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National Electricity Plan 2022-32

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Infrastructure (Energy)

 

Source: PIB

 Context: The Central Electricity Authority (CEA) has notified the National Electricity Plan (NEP) for the period of 2022-32.

 

The NEP:

  • The CEA (Ministry of Power, GoI) must create a NEP in line with the National Electricity Policy, according to the Electricity Act 2003, to –
    • Create short-term (every 5-year) and perspective plans (15-year)
    • Assesses India’s current electricity needs, projected growth, power sources, and challenges
    • Coordinate the efforts of different planning agencies to ensure that resources are used optimally
    • Support the needs of the country’s economy.
  • The 1st National Electricity Plan was published in 2007, the 2nd in 2013, and the third (2018) includes the detailed Plan for 2017–22 and the perspective plan for 2022–27.

 

The NEP 2022-32: The plan document includes the review of the last five years (2017-22), a detailed plan for the next five years (2022-27) and the prospective plan for the next five years (2027-32).

 

Key projections of the NEP 2022-32: 

Installed capacity:

By 2026-27, it would be 609,591 MW, comprising –

  • 273,038 MW of conventional capacity (coal-235,133 MW, gas-24,824 MW, nuclear-13,080 MW) and
  • 336,553 MW of renewable-based capacity (large hydro-52,446 MW, solar-185,566 MW, wind-72,895 MW, small hydro-5,200 MW, biomass-13,000 MW, pump storage plants-7,446 MW).
  • The renewable-based capacity also includes a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) capacity of 8,680 MW/34,720 MWh.

 

By 2031, it is estimated to be 900,422 MW comprising –

  • 304,147 MW of conventional capacity (coal-259,643 MW, gas–24,824 MW, nuclear-19,680 MW) and
  • 596,275 MW (66%) of renewable-based capacity (large hydro-62,178 MW, solar-364,566 MW, wind-121,895 MW, small hydro-5,450 MW, biomass-15,500 MW, pump storage plants-26,686 MW).
  • BESS capacity – 47,244 MW/236,220 MWh.

 

Key takeaways from the NEP 2022-32:

  • Renewable energy target: While India has committed to half its installed electricity being sourced from renewable sources by 2030, this target may be achieved by 2026-27.
  • The share of non-fossil-based capacity: It is likely to increase to 4% by 2026-27, and 68.4% by 2031-32 from around 42.5% as of April 2023.
  • Ambitious but possible targets: These targets are premised on significant support by the government to industry.

 

Concerns:

  • Old targets have fallen short of reality: For example, the Centre had committed to installing 100 GW (1 GW is equal to 1,000 MW) of solar power by 2022 but only managed about 64 GW.
  • Installed capacity does not perfectly translate into generated power: As different sources of energy have varying degrees of availability and efficiency.
    • For instance, solar power is available only during the day and wind energy is dependent on climate vagaries.

 

Way ahead (as per the National Electricity Plan for 2022-27):

  • The hybrid generation models: This will enable a shift to solar energy and provide backup power.
  • The water-based systems: In these systems, water is raised to the reservoir during charging, and when it is discharged, it produces energy.

 

Insta Links:

 National Electricity Plan for 2022-27