Print Friendly, PDF & Email

[Mission 2023] INSIGHTS DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS + PIB SUMMARY 23 June 2022

 

InstaLinks help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

 

GS Paper 1:

1. Afghanistan Earthquake

 

GS Paper 2:

1. Centre mandates 3-yr health insurance plan for surrogate mothers

2. Atmanirbhar Bharat Rozgar Yojana jobs target surpassed by 28%

3. Powers of Governor, floor test law in the spotlight

4. Australia says LAC assault was a warning

 

GS Paper 3:

1. A six-fold rise in heart attacks

2. Sanctions under the UN Security Council Resolution 1267

 

Content for Mains Enrichment (Ethics/Essay):

1. Biodegradable products form weed (Water Hyacinth).

2. Eat locally

 

Facts for Prelims:

1. Chapekar Brothers

2. Israel uncovers a rare early mosque in the Negev

3. Four new corals were recorded from Indian waters

4. Chilbil

5. Nixtamalisation

6. Udhampur, J&K gets earthquake observatory

7. Google asks for ‘narrowly tailored’ data localisation

8. FCRA validity of NGOs

9. Dutch disease


Afghanistan Earthquake

Gs Paper-1

Syllabus- Earthquake

 

Context:

Deadliest Afghanistan quake in decades kills over 1,000 people. The quake originated near the city of Khost, which is close to the country’s border with Pakistan and about 160 kilometres (100 miles) south of the Afghan capital, Kabul.

 

Current Affairs

 

Why does Earthquake happen?

The tectonic movements

These are large, thin plates that comprise the Earth’s crust and the upper mantle (commonly called the “lithosphere”) and are constantly moving. Earthquakes occur along fault lines, cracks in Earth’s crust where tectonic plates meet. They occur where plates are subducting, spreading, slipping, or colliding.

                      Current Affairs  The earthquake starts at the focus, with slip continuing along the fault. The earthquake is over when the fault stops moving. Seismic waves are generated throughout the earthquake

 

Current Affairs

 What caused the quake in Afghanistan?

Hindu Kush geography

  • Afghanistan is earthquake-prone because it’s located in the mountainous Hindu Kush region, which is part of the Alpide belt — the second most seismically active region in the world after the Pacific Ring of Fire.
  • Slow collisions between the Indian subcontinent and the Eurasian tectonic plate are thought to be the cause of the extremely-common earthquakes in this region.
  • The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has called the Hindu Kush region “one of the most seismically hazardous regions on earth”, boasting one of the highest rates of deep earthquakes in the world.

 

Current Affairs

 

Seismic events of this nature can cause enormous devastation in places such as Afghanistan, where infrastructure is weak and people live in remote mountain villages that are difficult for emergency rescuers to reach.

 

Insta Links

Basics: Earthquakes

 

Practice Questions

 Q. Which of the following earthquake waves is first recorded on the Seismograph?

(a) P-waves
(b) Rayleigh waves
(c) S-waves
(d) Love waves

 

Answer: (a)

 

 Q. Discuss the factors that cause earthquakes. Why are Earthquakes more common in certain parts of the world than in others? (250 words)

 

 Source: The Hindu

/ 23 June CA, Today's Article

Centre mandates 3-yr health insurance plan for surrogate mothers

Gs Paper-2

Syllabus: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources

 

Context:

The government has issued fresh surrogacy rules, making it mandatory for couples who wish to become parents through surrogacy to buy health insurance plans for surrogate mothers for a period of 36 months.

Provisions:

  • Limited attempts: The government has also ensured that the number of attempts of any surrogacy procedure on the surrogate mother shall not be more than three times.
  • Allowed abortion: A surrogate mother may be allowed for abortion during the process of surrogacy in case of any complication as advised by the doctors
  • Regulation of private clinics: Every private surrogacy clinic has to file an application for registration with a fee of ₹2 lakh which is non-refundable. However, facilities under government-run institutes are exempt from such fees.
  • Specialist availability: Surrogacy clinics shall have at least one gynaecologist, one anaesthetist, one embryologist and one counsellor.
  • Marriage period: The couple should be married for more than five years.
  • Consent of surrogate: Under the Surrogacy Rules 2022, a surrogate mother has to give her consent through an agreement for giving up all her rights over the child and shall hand over the child/children as soon as she is permitted to do so by the hospital.

 

Counter view: Some experts have highlighted that health insurance coverage for 36 months which includes the postpartum expense for surrogate mother is a long period as it will unnecessarily burden the intending couple.

 

Insta Links

Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2020

The debates around the Surrogacy Act

What’s in ART, Surrogacy Bills?

 

Practice Questions:

Q. In the context of hereditary diseases, consider the following statements: (UPSC CSE 2021)

  1. Passing on mitochondrial diseases from parent to child can be prevented by mitochondrial replacement therapy either before or after in vitro fertilization of an egg.
  2. A child inherits mitochondrial diseases entirely from the mother and not from the father.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

Answer: (c)

 Q. India’s regulation of surrogacy falls short of protecting bodily autonomy and guaranteeing reproductive liberty. Critically analyse. (15M)

Source: Live Mint

/ 23 June CA, Today's Article

Atmanirbhar Bharat Rozgar Yojana jobs target surpassed by 28%

Gs Paper-2

Syllabus: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the society, Issues related to development and management of the social sector.

 

Context:

  • The government has surpassed the formal employment creation target set under the Atmanirbhar Bharat Rozgar Yojana (ABRY), which incentivises employers for creating jobs.
  • Latest data show 51 million jobs were created under the scheme since its notification in December 2020, over a quarter more than the initial target of 5.85 million.
  • 31 million establishments have registered 7.51 million new employees under ABRY,” shows an internal document of the Employees’ Provident Fund Organization (EPFO), shared with the members of its Central Board of Trustees.

 

Current Affairs

 

Insta Links

To read about Atmanirbhar Bharat Rozgar Yojana (ABRY): click here

To read about EPFO: click here

 

Practice Questions

Q. With reference to Atmanirbhar Bharat Rozgar Yojana (ABRY), consider the following statements:

  1. An employee drawing a monthly wage of less than Rs. 15000/- who were not working in any EPFO registered establishment and did not have a Universal Account Number (UAN) can avail of this scheme.
  2. The establishment that registered with EPFO after the commencement of the scheme will get a subsidy for all new employees.

Which of the statements given above is/are not correct?

a. 1 only

b. 2 only

c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: (d)

Source: Economic times

/ 23 June CA, Today's Article

Powers of Governor, floor test law in the spotlight

Gs Paper-2

Syllabus: Parliament and state legislature: structure, functioning, the conduct of business, powers and privileges.

 

Context:

  • In Maharashtra as the Chief Minister possibly loses the majority, the Governor’s powers under the Constitution to call for a floor test take centre stage.
  • Article 174(2)(b) of the Constitution gives powers to the Governor to dissolve the Assembly on the aid and advice of the cabinet.
  • However, the Governor can apply his mind when the advice comes from a Chief Minister whose majority could be in doubt.

 

Constitutional Provisions Related to Governor’s Role in Calling an Assembly Session:

  • Article 174: Says that the Governor shall from time to time summon the House or each House of the Legislature of the State to meet at such time and place as he thinks fit.
    • The provision also puts on the Governor the responsibility of ensuring that the House is summoned at least once every six months.
  • Article 163: Although it is the Governor’s prerogative to summon the House, according to Article 163, the Governor is required to act on the “aid and advice” of the Cabinet.
    • So when the Governor summons the House under Article 174, this is not of his or her own will but on the aid and advice of the Cabinet.
  • Exception: When the Chief Minister appears to have lost the majority and the legislative members of the House propose a no-confidence motion against the Chief Minister, then the Governor can decide on his or her own on summoning the House.
  • The actions of the Governor, when using his discretionary powers, can be challenged in court.

 

Insta Links

To read about floor test: click here

To read more about Governor: click here

 

Practice Questions:

Q. Consider the following statements:

  1. Under Article 174 the Governor has the power to summon the House of his own will.
  2. The actions of the Governor, when using his discretionary powers, cannot be challenged in court.

Which of the statements given above is/are not correct?

a. 1 only

b. 2 only

c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: (c)

Source: Indian Express

/ 23 June CA, Today's Article

Australia says LAC assault was a warning

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Bilateral, regional and global grouping and agreements.

 

Context:

  • The assault on Indian forces along the Line of Actual Control in 2020 was a “warning we should all heed”, and Australia stood up for India’s sovereignty, Australian Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Defense.
  • He was referring to the standoff in eastern Ladakh and the clash in Galway Which led to the death of 20 Indian soldiers.
  • India is also set to participate in Australia’s Indo-Pacific Endeavour exercise in October 2022.

 

Line of Actual Control(LAC):

Current Affairs

 

  • Demarcation Line: The Line of Actual Control (LAC) is the demarcation that separates Indian-controlled territory from Chinese-controlled territory.
  • LAC is different from the Line of Control (LoC) with Pakistan:
    The LoC emerged from the 1948 ceasefire line negotiated by the United Nations (UN) after the Kashmir War.
    • It was designated as the LoC in 1972, following the Shimla Agreement between the two countries. It is delineated on a map signed by the Director-General of Military Operations (DGMO) of both armies and has the international sanctity of a legal agreement.
  • The LAC, in contrast, is only a concept – it is not agreed upon by the two countries, neither delineated on a map nor demarcated on the ground.
  • Length of the LAC: India considers the LAC to be 3,488 km long, while the Chinese consider it to be only around 2,000 km.

 

Indo-Pacific Endeavour exercise:

  • It Involves exercises and cooperation with 7 countries in the IOR including Sri Lanka, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Singapore.
  • AUSINDEX 2019, the bilateral naval exercise between India and Australia held in April 2019 was also a part of Indo-Pacific Endeavour 2019 of Australia.

 

Galway Valley:

Current Affairs          

 

Insta Links:

To read about Galwan valley: click here

To read about India-Australia relations: click here

Practice Question

Q. Which of the following is the correct arrangement of LAC points from west to east?

a. ShipkiLa-Dibang Valley-Pangong Tso-Barahoti

b. Pangong Tso-ShipkiLa-Barahoti-Dibang Valley

c. Barahoti-Pangong Tso-ShipkiLa-Dibang Valley

d. ShipkiLa-Dibang Valley-Barahoti-Pangong Tso

 

Ans: (b)

Q. India and Australia have shared a cordial relation for a very long time and have witnessed an increased commitment in the recent past. Discuss. (10M)

Source:  The Hindu

/ 23 June CA, Today's Article

A six-fold rise in heart attacks

Gs Paper-3

Syllabus: General Science

 

Context:

India’s financial capital Mumbai witnessed a six-fold rise in deaths related to heart attacks in the first six months of 2021 when the city was under the grip of the second wave of Covid-19.

What are the factors behind the spike in cases?

  • Post-Covid development of thrombosis: SARS-Cov-2 damages the heart and blood vessels in infected patients which leads to the development of clots, heart inflammation, arrhythmias, and heart failure
    • Thrombosis occurs when blood clots block veins or arteries
    • Covid-19 can also cause microvascular damages, which may have also contributed to heart ailments
  • Additional distress was noticed in during the pandemic: Anxiety and stress levels further added to the heart ailments.
  • Delay in diagnosis of heart-related ailment amid the second wave: During the second wave, many patients avoided hospitals due to fear of contracting Covid-19, which further delayed life-saving treatment.
    • Reperfusion therapies like Thrombolytic therapy (that dissolves clots) and timely interventions like angioplasty (the procedure used to widen blocked or narrowed coronary arteries) were delayed
  • Better recording of heart-attack cases: since the start of the pandemic, medical practitioners are more conscious of segregation and bifurcation of types of deaths as well as maintaining better data related to heart attacks.
  • Major lifestyle changes: Life has become more sedentary with fewer options for socialisation and physical activities
    • Doctors have witnessed an increase in the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, smoking, alcohol use and an unhealthy lifestyle in the last two years.
    • Indians have a genetic predisposition, smaller coronary arteries, a diet pattern with excessive consumption of trans fats and a sedentary lifestyle that puts them in a high-risk category for heart attacks

 

Current Affairs

 

Insta Links

Lifestyle disease biggest health risk for Indians

Practice Questions:

Q. Critically comment on the extent, scope and implications of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in India. (10M)

Q. Diseases of affluence are overtaking poverty disease in India reflecting the growing middle class. Elucidate (15M)

Source: Indian Express

/ 23 June CA, Today's Article

Sanctions under the UN Security Council Resolution 1267

Gs Paper-3

Syllabus: Challenges to internal security (external state and non-state actors)

 

Context:

India and US proposal to designate Abdul Rehman Makki (brother-in-law of Hafiz Saeed, founder of Lashkar-e-Toiba) under the UN Security Council Resolution 1267 were put on ‘technical hold’ by China.

 

What does ‘technical hold’ mean?

  • Beijing’s “technical hold”, which means the proposal cannot come up for another six months.
    • China’s double standards: Its technical hold shows China is having “double standards” on terrorism and related activities.

 

What does resolution 1267 say?

  • Resolution 1267 provides for sanctions against individuals and entities that support or finance the acts or activities of ISIL, Al-Qaida, associated individuals, groups, undertakings and entities.
    • LeT, JuD, Hafiz Saeed, Jaish-e-Mohammed and it’s head Masood Azharare listed under 1267.

 

Why the efforts to designate Makki under UN sanction?

The US Treasury Department describes Makki as having “occupied various leadership roles within Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LeT), and played role in terror funding for LeT operations. He has given several speeches threatening India with the terror attack.

 

Role of FATF

  • Pressure on Pakistan: Under the pressure of FATF, Pakistan began a crackdown against the LeT/JuD in 2017:
    • Hafiz Saeed was placed under house arrest, and Pakistan proscribed JuD under its own 1997 Anti-Terror Act.
    • However, FATF grey-listed Pakistan as its efforts was not satisfactory. It was also at risk of being black-listed
  • FATF is now considering removing Pakistan from the grey list: Pakistan’s continued political commitment to combating both terrorist financing and money laundering has led to significant progress
    • In this context, the proposal to designate Makki helps Delhi remind the world that Pakistan may get off FATF, but its concerns about terrorism emanating from Pakistan remain.

 

<strong>FATF </strong>

The Financial Action Task Force, is an intergovernmental organisation founded in 1989 on the initiative of the G7 to develop policies to combat money laundering. In 2001, its mandate was expanded to include terrorism financing.

  • Headquarters: It operates from Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) headquarters in Paris.
  • Member Countries: It has 39 members (including India) including two regional organisations – the EU and GCC (Gulf cooperation council)
  • Sessions: Its plenary (decision-making body) meets three times per year.
  • Lists under FATF:
    • Grey List: It serves as warning for the countries considered safe haven for supporting terror funding and money laundering.
    • Black List: High risk countries and Non-Cooperative Countries or Territories (NCCTs) are put in the blacklist. E.g., Iran and Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK).

Current Affairs 

Insta Links

FATF

 The FATF and Pakistan’s Position

 

Practice Questions

 Q. Discuss the role of Financial Action Task Force in combating money laundering and terror financing. (15M)

Source: Indian Express

/ 23 June CA, Today's Article

Content for Mains Enrichment (Ethics/Essay):

Biodegradable products form weed (Water Hyacinth).

An organization named Earth Trust uses water hyacinth stems in preparing the biodegradable paper, designing biodegradable cups, plates, boxes, and other environmentally friendly daily-use products that are cheaper and can serve as an alternative for plastic and thermocol cups, plates, dishes, and glasses.

A dedicated network of business entrepreneurs has been developed for water hyacinth-based products, serving both economy and ecology together in an integrated fashion.

Source: DownToEarth

/ 23 June CA, Today's Article

Content for Mains Enrichment (Ethics/Essay):

Eat Locally

The world emits roughly 3 gigatonnes of greenhouse gases annually during food transportation from production to consumption sites, according to a new study published in Nature Food. According to the analysis, the US, China, Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom, India, Russia, and Brazil collectively account for 42 per cent of food transport emissions.

Eat locally: The world could reduce emissions by 0.38 gigatonnes by replacing imports with locally grown food.

Source: DownToEarth

/ 23 June CA, Today's Article

Facts for Prelims:

Chapekar Brothers

Context:

On June 22, 1897, Chapekar Brothers attacked General Rand

The three brothers Damodar, Balkrishna and Vasudev were heavily inspired by conservative ideologies and a sense of rebellion against the British. Inspired by the strong language that Balgangadhar Tilak used in his newspaper “Kesari” they decided to take action and bring down Rand who had ashamed hundreds of families in Pune.

Lala Lajpat Rai, a close aide of Lokmanya Tilak, reportedly wrote, “Chapekar brothers were, in fact, the founders of the revolutionary movement in India.”

Israel uncovers a rare early mosque in the Negev

Context:

The remains of the mosque are believed to be more than 1,200 years old

The mosque located in the Negev desert contains “a square room and a wall facing the direction of Mecca”, with a half-circle niche in that wall pointing to the south,

These unique architectural features show that the building was used as a mosque

Four new corals were recorded from Indian waters

Context:

Four species of azooxanthellate corals were recorded for the first time from the waters of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

  • All four groups of corals are from the same family Flabellidae.
  • Azooxanthellate corals are a group of corals that do not contain zooxanthellae and derive nourishment not from the sun but from capturing different forms of plankton.
  • These groups of corals are deep-sea representatives, with the majority of species reporting from between 200 m to 1000 m. Their occurrences are also reported from shallow coastal waters.

Chilbil

The tree, also known as jungle cork tree or Holoptelea integrifolia, is native to India and is referred to as chilbilpaprikanju , and several other names in local languages.

Benefits:

  • As Food: When green, they can be consumed raw, mixed with salads, or can be cooked along with other vegetables. When dried, the seeds are used as a dry fruit after the removal of the wings.
  • Therapeutic properties: the winged seeds can be crushed and applied in the form of a poultice on injuries. A paste of the seeds is an effective treatment for ringworm. Leaves and barks of the tree too have therapeutic properties.
  • Oil: Seeds are also rich in oil — dry chilbilseeds have 50 percent oil content.
  • Grows in diverse climates: it can grow on sandy soil and loam to gravelly subsoil— it has a huge potential to be promoted as an agroforestry plant.

Nixtamalisation

A method by which the ancient peoples of Mesoamerica like the Maya used to soak and cook their maize in an alkaline solution and make it more palatable, nutritious, and non-toxic. Nixtamal is derived from the Nahuatl word nextamalli, meaning ‘nixtamalized maize dough’.

Udhampur, J&K gets earthquake observatory

It is part of an effort titled Seismic Microzonation, which aims to generate vital geotechnical and seismological parameters for developing earthquake risk resilient building design codes for structures and infrastructures. Specifically, it has initiated actions for the setting up of an earthquake early warning system (EEWS) on a pilot basis for a small area in the Himalayas.

Jammu and Kashmir is the westernmost extension of the Himalayas. Udhampur district lies between the two major seismogenic faults — namely the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) and the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) — which are among the potential factors for generating earthquakes in the J&K region.

Google asks for ‘narrowly tailored’ data localisation

Google has suggested that -Local storage requirements should be “as narrowly tailored as possible” to minimise its “downsides” and optimise for some very specific legitimate requirements.

  • Under India’s data protection bill, big tech companies are mandated to store a copy of certain sensitive personal data within India and the export of undefined “critical” personal data from the country is prohibited.
  • Data localisation is the practice of storing data on any device that is physically present within the borders of the country where the data is generated.
    • As of now, most of these data are stored, in a cloud, outside India.
  • Draft National E-Commerce Policy Framework recommended data localisation and suggested a two-year sunset period for the industry to adjust before localization rules become mandatory.
  • Sri Krishna Committee Report said at least one copy of personal data will need to be stored on servers located within India.

FCRA validity of NGOs

The Ministry of Home Affairs extended the validity of the FCRA registration of NGOs whose renewal application is pending with the government till September 30.

FCRA registration is mandatory for any NGO or association to receive foreign funds or donations under the amended Foreign Contribution Regulation (Amendment) Act and Rules 2020.

Validity: The registration is initially valid for five years after which it needs to be renewed.

Only five purposes allowed for receiving foreign contributions: social, educational, religious, economic, and cultural.

Dutch disease

Dutch Disease in economics refers to a phenomenon wherein a country witnesses uneven growth across sectors due to the discovery of natural resources, especially large oil reserves

  • Phenomenon: When a country discovers natural resources and starts exporting them to the rest of the world, it causes the exchange rate of the currency to appreciate significantly and this, in turn, discourages the exports from other sectors while encouraging the import of cheaper alternatives.
  • g., the Netherlands (1960s) discovered gas reserves in the North Sea. The subsequent export of oil and the appreciation of the Dutch currency made Dutch exports of all non-oil products less competitive on the world market. Unemployment rose from 1.1% to 5.1% and capital investment in the country dropped. Following this, over the years, the country witnessed a downfall in the industrial sector.

Join our Official Telegram Channel HERE

Subscribe to our YouTube Channel HERE

Follow our Twitter Account HERE

Follow our Instagram ID HERE