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Source: Indian Express

Prelims: Current events of international importance,G7, Doha Agreement, limited liability partnerships (LLPs), Global South etc.

Mains GS Paper II: Bilateral, regional and global grouping and agreements involving India or affecting India’s interests etc



  • Events that are shaping the 21st century:
    • The conflict in Ukraine
    • The G7 summit in Hiroshima.



Group of Seven (G7):

  • It is an intergovernmental organization that was formed in 1975.
  • The bloc meets annually to discuss issues of common interest like global economic governance, international security and energy policy.
  • The G7 countries are the UK, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and the US.
  • All the G7 countries and India are a part of G20.
  • The G7 does not have a formal constitution or a fixed headquarters.
  • The decisions taken by leaders during annual summits are non-binding.


Major purpose of the G-7:

  • It is to discuss and deliberate on international economic issues.
  • It sometimes acts in concert to help resolve other global problems, with a special focus on economic issues.


Lesson from global reactions to the war:

  • Geography still matters: East-West and North-South binaries may be captivating, but proximity and the neighborhood are considerably more important.
  • The world may be Hyper-globalized, but we are also more local than ever before.
  • Social media, trends in technology and politics, and a host of other factors have bracketed us into narrow spheres of interest.
  • UN vote condemning the Ukraine war: Of the 140 countries that voted and condemned Russia, only a fraction sanctioned Russia.
  • The list of countries that were the earliest to receive vaccines in the pandemic could prove to be productive.
    • It explains which countries have sanctioned Russia.
    • It will offer valuable lessons about globalization, its hierarchy and therefore, its discontents.
  • Those sanctioning Russia are victors of World War II and also of globalization and development.
    • Others are within their rights to challenge the status quo.
  • India is not on the fence: It chooses its priorities just as every other country has done.
  • The recent spate of visits by European leaders to China shows that value-based frameworks are untenable.
  • Nations are driven by self-interest and in this case, the need to maintain lucrative economic relations.
    • India is no different: It confronts the Chinese on the Himalayan heights, trade continues where the economy needs it.
  • Distance matters; interest matters even more.


Recent events and lessons from them:

  • The pandemic
  • The fallout of the Doha Agreement and the abandoning of Afghanistan
  • The Chinese aggression on India’s borders
  • New sanction regimes and their impact on the loosely termed “Global South”.


  • The Covid-19 outbreak saw the overt hijack of medical equipment and access to vaccines, and growing gaps in treatment capabilities.
    • In pandemic: there was no superpower, there was no great power, and there was no big power. There were only selfish powers.
  • The Afghan people were betrayed and abandoned because it was expedient for higher powers to flee the country at a particular moment.
  • Chinese territorial incursions have provoked a range of self-serving responses from different actors otherwise keen to defend democracy.


Way Forward

  • If meaningful international dialogue is to be conducted, nations must right-size some of their perceptions about each other and themselves.
  • The tendency to frame the Global South as a possible bridge actor between competing positions has its merits.
    • But the “Global South” is itself a deeply reductive term, which elides the group’s innate heterogeneity.
    • Very few countries would like to be categorized as “southern” as they continue to rise and shape global systems.
    • Five years from now, Brazil and India might bristle at such a label themselves.
  • The countries of the South organizing themselves over the next decade will have a far more profound impact than the West on the global balance of power, and on the contours of the new world order.
    • As the century progresses, an East and West will emerge within the Global North and South.
  • International engagements of the future will organize themselves around the standard operating principle of law firms — as limited liability partnerships (LLPs).
    • LLPs will come to constitute the geometry of politics, and countries will work together on specific issues, for specific purposes, and for specific outcomes.



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