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[Mission 2023] INSIGHTS DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS + PIB SUMMARY 2 June 2023

InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper2:

  1. National Electricity Plan 2022-32
  2. Semiconductor manufacturing in India
  3. Access to assured irrigation
  4. World’s Largest Grain Storage Plan in Cooperative Sector

 

Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

  1. Times of India’s (TOI) ‘Saving Our Stripes’ initiative

 

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

  1. Yakshagana 
  2. Mekedatu dam project
  3. CITIIS 2.0
  4. Electronics Repair Services Outsourcing (ERSO)
  5. PM SVANidhi scheme
  6. Desiccation-tolerant vascular plant species
  7. Quasi-Moon

 

Mapping

  1. Zambia

 

National Electricity Plan 2022-32

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Infrastructure (Energy)

 

Source: PIB

 Context: The Central Electricity Authority (CEA) has notified the National Electricity Plan (NEP) for the period of 2022-32.

 

The NEP:

  • The CEA (Ministry of Power, GoI) must create a NEP in line with the National Electricity Policy, according to the Electricity Act 2003, to –
    • Create short-term (every 5-year) and perspective plans (15-year)
    • Assesses India’s current electricity needs, projected growth, power sources, and challenges
    • Coordinate the efforts of different planning agencies to ensure that resources are used optimally
    • Support the needs of the country’s economy.
  • The 1st National Electricity Plan was published in 2007, the 2nd in 2013, and the third (2018) includes the detailed Plan for 2017–22 and the perspective plan for 2022–27.

 

The NEP 2022-32: The plan document includes the review of the last five years (2017-22), a detailed plan for the next five years (2022-27) and the prospective plan for the next five years (2027-32).

 

Key projections of the NEP 2022-32: 

Installed capacity:

By 2026-27, it would be 609,591 MW, comprising –

  • 273,038 MW of conventional capacity (coal-235,133 MW, gas-24,824 MW, nuclear-13,080 MW) and
  • 336,553 MW of renewable-based capacity (large hydro-52,446 MW, solar-185,566 MW, wind-72,895 MW, small hydro-5,200 MW, biomass-13,000 MW, pump storage plants-7,446 MW).
  • The renewable-based capacity also includes a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) capacity of 8,680 MW/34,720 MWh.

 

By 2031, it is estimated to be 900,422 MW comprising –

  • 304,147 MW of conventional capacity (coal-259,643 MW, gas–24,824 MW, nuclear-19,680 MW) and
  • 596,275 MW (66%) of renewable-based capacity (large hydro-62,178 MW, solar-364,566 MW, wind-121,895 MW, small hydro-5,450 MW, biomass-15,500 MW, pump storage plants-26,686 MW).
  • BESS capacity – 47,244 MW/236,220 MWh.

 

Key takeaways from the NEP 2022-32:

  • Renewable energy target: While India has committed to half its installed electricity being sourced from renewable sources by 2030, this target may be achieved by 2026-27.
  • The share of non-fossil-based capacity: It is likely to increase to 4% by 2026-27, and 68.4% by 2031-32 from around 42.5% as of April 2023.
  • Ambitious but possible targets: These targets are premised on significant support by the government to industry.

 

Concerns:

  • Old targets have fallen short of reality: For example, the Centre had committed to installing 100 GW (1 GW is equal to 1,000 MW) of solar power by 2022 but only managed about 64 GW.
  • Installed capacity does not perfectly translate into generated power: As different sources of energy have varying degrees of availability and efficiency.
    • For instance, solar power is available only during the day and wind energy is dependent on climate vagaries.

 

Way ahead (as per the National Electricity Plan for 2022-27):

  • The hybrid generation models: This will enable a shift to solar energy and provide backup power.
  • The water-based systems: In these systems, water is raised to the reservoir during charging, and when it is discharged, it produces energy.

 

Insta Links:

 National Electricity Plan for 2022-27

Semiconductor manufacturing in India

GS Paper 3

 Syllabus: Changes in Industrial Policy and Their Effects on Industrial Growth

 

Source: IE

 Context: India’s ambition of manufacturing semiconductor chips appears to be taking longer to materialize.

 

Why?

  • Three entities (Vedanta-Foxconn, international consortium ISMC and Singapore-based IGSS Ventures) that had applied to build the chips are facing hurdles in setting up their manufacturing plants in India.
  • The Centre, which expects its semiconductor market to be worth $63 billion by 2026, had received three proposals to set up a fab (fabrication/production) in the country.

 

What are the hurdles?

  • Vedanta-Foxconn struggles to find a tech partner that could licence them the technology to manufacture 28-nanometre chips.
  • ISMC (backed by Abu Dhabi-based Next Orbit and Israel’s Tower Semiconductor) has asked not to consider its proposal owing to a pending merger between Intel and Tower Semiconductor
  • Singapore-based IGSS Venture’s proposal was not found to be up to the mark by the government’s advisory committee.

 

Semiconductors:

  • Semiconductors are materials which have a conductivity between –
    • Conductors (generally metals) at high temperatures and
    • Non-conductors or insulators (such as most ceramics) at low temperatures
  • Semiconductors/integrated circuits (ICs)/microchips can be pure elements, such as silicon or germanium, or compounds such as gallium arsenide or cadmium selenide.
  • Small amounts of impurities called doping are added to pure semiconductors causing large changes in the conductivity of the material.
  • Due to the semiconductor chip shortage in recent years, the global automobile manufacturing industry is particularly affected.

 

Why is India pushing for semiconductor manufacturing?

  • India has identified electronics manufacturing as a key sector to boost its growth by producing goods not just for the domestic market, but also for global markets.
  • While smartphone manufacturing has taken off in the country with Apple taking the lead, the entire process is largely centred around assembling various imported components.
  • India has made chip manufacturing a top priority (by luring global companies) for its economic strategy to
    • Develop a domestic electronics supply chain and
    • Reduce its imports, especially from China

 

Govt. efforts – Semicon India Programme: Launched in 2021 with an outlay of Rs 76,000 crore, the programme seeks to support the development of the semiconductors and the display manufacturing ecosystem in India.

 

Impact of the above hurdles on India: It will affect the country’s ambitious target of becoming a global semiconductor hub in the next five years.

 

Decision taken by the Ministry of Electronics and IT (MeitY): It will reopen the window for applying to its Rs 76,000 crore semiconductor manufacturing plan.

 

Way ahead:

  • As more companies try to diversify their bases from China, India has an opportunity to emerge as a reliable destination.
  • On the lines of the USA’s CHIPS Act, India can also provide subsidies for manufacturing chips in the country.

 

Insta Links:

A push for the semiconductor industry

Access to assured irrigation

GS3/GS1

 Syllabus: Agriculture/ Geography: Irrigation

 

Source: LM

 Context: In 2022-23, of the 210 million hectares of gross sown area, about 115 million hectares, or nearly 55%, had irrigation access, up from 47.8% in 2013-14, according to state-run think-tank Niti Aayog member Ramesh Chand.

 

What is ‘assured irrigation’?

Assured irrigation refers to the provision of reliable and guaranteed water supply for agricultural purposes. Assured irrigation systems can include canals, drip irrigation, sprinklers, and other methods that efficiently deliver water to crops.

Importance of ‘assured irrigation’:

It ensures that cultivated land has access to a sufficient and regular water source, reducing dependence on rainfall and minimizing the risk of crop failure due to water scarcity.

 

Data about water use:  

  • Agriculture accounts for about 80% of India’s available water use of 700 billion cubic metres
  • The monsoon rainfall in June-September, which waters the Kharif or summer-sown crops, plays a crucial role in farm production.
  • Agriculture accounts for about 18% of the national economy and is the largest employer.
  • Out of the total irrigated area, 40% is currently watered through canal networks, and 60% through groundwater.

 

Factors behind increasing assured irrigation in India:

Factors Examples
Expansion of Land A massive expansion of land under agriculture, especially in the dryland farm zones of Telangana, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka and a moderate increase in Uttar Pradesh
Micro-Projects Implementation of micro-projects that utilize water efficiently has contributed to the increase in assured irrigation.
Micro-irrigation facilities, such as sprinklers and drip systems, have been installed on 8 million hectares of land across India.
Government Initiatives Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) (launched in 2015) focuses on creating sources for assured irrigation, reducing water wastage, and improving water use efficiency. The scheme incentivizes micro-irrigation through subsidies and promotes rainwater harvesting at a micro-level.
  Har Khet Ko Paani-Surface Minor Irrigation: It focuses on harnessing surface water sources for irrigation in areas where groundwater resources are limited through the construction of small-scale irrigation structures like check dams, farm ponds, and percolation tanks to capture and store rainwater.
A ₹500 billion micro-irrigation fund (MIF) was created with the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) to support states in mobilizing resources.
Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP) and special packages for certain states have contributed to the expansion of irrigation infrastructure.
Canal projects E.g., Eastern Rajasthan Canal Project (ERCP); Shahpur-Kandi project

 

Impact: This expansion is attributed to the growth of micro-projects that use water more efficiently, particularly in states like Telangana, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Karnataka.

 

 

Limitations:

  • About 40% of the cultivable area will still depend on rainfall due to geographical and hydrological limitations.
  • Over-dependence on groundwater has led to the depletion of the water table in 64% district of India
  • Uneven rainfall distribution
  • Poor irrigation efficiency
  • The huge and increasing gap between created and utilized irrigation potential

 

 

Conclusion:

Assured irrigation plays a crucial role in reducing dependence on rainfall, improving water use efficiency, and enhancing agricultural productivity. The focus on assured irrigation is essential for sustainable agriculture and mitigating the impact of water scarcity on crop production in India.

 

Insta Links

Irrigation and Irrigation Systems

 

Mains Links

Account for the major irrigation challenges faced by Indian farmers and suggest what policy measures and reforms are needed to resolve the same. (250 Words)

 

Prelims Links:

What are the advantages of fertigation in agriculture? (UPSC 2020)

  1. Controlling the alkalinity of irrigation water is possible.
  2. Efficient application of Rock Phosphate and all other phosphatic fertilizers is possible.
  3. Increased availability of nutrients to plants is possible.
  4. Reduction in the leaching of chemical nutrients is possible.

 

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only

(b) 1, 2 and 4 only

(c) 1, 3 and 4 only

(d) 2, 3 and 4 only

 

Answer: C

 

Which of the following is/are the advantage/advantages of practising drip irrigation? (UPSC 2016)

  1. Reduction in weed
  2. Reduction in soil salinity
  3. Reduction in soil erosion

 

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) None of the above is an advantage of practising drip irrigation

 

Answer: C

World’s Largest Grain Storage Plan in Cooperative Sector

 

 General Studies 3

 Syllabus: Agriculture – Cooperative Societies

 

Source: PIB

 Context: The Union Cabinet approved the constitution and empowerment of an Inter-Ministerial Committee (IMC) for the facilitation of the “world’s largest grain storage plan in the cooperative sector” by the convergence of various schemes of the Ministries of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution and Food Processing Industries.

Implementation The Ministry of Cooperation will implement a pilot project in at least 10 districts to gather regional insights for nationwide implementation. An IMC will modify guidelines and implementation methodologies for creating infrastructure at Primary Agricultural Credit Societies (PACS) using available schemes.
Schemes for Convergence Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare

 

Agriculture Infrastructure Fund, Agricultural Marketing Infrastructure Scheme, Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture, Sub Mission on Agricultural Mechanization.
Ministry of Food Processing Industries Pradhan Mantri Formalization of Micro Food Processing Enterprises Scheme, Pradhan Mantri Kisan Sampada Yojana.
Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution Allocation of food grains under the National Food Security Act, Procurement operations at Minimum Support Price.
Benefits The plan aims to address the agricultural storage infrastructure shortage and enable PACS to function as procurement centres, fair price shops, custom hiring centres, and processing units.

It will reduce food grain wastage, enhance food security, prevent distress sales, reduce transportation costs, and strengthen PACS.

Implementation Timeline National Level Coordination Committee was formed within one week of approval. Implementation guidelines are issued within 15 days of approval.

Portal for PACS linkage rolled out within 45 days of approval.

Implementation starts within 45 days of approval.

 

Challenges Associated with Food Grain Storage in India:

Examples
Insufficient storage facilities Lack of proper warehouses and godowns at the farm level, leading to the damage of grains by pests and insects.

For example, due to limited storage options, farmers may resort to storing grains in substandard structures or open spaces, making them vulnerable to infestations and spoilage.

Inadequate infrastructure Inefficient storage structures that are unsuitable for long-term grain storage, lead to spoilage and quality degradation. For instance, traditional storage structures like mud bins or jute bags may lack proper ventilation and insulation, causing moisture buildup and mould formation.
Poor maintenance An example would be the lack of regular cleaning, pest control measures, and repairs, leading to structural weaknesses and pest infestations.
Technological gaps Lack of advanced technologies for storage, such as moisture control systems and temperature regulation, which are essential for maintaining grain quality. For instance, the absence of proper moisture control systems can result in the growth of moulds, fungi, and aflatoxins, adversely affecting the quality of stored grains.
Inefficient logistics The lack of well-established transportation networks resulted in prolonged transit times and exposure to unfavourable environmental conditions.
Inadequate pest control The absence of effective pest control methods like fumigation or the use of insecticides can lead to significant grain damage and quality deterioration.
Inadequate funding Limited financial resources are allocated for the construction, maintenance, and modernization of storage infrastructure, hindering the improvement of storage facilities. This can result in a lack of funds for necessary repairs, upgrades, and expansion of storage infrastructure, exacerbating the existing challenges.

 

Conclusion:

The government’s initiative to establish a six-member committee, chaired by Shanta Kumar, aimed to provide recommendations for rationalizing the storage, procurement, and distribution of crops. The committee’s recommendations have the potential to drive positive changes and optimize the overall agricultural supply chain in the country.

 

About Ministry of Cooperation:

A separate ‘Ministry of Co-operation’ was created by the Central Government for realizing the vision of ‘Sahkar se Samriddhi’ (Prosperity through Cooperation) and to give a new push to the cooperative movement.

Significance of Ministry of Co-operation:

  • It will provide a separate administrative, legal and policy framework for strengthening the cooperative movement in the country.
  • It will help deepen Co-operatives as a true people-based movementreaching up to the grassroots.

 

Insta Links:

Ministry Of Cooperation

Times of India’s (TOI) ‘Saving Our Stripes’ initiative

Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

Source: TOI

Prime Minister Narendra Modi has lauded the Times of India group for their efforts in highlighting the significance of tiger conservation through their initiative ‘Saving Our Stripes’. As a part of the initiative, TOI launched a video of India’s first Tiger Anthem- a song and short film on a Tigress and her cub.

 

By targeting children, the initiative encourages the younger generation to embrace the ethical values of environmental stewardship and conservation.

 

Usage: The initiative can be quoted in the Environment/Essay/ Ethics (compassion towards animals) paper.

Yakshagana

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: TH

 

 Context: The beginning of the monsoon is no longer the end of Yakshagana performances in  Karnataka’s coastal districts. With an abundance of venues opening up over the last decade, Yakshagana Theatre is thriving throughout the year.

 

About Yakshagana:

  • Yakshagana is a traditional theatre form of Karnataka.
  • It is performed with massive headgear, elaborate facial makeup, and vibrant costumes and ornaments.
  • Usually recited in Kannada, it is also performed in Malayalam as well as Tulu (the dialect of south Karnataka).
  • It is performed with percussion instruments like chenda, maddalam, jagatta or chengila (cymbals) and chakratala or elathalam (small cymbals).

 

Features

  • It was performed by a special community known as Jakkula Varu in the royal courts of the Vijayanagar dynasty.
  • The word Yakshagana is derived from the names Aata Bayalaata, Kelike, and Dashavatara.
  • The dance form of Yakshagana has been divided into two groups by intellectuals and researchers.
  • The first category is Moodalopaya, which encompasses the eastern sides of Karnataka.
  • Paduvlopaya is the second category of Yakshagana, which includes the western parts of the state of Karnataka, as well as Udupi, Kasaragod, and Uttara Kannada.

/ 02 Jun 2023, Today's Article

Mekedatu dam project

 

Source: IE

 Context: The Mekedatu dam project, located in the Ramanagaram district of Karnataka, has sparked a long-running dispute between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

 

Mekedatu Dam and Cauvery River Dispute
Mekedatu Dam Project The project aims to build a dam and reservoir on the Cauvery River to supply drinking water to Bengaluru and replenish groundwater. It also aims to generate 400 MW of power. The Karnataka government approved the project in 2017.
Reasons for Opposition Tamil Nadu opposes any project in the upper riparian without Supreme Court approval. Tamil Nadu argues that the project is unauthorized and could harm its interests, violating the orders of the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal and the Supreme Court.
Cauvery River It is the third largest river – after Godavari and Krishna – in southern India, and the largest in the state of Tamil Nadu, known as ‘Ponni’ in Tamil. Originates in Karnataka (Talakaveri in the Brahmagiri range in the Western Ghats, Kodagu district), flows through Tamil Nadu and drains into the Bay of Bengal through Pondicherry.

 

Tributaries:  tributaries include Harangi, Hemavati, Kabini, Bhavani, Lakshmana Tirtha, Noyyal, and Arkavati.

The Dispute The dispute dates back to agreements in 1892 and 1924 and revolves around the principle that the upper riparian state (Karnataka) must obtain the consent of the lower riparian state (Tamil Nadu) for any construction activities on the river. In 1990, the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal (CWDT) was established to resolve the matter, and in 2007, it issued its final order on water sharing. The Supreme Court of India upheld the order in 2018, reducing Karnataka’s allocation of water to Tamil Nadu.
Way Forward Cooperation and coordination are needed between states. Basin-level planning for sustainable and ecologically viable solutions. Focus on water conservation measures, such as afforestation and micro-irrigation. Increase water use efficiency and promote water-smart strategies

CITIIS 2.0

Source: ET

 Context: The Union government approved the City Investments to Innovate, Integrate and Sustain (CITIIS) 2.0 programme that seeks to support projects promoting a circular economy with a focus on integrated waste management at the city level.

 

The programme envisages supporting competitively selected projects promoting a circular economy with a focus on integrated waste management at the city level, climate-oriented reform actions at the state level, and institutional strengthening and knowledge dissemination at the national level.

  

About CITIIS 1.0:

CITIIS, a sub-component of Smart Cities Mission, is a joint program of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, Agence Francaise de Development (AFD), European Union (EU), and National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA). CITIIS 1.0 was launched in 2018 and assisted 12 cities across India in sustainable urban infrastructure projects

Electronics Repair Services Outsourcing (ERSO)

Source: PIB

 Context: MeitY launches a pilot project on Electronics Repair Services Outsourcing (ERSO) to make India Global Repair Capital.

 

Through the ERSO scheme, India hopes to capture 20% of the global repair service market – currently valued at $100 billion – in five years. At present, India’s revenue from repair services is about $350 million.

 

Significance:

  • Revenue potential
  • Extension of device life
  • Promote circularity
  • Employment
  • Boosting domestic manufacturing

 

Right to Repair: 

The Right to Repair refers to government legislation that is intended to allow consumers the ability to repair and modify their own consumer electronic devices, where otherwise the manufacturer of such devices requires the consumer to use only their offered services.

 

When customers buy a product, it is inherent that they must own it completely, for which the consumers should be able to repair and modify the product with ease and at a reasonable cost, without being captive to the whims of manufacturers for repairs.

The idea originally originated from the USA where the Motor Vehicle Owners’ Right to Repair Act 2012, required the manufacturers to provide the necessary documents and information to allow anyone to repair their vehicles.

PM SVANidhi scheme

 

Source: TH

 Context: The Central government has launched a mobile app for street vendors to simplify the loan application process under the PM SVANidhi scheme.

  • The app aims to streamline the process and make it more accessible for vendors.
  • Additionally, the launch of the ‘Udyam’ registration certificate simplifies business registration for street vendors.

 

About PM SVANidhi Scheme:

Description
PM SVANidhi Scheme is a Central Sector Scheme launched (in 2020) as part of the Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan.
Objective To provide affordable working capital loans to street vendors affected by Covid-19 lockdowns
Funding Fully funded by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs
Lending Period Extended till December 2024
Loans Offered 1st loan: Up to ₹10,000; 2nd loan: Up to ₹20,000; 3rd loan: Up to ₹50,000
Interest Subsidy 7% interest subsidy on loans
‘SVANidhi Se Samriddhi’ Component It maps the socio-economic profile of beneficiaries and their families
Eligibility Available to street vendors engaged in vending in urban areas, subject to notification of rules and schemes under the Street Vendors (Protection of Livelihood and Regulation of Street Vending) Act, 2014
Success The scheme has been successful, with over 36 lakh street vendors receiving microcredits, and as of June 30, 2023.

 

Target: 42 lakh street vendors targeted to be provided benefits under PM SVANidhi Scheme by December 2024

Desiccation-tolerant vascular plant species

 

Source: PIB

 

Context: India’s biodiversity hotspot, the Western Ghats, is home to 62 Desiccation-Tolerant Vascular Plant Species which could have applications in agriculture, particularly in areas with scarcity of water.

 

What are Desiccation-tolerate plants? 

Desiccation-tolerant vascular (DT) plants are able to withstand extreme dehydration, losing up to 95% of their water content, and they revive themselves once water is available again. This unique ability allows them to survive in harsh, arid environments that would be uninhabitable for most other plants.

 

Examples: Selaginella lepidophylla (Rose of Jericho); Xerophyta viscosa; Myrothamnus flabellifolius (Resurrection plant); Craterostigma plantagineum; Haberlea rhodopensis.

 

What makes plants Desiccation-tolerant? 

Desiccation-tolerant plants have special adaptations (e.g., mechanisms to prevent cellular damage during dehydration; thick cuticle on leaves, which reduces water loss through evaporation etc., ) that allow them to survive extreme dehydration by losing a significant amount of water content and reviving when water becomes available again.

 

What are Vascular plants?

Vascular plants, also known as tracheophytes, are a group of plants that have specialized tissues for conducting water, nutrients, and sugars throughout their structures. These tissues are called vascular tissues and include the xylem and phloem.

Quasi-Moon

 

Source: Live Science, LM

 Context: A recently discovered asteroid, named 2023 FW13, has been identified as a “quasi-moon” or “quasi-satellite” of Earth.

 

What is “quasi-moon”?

A quasi-moon is a term used to describe an asteroid or space rock that orbits the sun in a similar time frame as Earth but is only slightly influenced by Earth’s gravitational pull. It appears to accompany Earth during its yearly journey around the sun but is not a natural satellite like the moon.

 

About 2023 FW13: 

It orbits the sun in a similar time frame as Earth but is only minimally affected by Earth’s gravitational pull. Estimated to be 50 feet in diameter, it comes within 9 million miles of Earth during its orbit. The asteroid was first observed in March and has likely been travelling alongside Earth since around 100 B.C. It is considered to be the longest-known quasi-satellite of Earth. Although it is in close proximity to Earth, there is no imminent risk of a collision. Another quasi-satellite called Kamo’oalewa was discovered in 2016, which may potentially be a fragment of Earth’s moon.

Zambia

Mapping

Source: DTE

Context: Lion and leopard populations have experienced a remarkable recovery in Zambia’s Kafue National Park (KNP), Africa’s third-largest national park, after decades of poaching, according to a report by Panthera and its partners.

 

The use of advanced conservation technologies, such as SMART and EarthRanger, anti-poaching measures, and distribution of synthetic ‘Heritage Furs’ replacing garments made of authentic leopard and lion skins, along with innovative strategies like vultures as early warning systems, has improved the population.

 

Zambia (name from the Zambezi River), in southern Africa, is a landlocked country of rugged terrain and diverse wildlife, with many parks and safari areas. On its border with Zimbabwe is the famed Victoria Falls – plunging a misty 108m into the narrow Batoka Gorge.

/ 02 Jun 2023, Today's Article

 

Read the CA in PDF format here: 

 


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