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UN Ocean Conference (UNOC): Lisbon Declaration

GS Paper-3

Syllabus: Environment Conservation

Context:

2nd UNOC ended with Lisbon Declaration titled ‘Our Ocean, Our Future: call for action’. It was co-hosted by Kenya and Portugal in Lisbon

  • 1st UNOC was in UN HQ (New York) in 2017

Lisbon Declaration

  • Protecting at least 30% of national maritime zones by 2030
  • Achieving carbon neutrality by 2040
  • Allocating funds to research on ocean acidification, climate resilience and surveillance
  • Scale-up Science-based and innovative actions to address ocean emergency
  • Support implementation of SDG14 (life below water) by empowering women and girls- recognising their participation is crucial to building a sustainable ocean-based economy
  • Protect biodiversity in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction, which lie outside the 200-mile (322-kilometre) exclusive economic zones of countries.
  • India:
    • Will take up the Coastal clean sea campaign (‘Swachh Sagar, Surakshit Sagar’.)
    • Ban on single-use plastics

 

  • Controlling Marine Pollution:
  • Nutrient pollution
  • Untreated wastewater
  • Solid waste discharges
  • Hazardous substance
  • Emissions from the maritime sector, including shipping, shipwrecks
  • Anthropogenic underwater noise

UNESCO launched: the State of the Ocean Report during the event.

 

<strong>Other Such Initiatives on Ocean </strong>

 

Clean Sea Campaign

  • UN Environment (UNEP) launched Clean Seas (#CleanSeas) in February 2017, with the aim of engaging governments, the general public and the private sector in the fight against marine plastic pollution.
  • It aims to ban Single-use plastics and microbeads within Five years.

One Ocean Summit:

  • The goal of the One Ocean Summit is to raise the collective level of ambition of the international community on marine issues.
  • India supports the French initiative of a ”High Ambition Coalition on Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction”.
    • The “BBNJ Treaty”, (“Treaty of the High Seas”) is an international agreement on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction, currently under negotiation at the United Nations.

GloLitter Partnerships Project:

  • It is launched by theInternational Maritime Organization (IMO) and the FAO and initial funding from the Government of Norway. It is aimed to prevent and reduce marine plastic litter from shipping and fisheries.

Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development

  • The UN has proclaimed a Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021-2030)to support efforts to reverse the cycle of decline in ocean health.

 

Current Affairs

 

Insta Links

TACKLING OCEAN POLLUTION

 

Practice Questions:

Q. Examine the impact of marine pollution on coasts and coastal ecology. Also, discuss conservation methods to clean coasts. (15M)

 

Q. Which one of the following statements best describes the ‘Polar Code’? (UPSC CSE 2022)

(a) It is the international code of safety for ships operating in polar waters.

(b) It is the agreement of the countries around the North Pole regarding the demarcation of their territories in the polar region.

(c) It is a set of norms to be followed by the countries whose scientists undertake research studies on the North Pole and the South Pole.

(d) It is a trade and security agreement of the member countries of the Arctic Council

Answer: A

It is an international regime adopted by the International Maritime Organization in 2014. The Code sets out regulations for shipping in the polar regions, principally relating to ice navigation and ship design.

 

Q. With reference to the United National Convention on the Law of Sea, consider the following statements: (UPSC CSE 2022)

  1. A coastal state has the right to establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not exceeding 12 nautical miles, measured from a baseline determined in accordance with the convention.
  2. Ships of all states, whether coastal or land-locked, enjoy the right of innocent passage through the territorial sea.
  3. The Exclusive Economic Zone shall not extend beyond 200 nautical miles from the baseline from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: D

Statement 1 is correct: Every State has the right to establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not exceeding 12 nautical miles, measured from baselines determined in accordance with this Convention.

Statement 2 is correct: Subject to this Convention, ships of all States, whether coastal or land-locked, enjoy the right of innocent passage through the territorial sea.

Statement 3 is correct:  The exclusive economic zone shall not extend beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured