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[Mission 2023] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 15 March 2023

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.

1. The Bhopal gas tragedy continues to be a tragic reminder of the need for strong safety regulations and corporate responsibility in order to protect lives and livelihoods while minimising negative impact from industries. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference:  Indian Express ,  Insights on India

Why the question: 

The Supreme Court on March 14 dismissed a curative petition filed by the Centre, seeking additional funds from Union Carbide Corporations’ successor firms for extending higher compensation to victims of the 1984 Bhopal gas tragedy, which led to the deaths of 3,000 people and caused significant environmental damage.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about Bhopal gas tragedy and the steps that are put in place to prevent such incidents from happening again.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing about the Bhopal Gas tragedy, the deadliest chemical disaster witnessed in India.

Body:

First, write about chemical disasters and impact of such disasters such as loss of lives, property, harm to surrounding environment etc.

Next, mention the steps that are put in place to prevent such disasters – Explosives Act 1884 Petroleum Act 1934, Factories Act 1948, Insecticides Act 1968, Environment Protection Act 1986              Motor Vehicles Act 1988, Public Liability Insurance Act 1991, Disaster Management Act 2005

Next, write about remaining vigilant in order to prevent such disasters from recurring.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing about a way forward.

Introduction

The Bhopal Gas tragedy has widely been acknowledged as the world’s worst industrial disaster. Leaking toxic gas from the now-defunct Union Carbide factory in Bhopal resulted in the deaths of thousands of people and left lakhs maimed on the intervening night of December 2-3, 1984. At the time of the Bhopal gas tragedy, the Indian Penal Code (IPC) was the only relevant law specifying criminal liability for such incidents.

The Supreme Court recently dismissed a curative petition filed by the Centre, seeking additional funds from Union Carbide Corporations’ successor firms for extending higher compensation to victims of the 1984 Bhopal gas tragedy, which led to the deaths of 3,000 people and caused significant environmental damage.

Body

By definition, chemical disaster simply implies a disaster caused by chemical hazards. A chemical disaster being essentially a massive industrial accident involving chemical agents, fits into the basic definition of a disaster, i.e., it needs external help for affected people to cope-up and recover from the effects of such disasters.

Impacts of Chemical Disasters

  • Physical Damage
    • This includes damage or destruction of structure and infrastructure.
    • A transportation accident may damage the means of transport used for transporting hazardous material viz. vehicle, rail etc. Industrial fires, if not contained, may affect large areas.
  • Casualties
    • Chemical disaster may result in large-scale casualties.
    • While quick medical relief is essential to save lives, immediate disposal of dead bodies will also need planning.
  • Environmental Damage
    • Chemical disasters affect the environment because of likely contamination of air, water supply, land, crops, vegetation and animal life. In some cases, certain areas may become uninhabitable for humans and animals.
    • The possibility of mega scale migration/evacuation/resettlement could loom large.

The legal and institutional framework to prevent industrial disasters in India

  • Bhopal Gas Leak (Processing of Claims) Act, 1985,which gives powers to the central government to secure the claims arising out of or connected with the Bhopal gas tragedy. Under the provisions of this Act, such claims are dealt with speedily and equitably.
  • The Environment Protection Act, 1986,which gives powers to the central government to undertake measures for improving the environment and set standards and inspect industrial units.
    • Under this, the Centre has notified Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989and the Hazardous Wastes (Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2008 for regulating hazardous substances.
  • The principle of ‘absolute and strict liability’was formulated by the Supreme Court in a crucial judgment in MC Mehta vs Union of India in 1986, when the court was dealing with the leak of oleum gas at the Shriram Foods and Fertiliser Industries plant in Delhi.
  • Hazardous Waste (Management Handling and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 1989:Industry required to identify major accident hazards, take preventive measures and submit a report to the designated authorities
  • Manufacture, Storage And Import Of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989:Importer must furnish complete product safety information to the competent authority and must transport imported chemicals in accordance with the amended rules.
  • Chemical Accidents (Emergency, Planning, Preparedness and Response) Rules, 1996: Centre is required to constitute a central crisis group for management of chemical accidents; set up quick response mechanism termed as the crisis alert system. Each state is required to set up a crisis group and report on its work.
  • The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991,which is an insurance meant to provide relief to persons affected by accidents that occur while handling hazardous substances.
  • The Environment Relief Fund (ERF),a central fund under the Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991, was set up to provide immediate relief to victims of accidents in chemical industries. In March, a study found that a corpus of Rs 810 crore with ERF has remained unutilised for nearly three decades.
  • The National Environment Appellate Authority Act, 1997,under which the National Environment Appellate Authority can hear appeals regarding the restriction of areas in which any industries, operations or processes or class of industries, operations or processes shall not be carried out or shall be carried out subject to certain safeguards under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
  • National Green Tribunal, 2010,provides for the establishment of a National Green Tribunal for effective and expeditious disposal of cases related to environmental protection and conservation of forests.
  • Civil Nuclear Liability Act, 2010deals with instituting civil liability for nuclear damage and granting prompt compensation to victims of a nuclear incident

Way forward

  • Chemical disasters, like the one in Bhopal, are preventable if risks are identified and addressed early on.
  • It will take the combined effort of competent authorities, private sector and society to prevent tragic environmental events from happening.
  • Developing policies to ensure that industries operate in accordance with technical and safety standards and allocating resources for risk assessment and monitoring.
  • Most of all, it’s important to adhere to environmental norms. Taking environmental safety and public health risks seriously, and promoting do-no-harm industrial development can make a big difference.
  • There is a clear need to promote clean development that innovatively addresses potential negative impacts on the environment.
  • To prevent future environmental disasters, all sectors could also do more to integrate environmental emergency preparedness and response activities into strategies and sustainable development programs.
  • The Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions Code, 2019, which unfortunately, successive governments have not felt it necessary to ratify should be taken up and put into place immediately.
  • There is a need to balance the requirements of worker and employer and is beneficial to both the constituents of the world of work.

Conclusion

India’s push to transform itself into a $5 trillion economy is commendable but it is worth considering the dear cost unhindered investment into infrastructural growth could come at, as this relates to the loss of human life and ecological damage resulting from poor planning and maintenance of industrial infrastructure. In the present situation, it has become extremely important to check the grey practices of Indian industry those were previously overlooked as ‘little compromises’. After all, no amount of ease of doing business is more valuable than human life.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

2. The UN’s High Seas Treaty establishes rules for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity, as well as the sharing of benefits from the use of these resources. Discuss. How will it impact India? (250 words).

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: The Hindu ,Insights on India

Why the question:

The international ocean, the last frontier for uncivilised and uncontrolled human behaviour, is on the verge of being tamed. The Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ) treaty, also known as the ‘High Seas Treaty’, has been accepted in principle.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the UN’s High Seas Treaty and its impact on India.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving aims and objectives behind the Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ) treaty, also known as the ‘High Seas Treaty’.

Body:

First, write about the major features of the treaty – Environmental impact assessments for activities taken up on high seas, Conservation of marine genetic resources, Capacity building, Technology transfer, Cross-cutting issues such as institutional structure and financial support.

Next, write about the impact on India from the above treaty – potential and limitations.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward to overcome the limitations.

Introduction

The ‘Treaty of the High Seas’, also known as the ‘Biodiversity of Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction’ (BBNJ Treaty) is an international agreement on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction within the framework of the UNCLOS.

The fourth meeting of the Intergovernmental Conference (IGC-4) was held in New York to conclude a draft of the instrument on the conservation and sustainable use of marine Biological diversity in areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ).

Body

Major features of BBNJ Treaty

  • It places 30%of the world’s international waters into protected areas (MPAs) by 2030, and puts more money into marine conservation and new rules for mining at sea.
  • It also provides for
    • Arrangements for sharing marine genetic resources, such as biological material from plants and animals in the ocean.
    • Requirements for environmental assessments for deep sea activities like mining.
  • Richer nations have pledged money for the delivery of the treaty. For example, the EU announced nearly 820m euros (£722.3m).
  • The treaty can have benefits for society (pharmaceuticals and food)and will help reverse biodiversity losses and ensure sustainable development.
  • Provision of funding to help developing countries implement the treaty.
  • Clearing-house mechanism to be established.
  • The draft also adds that no State can claim its right over marine genetic resources of areas beyond its national jurisdiction.
  • It stipulates that marine resources in areas beyond national jurisdiction that are held by indigenous people and local communities can only be accessed with their “free, prior and informed consent or approval and involvement”.
  • Environmental impact assessments need to be carried out before the exploitation of marine resources.
  • Use and activities regarding marine genetic resources of areas on high seas should be in the interests of all States. It should be for the benefit of humanity.
  • Set up an access- and benefit-sharing committee to frame guidelines.

Impact on India

  • The BBNJ treaty can help safeguard the high seas of Indian Ocean.
  • Take the case of high seas around the continent of Africa.
  • Since many African countries lack the capital and technological prowess to have their fishing fleets venture outside their Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ), European fleets have plundered those international oceans.
  • If these European fleets had been bound by the laws of their home countries, it probably would not make economic sense for them to fish in those waters.
  • India, with its primarily nearshore fishing fleet, is in a similar technological position to these African nations, especially with respect to Chinese and European fleets outside our EEZ.
  • Being able to distribute and regulate our national fishing effort within and outside our EEZ, alongside regulated international fishing effort in the high seas, could give India the sustainable fisheries that could secure our ‘Blue Economy’.
  • India’s approach to biodiversity management aligns with three globally accepted principles: conservation, sustainable usage, and equitable benefit sharing.

Conclusion

The treaty must be formally adopted and will enter “into force” once enough countries (~ 40) have signed and legally passed it in their own countries. The new treaty is expected to have the biggest global conservation and regulatory footprint (outside atmospheric and climate treaties). Sustainable use has been a guiding principle of the treaty, with significant ramifications for the fishing industry and the promotion of biodiversity conservation. These features have made wildlife conservation organisations laud the treaty.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3. Discuss the major features of PM Gati Shakti- National Master Plan for infrastructure development. Examine its potential in creating an integrated, seamless, and efficient logistics and transportation network in country.  (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Live Mint ,Insights on India

Why the question: 

A reduction in the cost of logistics will ensure India becomes more competitive internationally. The incumbent government has with foresight concentrated on infrastructure over the last few years, and particularly so in the last two years, with the launch of the PM Gati Shakti initiative.

Key Demand of the question: 

To write about PM Gati Shakti and its potential.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by writing about aims and objectives of PM Gati Shakti.

Body:

First, write about the features of the scheme – integrating various modes of transportation, such as road, rail, air, and waterways, to enhance connectivity and promote economic growth. Multi-modal transportation infrastructure development, Technology-led systems and processes, Governance and institutional reforms and Financial models for infrastructure development etc.

Next, write about the potential of the above in reducing transportation costs, improving connectivity, and boosting trade and commerce.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

At the launch of the PM Gati Shakti-National Master Plan for multi-modal connectivity in October 2021, PM had said: “According to a study, the logistical cost in India is about 13% of GDP. Such a situation does not exist in developed countries. Due to high logistical cost, the competitiveness of India’s exports is greatly reduced”.

The PM said the government was aiming at adding over 200 airports, helipads, and water aerodromes over the next 4-5 years besides nearly doubling the existing operational natural gas pipeline network, which is about 17,000 km (According to PNGRB as of June 30 2021). India is also targeting an increase in cargo handling at Indian ports and national waterways. The National Master Plan has set targets for all infrastructure ministries to achieve the targets.

Body

About PM Gati Shakti

  • PM GatiShakti is a digital platform that connects 16 ministries — including Roads and Highways, Railways, Shipping, Petroleum and Gas, Power, Telecom, Shipping, and Aviation — with a view to ensuring holistic planning and execution of infrastructure projects.
  • Aim: PM Gati Shakti aims to institutionalize holistic planning for major infrastructure projects. The projects will be designed and executed with a common vision and will incorporate the infrastructure schemes of various ministries and state governments such as the Bharatmala road project, Sagarmala waterways plan, ports and the UDAN scheme.
  • Coverage: Economic Zones like textile clusters, pharmaceutical clusters, defence corridors, electronic parks, industrial corridors, Agri zones will be covered to improve connectivity & make Indian businesses more competitive.
  • It will also leverage technology extensively, including spatial planning tools with ISRO’s satellite imagery. This will be used for real-time monitoring of projects.

Significance and benefits

  • Bring the economy out of pandemic impacts: The Covid-19 Pandemic reduced the GDP growth and resulted in large job loss, depressed wages and consumption. The infrastructure projects will boost jobs and increase the demand for goods and commodities, besides attracting major investments.
  • If the Gati Shakti National Master Plan is implemented swiftly, then the Indian economy can achieve a significant growth trajectory by mitigating the impacts of the pandemic.
  • Solve issues in logistics: According to a study, the logistical cost in India is about 13%-14% of GDP as against about 7-8% of GDP in developed economies. The plan will help India to cut down its logistics cost.
  • Besides cutting logistics costs, the plan is also aimed at increasing cargo handling capacity and reducing the turnaround time at ports to boost trade.
  • Help in increasing economic zones and industrial parks: Currently, a number of economic zones and industrial parks are not able to reach their full productive potential due to inefficient and fragmented multi-modal connectivity.
  • By incorporating infrastructure schemes under various ministries and state governments, the GatiShakti platform will boost the last-mile connectivity.
  • Reduce implementation overlaps: Poor Infrastructure planning at present results in various challenges. For example, newly-built roads are being dug up by the water department to lay pipes and construction of different tunnels for roads and railways in the same area.
  • The National Master plan will help to avoid such implementation overlaps. For instance, if a railway line is being built, the Ministry of Road Transport may immediately give clearance for an overpass, and the Power Ministry can begin projects to ensure that trains can immediately have access to power on completion of the tracks.
  • Save taxpayers money: PM Gati Shakti would address the problem of government departments and Ministries working in silos. There is a wide gap between macro planning and micro implementation, problems of lack of coordination in infra projects and lack of advanced information. This hampers the construction and wastage of the budget.
  • The National Master Plan will address this, as working on the basis of the master plan will lead to optimum utilization of resources and reduce both cost and time overruns. This will help the government to save thousands of crores of taxpayers money.
  • Help in reducing human intervention within ministry: Currently, any inter-ministerial issues that arise relating to a project are addressed in regular meetings of infrastructure-related ministries. The Gati Shakti portal would help reduce the human intervention required as ministries will be in constant touch.

Challenges involved

  • Investments from states: The Economic Survey for 2020-21 underscored the role of active Centre-State partnerships for infrastructure building. The Survey projects maximum investments towards NIP sectors such as energy, roads, urban infrastructure and railways for FY 2021 and 22, with about ₹8.5-lakh crore to be invested by either side annually.
    • With the pandemic and its associated challenges, the state governments don’t have enough finances to invest such large amounts. This will delay the implementation of the master plan.
  • Low Credit Off-take: According to the RBI’s paper, the growth rate in credit off-take has steeply declined to 5.8% in November 2020, as against 14.2% in 2013. This will reduce private investment in infrastructure projects. At present, there are concerns about the declining credit offtake trends from banks as they don’t want to get into another Non-Performing Asset (NPA) crisis in future.
  • The plan does not address a few key infrastructural challenges: Land acquisition is often the biggest impediment in the development of India. Many development projects get delayed due to land acquisition issues. Further, these delays add up to the costs of many projects, making them a less efficient and more costly project for development. There are other issues such as litigation issues, alienation of local communities and the violation of environmental norms, etc.
  • These issues make the rate of implementation of projects is very slow on global standards. The Gati Shakti master plan offers little or no solution to these major challenges.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the Gati Shakti will boost economic growth, attract foreign investments and enhance the country’s global competitiveness thereby enabling smooth transportation of goods, people and services and creating employment opportunities. Thus, the PM Gati Shakti will help India to realise its dream of becoming the “business capital” of the world. But all the challenges must be addressed on priority in order for the project to be a success.

 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment

4. Skill India Mission aimed at addressing the skill gap in India and provide adequate training in market-relevant skills for the youth. However, there is a need to address the implementation challenges and focus on emerging skills to make the youth industry-ready and increase their employability. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on IndiaInsights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 3 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about successes, limitations and the improvements needed to the skill India mission.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by mentioning the aims and objectives of skill India mission.

Body:

First, write about various improvements seen in the skilling ecosystem and vocational training after the launch of Skill India. Substantiate with statistics.

Next, write about the various bottlenecks in the skill India mission – low employability and employment rates like – Shortage of well-trained and skilled personnel, low Female participation in workforce, Skill Deficit in Rural Areas etc.

Suggest steps as to how to overcome them to make India the skill capital of the world.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction

Skill India mission was launched in 2015 with a target of training and skill development to 400 million by 2022, covering each and every village. The main goal is to create opportunities, space and scope for the development of the talents of the Indian youth. To identify new sectors for skill development. Various schemes are also proposed to achieve this objective.

Body

Since the inception of Skill India mission, there are many measures taken under it

  • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)
  • Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM)
  • Director General of Training – Modular Employable Skills (DGT-MES)
  • Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana
  • National Skill Qualification Framework (NSQF)
  • National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC)
  • National Skill Development Agency
  • Aajeevika – National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM)
  • Atal Innovation Mission
  • Startup India

The impacts of the above schemes are:

  • NSQF recognises prior learning, through which an estimated 20 million school dropoutscan get a second chance.
  • There is a substantial increasein the number of people who were skilled in FY17 and FY18. Notably, the rise is phenomenal, it has risen more than four times, from over 3.5 lakh people in FY17 to nearly 16 lakh people in FY18.
  • About 30% of the skilled personshave found jobs under the mission in FY2018.
  • With nearly 55 percent successful placements, the Short-Term Training Program (STT)under PMKVY (2016-20) has successfully trained over 13 lakh candidates.
  • Approximately 76 percentof the candidates have been placed in wage employment and 24 percent placed in self-employment/ entrepreneurship.
  • Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL)is designed for those who already have a job or are self- employed and require up-skilling and certification for better prospects. Till date, more than 4.5 lakh candidates have been certified under this component of PMKVY (2016-20).

Challenges in Skill India

  • The targets allocated are very highand without regard to any sectoral requirement. Everybody was chasing numbers without providing employment to the youth or meeting sectoral industry needs.
  • The focus of PMKVY has been largely on the short-term skill courses, resulting in low placements. There has been an over emphasis on this scheme and hence it is seen as the answer to all skill-related issues.
  • TheNational Skill Development Agency (NSDA), created in 2013 for resolving the inter-ministerial and inter-departmental issues and eliminating duplicates of efforts of the Centre. However, it has been now subsumed as part of the National Council for Vocational Training (NCVT). This reflects not only discontinuity in the policy process, but also some obfuscation among policy makers.
  • India’s joblessness issue is not only a skills problem, it is representative of the lack of appetite of industrialists and SMEs for recruiting. Due to limited access to credit because of Banks’ NPAs, investment rate has declined and thus has a negative impact on job creation.
  • The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG)has pointed out flaws in the design and operations of the NSDC and National Skill Development Fund which has resulted in falling short of skill development goals. Majority of them also could not achieve the placement targets for the trained persons.
  • The Sharada Prasad Committee, held the NSDC responsible for poor implementation of the Standard Training Assessment and Reward (STAR) programme. It highlighted that only 8.5 per cent of the persons trained were able to get employment. That is what has been claimed by NSDC.
  • The Report also cites “serious conflict of interests” in the functioning of the National Skill Development Corporation. NSDC has not been able to discharge its responsibilities for setting up sector skill councils (SSCs) owing to lots of instances of serious conflict of interest and unethical practices.
  • The skilling courses are not in line with the Industrial Revolution 4.0which is round the corner.

Measures needed

  • A distinct disadvantage with India’s approach towards skilling has been to ignore the demands of the market.
  • For the most part, skills have been provided in a top-down fashion.
  • Thus, most skilling efforts focus almost solely on providing certain skills but fail to “match” them with the needs of the market.
  • Experts argue that for skilling schemes to yield lasting results, even matching is not enough.
  • Given the way market demands fluctuate — for instance, look at how Covid pandemic has upended supply chains, skilling efforts must try to anticipate the needs of the market.
  • There is a need to end the artificial separation of the education system into formal and vocational shall end with such enabling frameworks allowing seamless integration.

Way forward

  • Learning should not stop with earning. Only a skilled person will grow in today’s world. This is applicable to both people and countries,” while exhorting the stakeholders to continuously skill, re-skill and up-skill.
  • This needs to be expedited as there is going to be a huge demand for re-skilling due to fast changing technology.
  • The skilled workforce has helped India in fighting an effective battle against the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • India providing smart and skilled manpower solutions to the world should be at the core of our strategy of skilling youth.
  • India needs to learn from technical and vocational training/education models in China, Germany, Japan, Brazil, and Singapore, who had similar challenges in the past, along with learning from its own experiences to adopt a comprehensive model that can bridge the skill gaps and ensure employability of youths.

 

Topic: Investment models.

5. While PPPs can be an effective way to deliver public infrastructure and services, they require careful consideration of their advantages and limitations, and proper management and oversight to ensure their success. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on IndiaInsights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 3 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by defining PPP model of investment.

Body:

First, explain the various features of the PPP model and its various types. Write about the advantages offered by the PPP model.

Next, write about the various bottlenecks in PPP model – Regulatory hurdles related to Land Acquisition, crony capitalism, wrongful risk allocation, delays and stalled projects and conflicts between the government and the contractor etc.

Suggest steps as to how to overcome them.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction

According to World Bank, public-private partnership (PPP) is a long-term contract between a private party and a government entity, for providing a public asset or service, in which the private party bears significant risk and management responsibility, and remuneration is linked to performance.  Public-private partnerships typically are long-term and involve large corporations on the private side. Some of the commonly adopted forms of PPPs include build-operate-transfer (BOT), build-lease-transfer (BLT), design-build-operate-transfer (DBFO), operate-maintain-transfer (OMT), etc. A key element of these contracts is that the private party takes on a significant portion of the risk.

Body

Advantages of PPP model

  • Access to private sector finance: India has a very large infrastructure need and an associated funding gap. PPPs can help both to meet the need and to fill the funding gap. PPP projects often involve the private sector arranging and providing finance. This frees the public sector from the need to meet financing requirements from its own revenues (taxes) or through borrowing.
  • Better infrastructure: They provide better infrastructure solutions than an initiative that is wholly public or wholly private. By shifting the responsibility for finance away from the public sector PPPs can enable more investment in infrastructure and increased access to infrastructure services.
  • Increased transparency in the use of funds: A well-designed PPP process can bring procurement out from behind closed doors. The PPP tender and award process based on open competitive bidding following international best practice procedures lead to transparency.
  • Less delays: They result in faster project completion and reduced delays on infrastructure projects by including time-to-completion as a measure of performance and therefore of profit.
  • Risk distribution:Transfer of risks is the most important advantage of PPP projects. In PPP projects, there is a possibility to transfer most or all of the risks to the private entity. The private entities explore opportunities, even though they involve risks.
  • Constant cash flow:The state budget is formed of fixed budgets for each ministry. Major investments are temporary modifications of the budget of a ministry, and this problem can be difficult to deal with within the budgetary process. Avoiding major investments by having a constant cash flow is an important driver when the state looks at the advantages of PPP.

Issues with PPP that need to be resolved

  • Uncertainties: PPPs often cover a long-term period of service provision (eg. 15-30 years). Any agreement covering such a long period into the future is naturally subject to uncertainty. If the requirements of the public sponsor or the conditions facing the private sector change during the lifetime of the PPP, the contract may need to be modified to reflect the changes. This can entail large costs to the public sector.
  • Policy and regulatory gaps:Inadequate regulatory framework and inefficiency in the approval process have been considered as serious disincentives for developers and contractors. For example, more than two years were needed for the Gujarat Pipavav port project to receive the necessary clearances after achieving financial closure. Moreover, most of the large projects involve dealings with various ministries where coordination remains inefficient.
  • Crony capitalism: In many sectors, PPP projects have turned into conduits of crony capitalism. It is worth noting that a large chunk of politically connected firms in India are in the infrastructure sector, which have used political connections to win contracts in the past.
  • Renegotiation: While private firms accept stringent terms of PPP contracts initially, they lose no opportunity for renegotiating contracts, in effect garnering a larger share of public resources than originally planned. Rather than being an exceptional clause, renegotiation has become the norm in PPP projects in India.

Conclusion

The success of Public-Private Partnership to a large extent depends on optimal risk allocation among stakeholders, the environment of trust and robust institutional capacity to timely implementation of PPP projects. To foster the successful implementation of a PPP project, a robust PPP enabling ecosystem and sound regulatory framework is essential.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

6. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“If your emotional abilities aren’t in hand, if you don’t have self-awareness, if you are not able to manage your distressing emotions, if you can’t have empathy and have effective relationships, then no matter how smart you are, you are not going to get very far.” – Daniel Goleman

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2023 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote.

Body:

Write about emotional intelligence and its importance – crucial for building better relationships, improving communication, enhancing decision-making, managing stress, boosting empathy, and fostering effective leadership. Cite examples to substantiate.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of the quote in the present day.

Introduction

Emotional intelligence or EI is the ability to understand and manage your own emotions, and those of the people around you. Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth.

Body:

According to Daniel Goleman, an American psychologist who helped to popularize emotional intelligence, there are four key elements to it viz. Self-awareness, self-management, social awareness & relationship management.

Significance of Emotional intelligence:

  • Appraising emotions arising from situations:
    • Using emotions for reason based decisions and policy making.
    • Identifying emotions in faces, voices, postures, and other content during public management activities.
  • Stress tolerance:
    • To stay focused, stress should be managed and it involves own reactions to stress or the reactions of others to the stress.
  • Impulse control:
    • Independent people evaluate the alternatives and initiate the work by taking appropriate action by executing the right options. People who manage their impulses avoid being distracted and losing control of the situation.
  • Negotiation:
    • Whether you’re dealing with a trading partner, competitor, customer or colleague, being able to empathize and be creative in finding win-win solutions will consistently pay off.
  • Peer relationships:
    • Good networking skills are a staple of job effectiveness for the average worker. Networking has too often been associated with “using” other people, but a heightened EQ ensures a mutually beneficial approach to others.
  • Social responsibility:
    • When a leader cares about others, he is not a centre of attention and keeps everyone in the loop by making their intentions known.
  • Optimism:
    • Optimistic people have a target that they’re aiming toward. These people are confident in their ability to carry out the required actions and meet the target by looking for successful solutions to problems.

Ways to develop emotional intelligence in civil servants:

  • Assessing personal strengths and limitations
  • Providing feedback with care
  • Maximizing learner choice
  • Encouraging participation
  • Linking learning goals to personal values
  • Adjusting expectations
  • Gauging readiness
  • Fostering a positive relationship between the trainer and the learner
  • Maximizing self-directed change
  • Setting clear goal
  • Maximizing opportunities to practice emotional intelligence
  • Providing frequent feedback on that practice
  • Enhancing insight into emotions and thought patterns

Conclusion

The Center for Creative Leadership even draws on research to suggest that 75% of careers are negatively impacted by emotional competency-related themes. These include the inability to respond adaptively to change, nurture trust, lead teams during tough times, and deal effectively with interpersonal problems. So developing your EI skills will help civils servants perform better in the workplace.

 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

7. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“Honesty is the first chapter in the book of wisdom.” – Thomas Jefferson

Difficulty level: Easy

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2023 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote.

Body:

Write about the importance of honesty – a foundation for wisdom and knowledge. Without honesty, it would be impossible to achieve true wisdom or to build meaningful relationships with others. Cite examples to substantiate.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of the quote in the present day.

Introduction

Honesty is a component of moral character that connotes positive and virtuous attributes, such as integrity, truthfulness, and openness including clarity of conduct, along with the absence of lying, cheating etc. Wisdom is the quality of having experience, knowledge and good judgment and it is the capacity to understand Emptiness.

Body

Honesty also involves being reliable, trustworthy, loyal, fair, and sincere. While wisdom is the ability to both think and act using experiences, skills, and judgment. To be wise, one must intentionally act with prudence and common sense. Wisdom has a connotation of judiciousness, pause, and discipline.

Wisdom, the discipline to synthesize knowledge and experience to do what is required, begins with honesty. Being true to oneself is the key to wisdom: One must first be true and honest with oneself. One must be principled in one’s dealings with others as one can’t be wise without also being truthful and honorable.

Dishonesty is synonymous to deception: Honesty is the foundation of wisdom. If a person is proven dishonest, how could you believe him or her even if he or she has managed to become wise. Even people indulging in ‘inconsequential lies’ without any intent to deceive anyone are portraying their lack of wisdom. These acts of dishonesty, even if done to become more socially acceptable, without being rude or offensive, put a blanket over one’s wisdom in another’s eyes.

Wisdom breeds trust only with honesty. For instance, for a civil servant, there cannot be a more immoral act than being dishonest. Being dishonest can make people think that the person holding the public office is not trustworthy and aspersions are cast over his character as well. Once a public servant loses trust of the public, all is lost. His/her wisdom has no meaning. But being honest can assure others that the person can be trusted.

Conclusion:

Thus, being honest often requires courage and sacrifice, especially when others try to persuade to justify dishonest behavior. When you are honest, you build strength of character that will allow you to be of great service to others. At a personal level, an honest person will be blessed with peace of mind and self-respect. Thus, honesty is necessary for both learning and teaching and practicing wisdom.


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