipping & Waterways and Ayush, Shri Sarbananda Sonowal, has laid the foundation stone for an Inland Waterways Transport (IWT) terminal at Bogibeel in Dibrugarh, Assam (by the bank of the River Brahmaputra (National Waterways 2)).

The government intends to increase the share of Inland Water Transport (IWT) to 5% as per Maritime India Vision (MIV)-2030.


Bogibeel has Bogibeel Bridge. It is the longest rail-cum-road bridge in India, measuring 4.94 kilometres over the Brahmaputra river





Source: TH

Kenyan President William Ruto has lifted a six-year ban on logging despite concerns from environmentalists. Ruto argued that it was wasteful to let mature trees rot in forests while local industries faced a shortage of timber.

 Kenya is a country in East Africa with a coastline on the Indian Ocean. It encompasses the savannah, Lakelands, the dramatic Great Rift Valley and mountain highlands. It’s also home to wildlife like lions, elephants and rhinos. From Nairobi, the capital, safaris visit the Maasai Mara Reserve, known for its annual wildebeest migrations, and Amboseli National Park, offering views of Tanzania’s 5,895m Mt. Kilimanjaro. 


Release of Treated Water into the Sea at Fukushima


Source: IAEA

Context: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted a safety review and concluded that Japan’s plans to release treated water from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station into the sea are consistent with international safety standards.


Background of the event:

In 2011, a major nuclear accident occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in Japan following a massive earthquake and tsunami. The natural disaster led to a loss of power and cooling system failures, resulting in the meltdowns of three reactors and the release of radioactive materials. It was one of the most significant nuclear accidents since the Chornobyl disaster in 1986.


Water Treatment:

Water stored at the site got contaminated during the incident. The contaminated water had caesium and strontium. They were removed periodically and now the water has been treated through an Advanced Liquid Processing System (ALPS) to remove almost all radioactivity, aside from tritium. Before discharging, Japan will dilute the water to bring the tritium to below regulatory standards.


About IAEA:

The International Atomic Energy Agency (HQ: Vienna; founded: 1957) is an intergovernmental organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.



The IAEA strengthens the global nuclear safety and security framework. It identifies and promotes best practices and safety standards and implements programs to assist states in applying these standards. The IAEA is also a key player in the effort to prevent nuclear terrorism.


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