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[Mission 2023] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 25 May 2023

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. Discuss the unique features of Indus civilization sculptures and their role in understanding the cultural and social aspects of this ancient civilization. How do the sculptures from the Indus Valley Civilization contribute to our understanding of art, religion, and society during that time? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian ExpressInsights on India

Why the question:

The article titled “What Mohenjo-daro’s Dancing Girl figurine tells us about the prehistoric civilisation” explores the significance of the famous Dancing Girl figurine discovered at the archaeological site of Mohenjo-daro in present-day Pakistan.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the sculptural art of Indus valley civilisation and information it provides.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving a brief about rich art of Indus valley civilisation.

Body:

Mention the various features of Indus valley civilisation that exhibited fine artistry and imagination – seals, bronze dancing girl, steatite images, copper sculptures etc. Elaborate upon their vivid features.

Next, write about the information provided by the Indus Valley Sculptures about the various aspects of the civilization.

Conclusion:

Conclude by the summarising.

Introduction

Sculpture art is one of the most ancient art forms in India. Archaeological studies have confirmed that Indians were familiar with sculptures about 4000 years before. A flourishing civilisation emerged on the banks of river Indus in the second half of the third millennium BCE and spread across larger parts of Western India. A marked feature if this civilisation was the vivid imagination and artistic sensibilities.

Body

Sculpture art of Indus Valley Civilization:

  • Sculpture representation started with knowledge of TerracottaDeities like bearded man, mother goddess and toy carts, animals were common.
  • Harappan sculptors were adept in chiselling of stones. E.g.: male torso figure in red sandstone and bust of a bearded man in soapstone.
  • Apart from sculpturing in terracotta and stone, ancient Indian artists were masters in bronze sculptingas well.
  • The Lost Wax Technique or the ‘Cire-Perdu’ processhas been known from the time of the Indus Valley Civilization itself. This process is in use even today.
  • The statue of the Dancing Girl found from Mohenjo Daro is one of the finest examples of Indus Valley art. It is a bronze statue showing remarkable achievements of the artists of the Indus Valley. The figurine is about 4 inches tall. Datable to 2500 BC. It is said to be in the tribhanga it is one of the oldest bronze sculpture. : Bronze dancing girl of Mohenjo-Daro, bronze bull of Kalibangan etc.
  • Bronze is an alloy of basically copper and tin. Sometimes zinc was also added although most of the component is copper.
  • The alloy-making process of mixing metals was known to the ancient Indians.
  • Bronze sculptures and statuettes of various icons of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism have been found from various parts of India dating from the 2nd century CE to the 16th century CE.
  • Most of the images were used for religious and ritualistic purposes.
  • The metal casting process was also used for making articles of daily use like utensils.

Conclusion

Their artistic versatility showed in the range of materials they used and the forms they made out of it. The patterns, motives and designs found on the articles shows the creativity that existed and judging from the excavated evidences, one can only conclude the people of Indus civilization were indeed true art patrons.

 

Topic: Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

2. India’s diversity is a valuable asset that, when nurtured and celebrated, contributes to its social, cultural, and economic progress. By addressing the associated challenges, India can strive for a more inclusive and harmonious society. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1

Key Demand of the question:

To write about diversity in India and challenges associated with it and ways to overcome them.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by mentioning how India is a culturally diverse since time immemorial.

Body:

In the first, in detail write about the various aspects of diversity – linguistic, religious, ethnic, racial, caste etc. Write how these have shaped India.

Next, write about the various types of challenges associate with diversity in India and cite examples to substantiate.

Next, write about the ways to counter these challenges and uphold pluralism in the country.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

India is a plural society both in letter and spirit. It is rightly characterized by its unity and diversity. A grand synthesis of cultures, religions and languages of the people belonging to different castes and communities has upheld its unity and cohesiveness despite multiple foreign invasions.

National unity and integrity have been maintained even through sharp economic and social inequalities have obstructed the emergence of egalitarian social relations. It is this synthesis which has made India a unique mosque of cultures. Thus, India presents seemingly multicultural situation within in the framework of a single integrated cultural whole.

 

Body

Background: India’s diversity

  • India today is home to varied cultures and ethnic groups with substantial differences in physical appearance, language, religion and customs.
  • India also has vast economic differences between regions and its richest state is 10x more prosperous (on a per capita basis) than its poorest, with high-growth states and large metros at middle-income level resembling coastal China, and others more closely resembling Sub-Saharan Africa, with incomes under US$1,000 per capita.
  • It is said that geography is destiny, and if this is true, then India’s land itself is a key determinant of the diversity of its peoples, varying from desert to savannah and rain forests, from the roof of the world to coastal swamps and tropical islands. This geography, coupled with major urban centres and valleys of technology clusters, shapes its inhabitants daily lives and therefore their culture and beliefs.
  • While ethnicity and religion form a core of each Indian’s identity, those identities themselves can vary widely depending on backgrounds, regions and socio-economic levels. Even within religions, there can be significant differences in how this is practiced and therefore how identity is defined.

Challenges with India’s diversity

  • Regionalism: Regionalism tends to highlight interests of a particular region/regions over national interests. It can also adversely impact national integration. Law and order situation is hampered due to regional demands and ensuing
  • Divisive politics: Sometimes, ascriptive identities such as caste, religion etc. are evoked by politicians in order to garner This type of divisive politics can result in violence, feeling of mistrust and suspicion among minorities.
  • Development imbalance: Uneven pattern of socio-economic development, inadequate economic policies and consequent economic disparities can lead to backwardness of a region. Consequently, this can result in violence, kickstart waves of migration and even accelerate demands of separatism.. For instance, due to economic backwardness of the North East region, several instances of separatist demands and secessionist tendencies have sprung up in the
  • Ethnic differentiation and nativism: Ethnic differentiation has often led to clashes between different ethnic groups especially due to factors such as job competition, limited resources, threat to identity E.g. frequent clashes between Bodos and Bengali speaking Muslims in Assam. This has been accentuated by son of the soil doctrine, which ties people to their place of birth and confers some benefits, rights, roles and responsibilities on them, which may not apply to others.
  • Geographical isolation: Geographical isolation too can lead to identity issues and separatist The North-East is geographically isolated from the rest of the country as it is connected with the rest of the country by a narrow corridor i.e the Siliguri corridor (Chicken’s neck). The region has inadequate infrastructure, is more backward economically as compared to the rest of the country. As a result, ithas witnessed several instances of separatism and cross-border terrorism, among others.
  • Inter-religious conflicts: Inter-religious conflicts not only hamper relations between two communities by spreading fear and mistrust but also hinder the secular fabric of the country.
  • Inter-state conflicts: This can lead emergence of feelings related to regionalism. It can also affect trade and communications between conflicting states. For instance, Cauvery River dispute between Karnataka and Tamil
  • Influence of external factors: Sometimes external factors such as foreign organizations terrorist groups, extremist groups can incite violence and sow feelings of separatism. g. Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) has been accused of supporting and training mujahideen to fight in Jammu and Kashmir and sow separatist tendencies among resident groups.

 

Success as a republic

  • Constitutional identity: The entire country is governed by one single Even, most of the states follow a generalised scheme of 3-tier government structure, thus imparting uniformity in national governance framework. Further, the Constitution guarantees certain fundamental rights to all citizens regardless of their age, gender, class, caste, religion, etc.
  • Religious co-existence: Religion tolerance is the unique feature of religions in India due to which multiple religions co-exist in Freedom of religion and religious practice is guaranteed by the Constitution itself. Moreover, there is no state religion and all religions are given equal preference by the state.
  • Inter-State mobility: The Constitution guarantees freedom to move throughout the territory of India under Article 19 (1) (d), thus promoting a sense of unity and brotherhood among the
    • Other factors such as uniform pattern of law, penal code, and administrative works (eg. All India services) too lead to uniformity in the criminal justice system, policy implementation
  • Economic integration:    The      Constitution    of India secures the freedom of Trade, Commerce and Intercourse within the Territory of India under Article Further, the Goods and Service Tax (GST) have paved way for ‘one country, one tax, one national market’, thus facilitating unity among different regions.
  • Institution of pilgrimage and religious practices: In India, religion and spirituality have great significance. . From Badrinath and Kedarnath in the north to Rameshwaram in the south, Jagannath Puri in the east to Dwaraka in the west the religious shrines and holy rivers are spread throughout the length and breadth of the Closely related to them is the age-old culture of pilgrimage, which has always moved people to various parts of the country and fostered in them a sense of geo-cultural unity.
  • Fairs and festivals: They also act as integrating factors as people from all parts of the country celebrate them as per their own local Eg. Diwali is celebrated throughout by Hindus in the country, similarly Id and Christmas are celebrated by Muslims and Christians, respectively. Celebration of inter-religious festivals is also seen in India.
  • Climatic integration via monsoon: The flora and fauna in the entire Indian subcontinent, agricultural practices, life of people, including their festivities revolve around the monsoon season in
  • Sports and Cinema: These are followed by millions in the country, thus, acting as a binding force across the length and breadth of the country

Conclusion

This diversity and the pluralism it fosters have been a key strength for India, creating a vibrant and dynamic society that is open to new ideas, and quick to adopt and adapt innovations regardless of their origin, as well as creating a strong democratic polity with checks and balances on its leadership. If properly leveraged, India’s diversity is a fundamental strategic asset for the country’s development and standing in the world.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3. Discuss the National Curriculum Framework (NCF) and its role in addressing the gaps in the Indian education system. What are some of the key challenges faced in implementing the NCF, and how can they be overcome? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian ExpressInsights on India

Why the question:

The article titled “National Curriculum Framework and the Gaps in the System” discusses the National Curriculum Framework (NCF) in India and highlights the gaps present in the education system.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about NCF, challenges int implementation and ways to address it.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Briefly explain the National Curriculum Framework (NCF) and its aims

Body:

First, explain how the NCF aims to address gaps in the system, provide examples of initiatives proposed in the NCF etc.

Next, write about the key Challenges in Implementing the NCF -Lack of infrastructure and resources, Resistance to change from traditional teaching methods, Inadequate teacher training and professional development and regional disparities and diversity of the Indian education system

Next, Mention the measures that are needed to remedy this situation.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction

National Curriculum Frameworks (NCF) is a document that outlines the philosophy, goals, and objectives of education in India. It serves as a framework for designing school curricula, textbooks, and teaching practices. Previously, four NCFs (1975, 1988, 2000 and 2005) have been published by the NCERT in India. So, the current set of NCERT textbooks, barring the recent deletions, are all based on the NCF 2005.

The National Education Policy (NEP), 2020 recommends the development of National Curriculum Frameworks (NCF) in four areas- School Education, Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE), Teacher Education and Adult Education. The NCF includes the National Curriculum Framework for School Education (NCFSE), the National Curriculum Framework for Early Childhood Care & Education (NCFECCE), the National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education (NCFTE), and the National Curriculum Framework for Adult Education (NCFAE).

Recently, the Union Education ministry launched the National Curriculum Framework for foundational stage education of children in the three to eight years age group.

Body

role in addressing the gaps in the Indian education system

  • NCF promote a child-centred, activity-based approach to learning that focuses on the development of knowledge, skills, and values
  • The framework focuses on the ‘panchakosha’ concept– the ancient Indian emphasis on the body-mind connection.
  • The NCF says its five parts are physical development(sharirik vikas), development of life energy (pranik vikas), emotional and mental development (manasik vikas), intellectual development (bauddhik vikas) and spiritual development (chaitsik vikas).
  • The mandate document will bring about a paradigm shift with focus on holistic development of children, emphasis on skilling, vital role of teachers, learning in mother tongue, cultural rootedness.
  • It is also a step towards decolonisation of the Indian education system.
  • A key part of the document is the inclusion of values and its “rootedness” in India.
  • The pre-draft says that the framework is deeply rooted in India in content and learning of languages, in the pedagogical approaches including tools and resources, and in philosophical basis — in the aims and in the epistemic approach.
  • The pre-draft says that for Grade 10 certification, students will have to take two essential courses from humanities, maths and computing, vocational education, physical education, arts education, social science, science, and interdisciplinary areas.
  • In Grade 11 and 12, students will be offered choice-based courses in the same disciplines for more rigorous engagement.
  • Arts education will include music, dance, theatre, sculpture, painting, set design, scriptwriting, while interdisciplinary areas will include knowledge of India, traditions, and practices of Indian knowledge systems.
  • The NCF empowers teachers and enabling a supportive academic and administrative support system.
  • It also emphasizes the need to ensure adequate infrastructure and learning resources in each institution.
  • It focuses on classroom practices with real-life illustrations from a variety of contexts. It is hence relatable and provides realistic pathways for teachers and others.

key challenges faced in implementing the NCF

  • Since education is a concurrent subject most states have their own school boards.
  • Therefore, state governments would have to be brought on board for actual implementation of this decision.
  • Lack of infrastructure and resources
  • Resistance to change from traditional teaching methods
  • Inadequate teacher training and professional development
  • regional disparities
  • diversity of the Indian education system

Way forward

  • The need of the hour is to ensure various concerns raised are addressed before implementation of NCF.
  • The education infrastructure should be reinforced with a overall increase in the allocation towards education in general budget.
  • Teachers must be skilled and reskilled to get themselves attuned to the developments of the day.
  • Various sections of the society should be involved and they must be apprised of the new teaching methods.

 

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

4. Highlight the key areas of cooperation between India and Australia and analyse the potential implications of this strengthened partnership between the two countries on trade, defense, and regional security in the Indo-Pacific region. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The HinduInsights on India

Why the question:

The editorial discusses the strengthening bilateral relations between India and Australia, focusing on the significance of Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s visit to Australia.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the various facets of India-Australia relations especially with respect to space, critical minerals, strategic research, people-to-people links, security and stability of the Indo-Pacific.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start with brief background of the context of the question.

Body:

First, write about the various aspects of growing trade between India and Australia – recently introduced Update to Australia’s India Economic Strategy, space, critical minerals, strategic research and people-to-people links to boost cooperation with India, business engagement and an increased Australian presence in India etc.

Next, write about the geopolitical challenges – formation of AUKUS, QUAD and overall aspect of China.

Next, write about various bottlenecks in bilateral ties between both the nations.

Conclusion:

Suggest a way forward and conclude.

Introduction

India and Australia have several commonalities, which serve as a foundation for closer cooperation and multifaceted interaction, on lines similar to what India has developed with other Western countries. Both are strong, vibrant, secular and multicultural democracies.

The relationship has grown in strength and importance since India’s economic reforms in the nineties and has made rapid strides in all areas – trade, energy and mining, science & technology, information technology, education and defence.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s three-day visit to Australia gave a fillip to growing bipartisan ties. Mr. Modi’s Sydney sojourn was much more in the spotlight, particularly his address to the Indian community which Mr. Albanese joined in, as well as the address to business groups. This is sixth such meeting in the past year.

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Key outcomes of the bilateral meet

  • Opening an Australian consulate in Bengaluru and an Indian consulate in Brisbane.
  • An agreement on Migration and Mobility.
  • The finalisation of terms of reference for an India-Australia Green Hydrogen Task Force.
  • Defence and security ties.
  • Cooperation on renewable energy, and critical minerals.
  • Emphasis on the need to sign a Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement by December 2023.
  • On international issues, despite their differing stances on Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and western sanctions, they found continuing and common cause on maintaining a free and open Indo-Pacific, and dealing with an aggressive China.

Key areas of Cooperation

  • Convergence: Chinese aggression and assertive foreign policy are common concerns and has brought both the democracies closer. Both have shared interests in vision of a free, open, inclusive and rules-based Indo-Pacific region.
    • Both are part of QUAD, and also proposed Supply Chain Resilience Initiative.
    • Australia’s Pacific Step Up and India’s Forum for India-Pacific Islands Cooperation (FIPIC)reaffirm their cooperation in the South Pacific region.
  • Economic relations: Bilateral goods and services trade between two was $30.3 billion in 2018-19,and the level of two-way investment was $30.7 billion in 2018.
    • In 2018, Australia announced implementation of “An India Economic Strategy to 2035”, a vision document to shape India- Australia bilateral ties.
    • India is also preparing an Australia Economic Strategy Paper (AES)on similar lines.
    • This was after fallout of Australia and China.
  • Progress after fallout with China: Elevated the “2+2” engagement to the level of Foreign and Defence Ministers (from secretary level), where strategic discussions will be taking place every two years. India already has such mechanism with USA and Japan.
    • Both have shared interests in vision of a free, open, inclusive and rules-based Indo-Pacific region.
    • Both are part of QUAD, and also proposed Supply Chain Resilience Initiative.
    • Australia’s Pacific Step Up and India’s Forum for India-Pacific Islands Cooperation (FIPIC)reaffirm their cooperation in the South Pacific region.
  • Technology and Research: The two nations are working on a new and renewable energy partnership, to support the development of technologies such as green hydrogen and ultra-low cost solar.
    • Australia is also supporting research and investment to unlock Australian critical minerals for Indian advanced manufacturing.
  • Defence and security cooperation: Both signed Strategic Partnership, including a Joint Declaration on Security Cooperation in 2009.
    • Civil Nuclear Cooperation Agreement wassigned 2014 between two, enabling India to secure uranium from Australia.

Limitations of India-Australia ties

  • Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA)still remains inconclusive after9 rounds of negotiations.
  • India opted out fromRegional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). Among other things, India and Australia could not agree regarding market access over agriculture and dairy products.
  • Australia’s economy is heavily dependent on China, with China being Australia’s largest trading partner, accounting for 26 % of its trade with the world.
  • The prospects for bilateral relationship are recognized in both countries as strategically useful, economically productive and aligned with each other’s new agenda.
    • However, it is recognized that the natural synergy has so far not been exploited fully.
    • Countries should conclude CECA at the earliest, to realize the economic opportunities.

Way forward

  • Enhancing shared framework: While this is the first Dialogue since 2019, two nations have only grown closer together through enhancing shared framework for regional security, promoting business and commercial opportunities and strengthening people to people links, bilaterally and multilaterally.
  • Fifth largest global economy: As India marks 75 years of Independence and surpasses the United Kingdom as the fifth largest global economy, the momentum around this fifth Australia-India Leaderships Dialogue and the bilateral fruit it may bear should not be underestimated.
  • Diplomatic maneuvering and economic and military assertion: Appropriate diplomatic maneuvering and economic and military assertion is vital for the implementation of India’s interests in the Indi-Pacific region along with leveraging space as a building block for a multipolar world order.
  • Rule based multipolar order: India’s view is to work with other like-minded countries in the Indo-Pacific region to cooperatively manage a rules-based multipolar regional order and prevent any single power from dominating the region or its waterways.

Conclusion

Based on several commonalities and closely aligned values in principles of democracy, liberty, the rule of law, human rights, freedom of speech, free press and multiculturalism both must enhance the bilateral relationship by expanding engagement in various sectors like defence industry and commercial cyber activity etc.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

5. Despite the remarkable scientific progress achieved by Artificial Intelligence (AI), there are apprehensions and issues connected with it that require urgent attention and resolution. Critically analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The HinduInsights on India

Why the question:

The article titled “A Word of Caution about India and the AI Wagon” published in The Hindu raises concerns about India’s growing focus on artificial intelligence (AI) and highlights the need for cautious and responsible implementation of AI technologies.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the potential and concerns associated with AI.

Directive word: 

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a balanced judgment on the topic.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define AI and its contributions in general.

Body:

First, explain that Artificial intelligence (AI) is competent to have a revolutionary impact on businesses and consumers globally.

Next, list down the advantages of AI in detail. Cite statistics and examples.

Next, Discuss the concerns associated with AI such as – job losses, robot bosses, human errors, high cost, ethical issues etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction

New technologies like artificial intelligence, machine learning, robotics, big data, and networks are expected to revolutionize production processes, but they could also have a major impact on developing economies. The opportunities and potential sources of growth that, for example, the United States and China enjoyed during their early stages of economic development are remarkably different from what Cambodia and Tanzania are facing in today’s world.

Body

Significant advances and applications of Artificial intelligence

  • It has the potential to overcome the physical limitations of capital and labour and open up new sources of value and growth.
    • It has the potential to drive growth by enabling
    • Intelligent automation ability to automate complex physical world tasks.
    • Innovation diffusion propelling innovations through the economy.
  • Heavy Industries & Space: Through AI an entire manufacturing process can be made totally automated, controlled & maintained by computer system.
    • Example: car manufacturing machine tool production, computer chip production. Etc.
    • They carry out dangerous tasks like handling hazardous radioactive materials.
  • Finance: Banks use intelligent software application to screen & analyse financial data.
    • Software that can predict trends in stock market have been created which have been known to beat humans in predictive power.
  • Aviation: Air lines use expert system in planes to monitor atmospheric condition & system status.
  • Role in social development and inclusive growth: Access to quality health facilities, addressing location barriers, providing real-time advisory to farmers and help in increasing productivity, building smart and efficient cities etc.
    • The exponential growth of data is constantly feeding AI improvements.
    • AI has varied applications in fields like Healthcare, Education, Smart Cities, Environment, Agriculture, smart Mobility etc.
  • Examples of AI use in India: A Statement of Intent has been signed between NITI Aayog and IBM to develop Precision Agriculture using Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Aspirational Districts.
    • National Payment Corporation of India (NPCI) launched Pai which is an AI based chatbot, to create awareness around NPCI’s products like FASTag, RuPay, UPI, AePS on a real time basis.

 

Concerns associated with Artificial Intelligence

  • Ethical concerns: With popularization of a new technology, its virtues are not guaranteed. For instance, the internet made it possible to connect with anyone and get information from anywhere, but also easier for misinformation to spread.
    • There are real concerns about the potential negative consequences of AI, from deep fakes to nefarious uses of facial recognition technology.
  • Data Management: As there is lack of clarity on data flow and data ownership which might result into data colonialism (data generated by developing countries yet not benefitting them).
    • Further, data collection for feeding AI algorithms has its associated privacy concerns e.g. mass surveillance.
    • AI could contribute to the forgery of documents, pictures, audio recordings, videos, and online identities which can and will occur with unprecedented ease.
  • Biasedness: The algorithms used in artificial intelligence are discrete and, in most cases, trade secrets.
    • They can be biased, for example, in the process of self-learning, they can absorb and adopt the stereotypes that exist in society or which are transferred to them by developers and make decisions based on them.
  • Excessive Regulation: Since the AI is still in its preliminary stages, some critics believe that, excessively strict regulation is neither necessary nor desirable.
  • Lack of consensus & Conflict of Interests among the countries over the mechanisms and tactics in regulation of AI.
  • Absence of widespread expertise in Al technologies: This could lead to policy decisions being taken based on a narrow spectrum of opinions. There are large gaps in data collection, preparation, and benchmarking capabilities.

Conclusion

Regulation must be continuous and adapt with evolution of technology. There is need to find country specific data, trained workforce, fine-tuned algorithms and technology suited to local needs. For India to maximally benefit from the AI revolution, it must adopt a deliberate policy to drive AI innovation, adaptation, and proliferation in sectors beyond consumer goods and information technology services.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

6. For India to achieve sustained progress and become a global leader (“vishwaguru”), it is essential to embrace and embody the values envisioned by the founders of independent India. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the values envisaged by the founding fathers of India and the need to preserve them.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by mentioning the major values envisaged by the founding father of India.

Body:

First, write about the rationale behind such values and how they continue to be relevant in the present times. Cite examples to substantiate.

Next, write about the impact they could create on the present times and help use address challenges of today.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

The five principal pillars of envisaged by founding father of India are, Nation-building, Democratic institution-building, Secularism, Democratic Socialist economics, and a Novel foreign policy (Non-alignment, Panchsheel) still form the cardinal values of India.

Body

Values envisaged by builders of Independent India

  • Constitution of India: The Founding fathers came up with a constitutional scheme guaranteeing rights that included freedom of speech, religion and equality of all people.
    • It also allowed for affirmative action in favor of those who were historically marginalized.
  • A secular state: India’s diversity invariably called for a secular state. Though the principle of secularism is different, it is suitably adapted to the needs of India. It has been working successfully all these years.
  • Universal adult franchise: From the very start, post-Independent India had universal adult franchise without discrimination against women. Even western nations didn’t have it until late and India can take great pride in this matter.
  • Allowing for a formal separation of powers: There is a federal set up with clear separation of power with features to become unitary without amending the constitution. This model also has worked well for India which needs astrong Centre for its unity and integrity.
  • Building of institutions (industrial, educational, medical) that heralded progress, and the unleashing of knowledge and communication sectors that tied India beneficially to the world economy.
  • Non-alignment: India’s foreign policy has helped it maneuver through tough times and have space for strategic autonomy when the world was mired in cold war. Even today this is very relevant.

The role of value in addressing present day challenges

  • The successes and failures of the earlier generations in post-independent India have provided the nation with the pathways to address the challenges of the future.
  • For one, it is clear that neither a statist nor a market-only emphasis on developmentand growth is ideal.
    • India must continue policies, framed in the 1990s, of allowing entrepreneurial energies to flourishwhile relying on comprehensive welfare with a rights approach, which was given impetus in the late 2000s, to help utilize its demographic potential.
  • In the early years of Independence, many modern institutions of higher education, industry and health care were built and endured but India missed out on a strong focus on primaryhealth-care and education, a weakness that has led to the persistence of poverty and social marginalization on the basis of caste.
  • A bottom-up approach to development that should focus on building capabilities of the citizenry through both affirmative actions and state responsivenesswould lead to better release of productive forces in the economy.
  • States getting more fiscal latitude and local governments being empowered to implement programs could go a long way in achieving this.
  • As the world transits towards a new industrial revolution in its reliance on technologies such as 5G, the Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, robotics, and green technologies, India must embark upon building significant capabilities in these in a way that does not just result in a few corporations gaining but which allows for more gainful employment and diversification of the economy.
  • In external relations, while India must continue to skilfully navigate the contradictions emerging in the international order with an emphasis on its interests, it should not disavow the time-tested adherence to values —of non-interference, building an equanimous world order and striving for peace — that allowed it to emerge as a leader of the non-aligned world.

Conclusion

India has come a long way since 1947 in finding its footing among the comity of nations, but there still needs a lot more distance to be travelled in fulfilling the promise that Pandit Nehru spoke of, on the eve of Independence. India’s Independence generation was clear that freedom from British rule was meaningless without a constitutional order that governs a democratic system predicated on social justice, equality and unity in diversity as these were the promises that gained them the intellectual ballast and the support of the people to overcome colonialism. India’s progress in the 21st century would depend upon the re-ignition of these values.

 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators

7. Buddhism encompasses a wealth of profound concepts pertaining to ethics and morality, providing guidance on the principles and behaviors involved in nurturing one’s moral character. Explain. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: plato.stanford.edu

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To write the how Buddhist ethics help in shaping ones character.

Directive:

Explain – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In the introduction, given brief of major aspects of Buddhist ethics.

Body:

Explain the detail that Buddhism proposes a way of thinking about ethics based on the assumption that all sentient beings want to avoid pain. Thus, the Buddha teaches that an action is good if it leads to freedom from suffering.

Next, Mention the Do No Harm principle, Compassion, Justice and Accountability etc which the Buddhist philosophy emphasises.

Mention its application in daily life,

Conclusion:

Conclude by mentioning Buddhist moral claims of compassion and equality can contribute to the thinking of modern educational issues, such as peace education, ecological education

Introduction

Buddhism, represents a vast and rich intellectual tradition, tells us to purify our own minds and to develop lovingkindness and compassion for all beings. The various forms of Buddhism offer systematic frameworks for understanding the traits of character and types of actions that cause problems for ourselves and others, as well as those qualities and actions that help to heal the suffering of the world.

Body

Ideas of Buddhism which guides the method and action of cultivating one’s moral character:

  • Believe in ‘Karma’:Human beings must believe in ‘Karma’ theory which has a cause and effect relationship.
  • Serve the Sick: According to him, serving the sick means serving the God.
  • Morality:He believed in two golden rules of Christianity i.e. principle of equality and the principle of reciprocity. It means we must behave or act in the way, we expect from others. As per Buddha all human beings are equal and we must follow moral and ethical values being good human beings.
  • Mental Development: This is the only path which can strengthen and control our mind. Mental Development is possible by concentration and meditation. This will help in maintaining good mental health and conduct.
  • Love:As per Buddha the end of hatred is to do love and compassion. We can conquer anger by love and affection to others.
  • Harmony:He strived to maintain a balance and harmony between all living and non-living things in the universe in order to attain enlightenment.
  • Spread of Peace: Human society can be peaceful by accepting this very aim of Buddha. Peace can be attained through the practice of non-violence, equally brotherhood and friendship.
  • Self- Reliance – Human society and nation can be developed by self-power, unity and self- reliance. Unity got and grown by the strength of weapons is not last longing. True unity lies with courtesy and self-sacrifice.
  • Patience and Calmness– One must have the ability to be calm and clear while facing various obstacles like delays, frustrations etc. Human beings should have ability to remain peaceful and abstain from anger during the time when other people try to harm them. With due patience, It is easy to control all unpleasant situations.
  • Perseverance– It is the capability to utilize all of our energy into productive and constructive purpose which may benefit to all mankind.
  • Self-Analysis– Self-analysis and self-observation is required for self-improvement. A little practice to improve ourselves is needed in every day of our life. Right practice will become our habit which ultimately becomes the part of our character.

Conclusion

To live is to act, and our actions can have either harmful or beneficial consequences for oneself and others. Buddhist ethics is concerned with the principles and practices that help one to act in ways that help rather than harm. The core ethical code of Buddhism is known as the five precepts, and these are the distillation of its ethical principles. The precepts are not rules or commandments, but ‘principles of training’, which are undertaken freely and need to be put into practice with intelligence and sensitivity.


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