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What are Eco-Sensitive Zones (ESZ)? What role do they play in conservation of biodiversity? Examine the various threats faced by ESZs.

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

6. What are Eco-Sensitive Zones (ESZ)? What role do they play in conservation of biodiversity? Examine the various threats faced by ESZs. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian ExpressInsights on India

Why the question:

The Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) had issued a draft notification on July 6, which demarcated large parts of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Maharashtra and as eco-sensitive areas.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about role of ESZ in conservation of endangered species and threats to ESZ.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by mentioning the aims of ESZs.

Body:

First, write about the role of ESZ in conservation of endangered species – minimise the impact of urbanisation and other developmental activities, Shock Absorber’ for the protected area, transition zone, minimise forest depletion and reduce man-animal conflict. Cite examples to substantiate.

Next, write about the various threats to ESZ – Developmental activities and construction, Introduction of exotic species: Exotic species, Climate change etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward to protect ESZs from the above threats.