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As India stares at a grave water crisis, urgent interventions and measures are needed with a special focus on sustainable water management to prevent acute water scarcity. Examine.

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. As India stares at a grave water crisis, urgent interventions and measures are needed with a special focus on sustainable water management to prevent acute water scarcity. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express , Insights on India

Why the question:

A disastrous water crisis has been creeping up on us for years. Water tables have declined precipitously, even by thousands of feet in some parts of Punjab, Haryana and Andhra Pradesh. This calls for urgent intervention.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about urgent and immediate measures need to mitigate the water crisis in India.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving the status of water stress in India. Mention facts from NITI Aayog reports of 2018.

Body:

First, you can draw a bubble diagram showing activities that are the major consumers of surface and ground water in India.

Next, Mention the urgent steps that are needed to make sustainable water practises in agriculture more mainstreamed. cropping pattern shifts, water-saving seed varieties, regulation of groundwater usage, rejuvenation of catchment areas, participatory and bottom-up systems led by farmer producer organizations at conservation etc.

Write about the other steps that are required to tide over the crisis. Innovative solutions, mission mode management, aquifer recharge, rainwater harvesting and technology to monitor progress, community participation and rejuvenating existing water bodies etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.