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Genome India Project

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: TH

Context: The Genome India Project, a Centre-backed initiative to sequence 10,000 Indian human genomes and create a database, is about two-thirds completed and will be 100% complete by year-end.

  • Of the 7,000 genomes sequenced about 3,000 are already available for public access (as per the Department of Biotechnology)

 

What is Genome?

A genome is a genetic material that provides instructions for the development, growth, and functioning of all living organisms, composed of DNA with a sequence of chemical bases that determines an organism’s characteristics.

 

What is Genome Sequencing?

 Genome sequencing is the process of determining the complete DNA sequence of an organism’s genome. It involves identifying the order of nucleotides (A, T, C, G) that make up the DNA molecule in each of the chromosomes of an organism.

About Genome India Project (GIP) Description
Ministry Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Ministry of Science and Technology
Origin DBT initiated GIP in 2020 (inspired by Human Genome Project) to sequence 10,000 Indian human genomes and create a database
Purpose Creating a database of Indian genomes means that researchers from anywhere can learn about genetic variants that are unique to India’s population groups and use that to customise drugs and therapies
Collaboration Collaboration of 20 institutions, including IISc and IITs
Goal To build a grid of the Indian “reference genome”
Benefits Advancements in healthcare, medicine, agriculture, Development of personalized medicine based on genome mapping
Challenges Fear of scientific racism, data storage, and medical ethics; Concerns about reinforcing stereotypes based on genetic groups; Anonymity of data and questions of possible misuse; Risk of doctors privately performing gene modification
Other countries United Kingdom, China, and the United States have programmes to sequence at least 1 lakh of their genomes

 

About Human Genome Project:

 The Human Genome Project (1990 to 20003) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying, mapping and sequencing all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint.