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Left-Wing Extremism (LWE) violence came down

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Internal Security


Source: Times of India

Context:  Government informed that steadfast implementation of the national policy and action plan to address left-wing extremism has led to a 77% fall in the LWE violence from 2258 incidents in 2009 to 509 incidents in 2021.

Other data given by the government:

  • Fatalities among civilians and security forces declined by 85% (between 2010 to 2021)
  • Geographical spread of Maoists’ influence was shrinking- the district most affected by LWE came down to 25 (2021) from 30 (2018)
  • Number of districts covered under the security reimbursement expenditure scheme came down to 70 (2021) from 90 (2018)

Left-wing extremism (LWE) is a form of armed insurgency against the State motivated by leftist ideologies.


Causes of Naxalism in India

Governance deficit Development deficit Social exclusion Jal-Jangal-Jameen/Exploitative Deficit (Environmental)
Incompetent, ill-trained and poorly motivated public personnel

Mismanagement and corruption

Poor implementation of laws and schemes



Infrastructure deficit

Lack of education

Poor health facilities

Low trade/marketing

Violation of human rights 

Abuse of dignity of life

Disconnect with mainstream society

Discontent against government

Evasion of land ceiling laws

Encroachment and occupation of Government and community lands

Disruption of the age-old  tribal-forest relationship

The D Bandopadhyay Committee had in 2006 identified the socio-political, economic and cultural discrimination against the Scheduled castes and tribes and the lack of their empowerment as the reason for the spread of Naxalism.


Government approach to Infrastructure and Good Governance:

  • SAMADHAN doctrine: It is a one-stop solution to fight LWE, encompassing the entire strategy of government from short-term policy to long-term policy formulated at different levels.
  • Aspirational District: Collaborative, bottom-up convergence-based developmental approach in 35 LWE-affected districts.
  • Special Infrastructure Scheme (SIS)to construct fortified police stations.
  • Road Connectivity Project-for the construction of 5,412 km of roads.
  • Installation of Mobile Towers-for endless telecom connectivity.
  • Financial inclusion-for ensuring the presence of banking facilities within 5 km to all citizens residing in LWE-affected areas.
  • Chhattisgarh proposed an action plan to make the Baster region free of Maoism/Naxalism by giving grants to make cold storage chains for arranging the processing and sale of minor forest produce, forest medicines and several types of horticultural crops in the forest areas, building a steel plant in the area etc.

Government approach to commerce, education, health and environment

  • Van Bandhu Kalyan Yojanafor holistic development of the tribal people by targeting their education, employment, trade of minor forest produce, healthcare, infrastructure and connectivity.
  • Civic Action Plan:Each CRPF company is given Rs.3 lakh for holding medical camps, sanitation drives, sports meets, distribution of study material to children, minor repairs of school buildings, roads, and bridges to build confidence among the locals.
  • Union Government is organizing extensive training and capacity-building programs for the state service officials for the implementation of the Forest Rights Act and PESA Act.
  • Skill Development-for construction of 47 ITIs (01 ITI per district) and 68 Skill Development Centers (02 SDCs per district) by 2018-19.
    • Roshani Scheme– Skill development program for the Tribal population by the Rural Development ministry.
  • Education Initiatives-for building new Kendriya Vidyalayas (KVs) & Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas (JNVs) where they are not present. It is also planned to open more schools under the Eklavya model.
  • Facilities of residential schools for children – (e.g. Pota Cabins, Choolo Aasman, Nanhe Parinde, Tamannah) as well as focus on sports infrastructure.


Insta Links

LWE in India


Practice Questions

Q. The menace of Left-wing extremism which is the single largest internal security threat in India is on a decline. It is indeed welcome news but the Maoist threat remains a potent challenge to be overcome. Discuss. (250 words)