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[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 19 October 2021

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

1. Winds may erode, transport, and deposit materials and are effective agents in regions with sparse vegetation. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write in detail the Aeolian landforms with suitable examples.

Directive word:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Give a brief about Aeolian landforms and its various types.

Body:

Explain both erosional and depositional landforms caused by the wind action.

Take examples – Zeugen or Rock Mushrooms, Yardangs, Blow Outs, Inselbergs, Desert pavement, Erg  or Sand Sea, Ripples, Barchan, Longitudinal dunes, Transverse Dunes, Star Dunes etc. Write how sparse vegetation plays a part in the formation of the above landforms.

Use suitable diagrams and explain the effect of wind on them.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of such factors in shaping landforms.

Introduction

The wind is the main geomorphic agent in the hot deserts. Winds in hot deserts have greater speed which causes erosional and depositional activities in the desert. The landforms which are created by erosional and depositional activities of wind are called as Aeolian Landforms.  The wind or Aeolian erosion takes place in the following ways, viz. deflation, abrasion, and attrition. This process is not unique to the Earth, and it has been observed and studied on other planets, including Mars.

Body

Erosional Landforms due to Wind:

  • Pediplains:
    • When the high relief structures in deserts are reduced to low featureless plains by the activities of wind, they are called as Pediplains.
  • Deflation Basins:
    • Deflation is the removal of loose particles from the ground by the action of wind.
    • When deflation causes a shallow depression by persistent movements of wind, they are called as deflation hollows.
  • Inselbergs:
    • A monadnock or inselberg is an isolated hill, knob, ridge, outcrop, or small mountain that rises abruptly from a gently sloping or virtually level surrounding plain.
  • Mushroom Rocks:
    • Ventifacts are rocks that have been abraded, pitted, etched, grooved, or polished by wind-driven sand or ice crystals.
    • These geomorphic features are most typically found in arid environments where there is little vegetation to interfere with Aeolian particle transport, where there are frequently strong winds, and where there is a steady but not overwhelming supply of sand.
    • Mushroom Tables / Mushroom rocks are Ventifacts in the shape of a mushroom.
    • In deserts, a greater amount of sand and rock particles are transported close to the ground by the winds which cause more bottom erosion in overlying rocks than the top.
    • This result in the formation of rock pillars shaped like a mushroom with narrow pillars with broad top surfaces.
  • Demoiselles:
    • These are rock pillars which stand as resistant rocks above soft rocks as a result of differential erosion of hard and soft rocks.
  • Zeugen:
    • A table-shaped area of rock found in arid and semi-arid areas formed when more resistant rock is reduced at a slower rate than softer rocks around it.
  • Yardangs:
    • Ridge of rock, formed by the action of the wind, usually parallel to the prevailing wind direction.
  • Wind bridges and windows:
    • Powerful wind continuously abrades stone lattices, creating holes. Sometimes the holes are gradually widened to reach the other end of the rocks to create the effect of a window—thus forming a wind window. Window bridges, are formed when the holes are further widened to form an arch-like feature.

Depositional landforms caused by the wind action:

 

  • Ripples:
    • Low speed winds deposit the particles in the shape of waves, which are known as layers of sands or sand ripples.
    • The inter-difference between these waves may vary from few centimetres to few meters.
    • The windward side of Ripples is generally angular at 8° to 10° while leeward side is angular at 20° to 30°. Their height rises to a few centimetres only.
  • Sand Dunes:
    • Velocity of wind carrying sand decreases when it faces some obstacle and therefore wind it starts depositing the sand particles on the spot of obstacle only. Resulting in the formation of sand dunes.
    • Any shrub, big rock, skeleton of an animal, upland area can act as such obstacle. The height of sand dunes may vary from some meters to 150 meters and their length may vary between 3 kilometres to 150 kilometres.

Types of Sand dunes:

  • Barchan: Half-moon and crescent shaped sand dunes are known as Barchans. These are convex on windward side and steeper and concave on leeward side. They might be high up to 30 meters and their length varies from 150 meters to 200 meters.
  • Self or Longitudinal Sand Dunes: Self is an Arabic word which means ‘Sword’. These sand dunes are generally oriented in a direction parallel to prevailing wind but when the dunes blow out, sand gets deposited in parallel forms.
  • Coastal Dunes: High velocity winds blow in coastal areas because of this, waves deposit sand on the coasts of oceans. Blowing wind gives it a form of ‘Sand Dune’. With the growth of vegetation in these areas, curved sand dunes are formed and sometimes they also look like Barchans.
  • Loess Plains: Winds deposit light and soft soil over a large area like a blanket, these are known as plains of Loess. ‘Loess’ is a word of German language which means yellow colour, porous soil with very soft particles. Loess is found in China, Europe, North America, South America and Africa.

Conclusion

Thus, wind and water act as major erosional factors leading to formation of various landforms.

 

Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

2. Karst landforms are created by water sinking and circulating underground, and the resulting chemical erosion of bedrock. Elaborate on the various types of Karst landforms. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the process of the formation of Karst landforms and their various types.

Directive word: 

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by mentioning of landforms formed by the action of ground water.

Body:

First, explain the chemical process by which Karst landforms are formed.

Next, Explain the features like; Sinkholes and caves are erosional landforms formed due to the action of ground water.

Next, explain depositional landforms of groundwater. With neat diagrams the karst landforms associated with groundwater.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of such action of ground water in creation of landforms.

Introduction

Karst is a term used to describe landscapes that are formed by chemical weathering process controlled by groundwater activity. A karst landform is a geological feature created on the earth’s surface by the drainage of water into the ground. Karst landscapes are predominantly composed of limestone rock that contains > 70 percent calcium carbonate.

It is a dry, upland landscape with underground drainage instead of surface streams. It is so named after a province of Yugoslavia on the Adriatic Sea coast where such formations are most noticeable.

Body

Karsts are found in widely scattered sections of the world, including the Causses of France; the Kwangsi area of China; the Yucatán Peninsula in the United States.

Erosional Landforms

Lapies

  • It is formed due to differential solution activity along parallel to sub-parallel joints. They are also called grooved, fluted and ridge-like features in an open limestone field.

Limestone Pavements  

  • It is a smoother form of lapies.

Sinkholes

A sinkhole is an opening more or less circular at the top and funnel-shaped towards the bottom.

  • Small to medium sized rounded to sub-rounded shallow depressions called swallow holes form on the surface of rocks like limestone by the action of the solution.
  • Solution sink: When as sinkhole is formed solely through the process of solution, it is called as a solution sink.
  • collapse sink : Sometimes a  sinkhole starts its formation through the solution process but later collapses due to the presence of some caves or hollow beneath it and becomes a bigger sinkhole. These types are called as collapse sinks. The term Doline is also used.
    • Solution sinks are more common than collapse sinks.
  • Uvalas: When several sink holes join together to form valley of sinks, they are called as Uvala

Caves

  • In the areas where there are alternative beds of rocks (non-soluble) with limestone or dolomite in between or in areas where limestone are dense, massive and occurring as thick beds, cave formation is prominent.
  • Caves normally have an opening through which cave streams are discharged
  • Caves having an opening at both the ends are called tunnels.

Cavern

  • This is an underground cave formed by water action by various methods in a limestone or chalk area.

Karst Window

  • When a number of adjoining sinkholes collapse, they form an open, broad area called a karst window.

Polje/Blind Valley

  • A number of uvalas may coalesce to create a valley called polje which is actually a flat-floored depression. If the streams lose themselves in these valleys, then these are called blind valleys. These valleys may have surface streams and may be used for agriculture.

Arch/Natural Bridge

  • When a part of the cavern collapses the portion which keeps standing forms an arch

Depositional Landforms

A region with a large stretch of limestone is called a Karst Region. Groundwater and limestone together make a spectacular landform inside the caverns like the stalactites, stalagmites and pillars.

Stalactites, Stalagmites and Pillars

They are formed when the calcium carbonates dissolved in groundwater get deposited once the water evaporates. These structures are commonly found in limestone caves.

    • Stalactites are calcium carbonate deposits hanging as icicles while Stalagmites are calcium carbonate deposits which rise up from the floor.
    • When a stalactite and stalagmite happened to join together, it gives rise to pillars or columns of different diameters.

 

Conclusion

Groundwater dissolves minerals, carries the ions in solution, and then deposits them. Groundwater erodes rock beneath the ground surface, especially carbonate rock. The landforms by groundwater take a long time to form, due to repeated action of water and region-specific parameters.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.  

3. We need to re-examine the aims being pursued by disenfranchising undertrials as denying undertrial prisoners their right to vote undermines the very law and policy that is meant to give them a fair trial. Comment. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Live Law

Why the question:

In a recent case, Praveen Kumar Chaudhary v. Election Commission of India, the Delhi High Court reaffirmed that prisoners do not have a right to vote.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the implications of denying under-trial prisoners the right to vote.

Directive word:

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon. 

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by mentioning disqualifications to be voter under article 326 and section 62(5) of the Representation of People Act, 1951.

Body:

First, write about the implications of denying vote to undertrial prisoners – undertrial prisoners remain in jail because of their inability to pay the requisite bail bond, access legal aid, negates their civic capacity and revokes their social status etc.

Next, talk about the aspect such as resource crunch, administrative inconvenience and logistical problems in making facilities for undertrials to vote.

Conclusion:

Comment on the way forward that is need to adopted in this regard.

Introduction

Under Section 62(5) of the Representation of the People Act, 1951individuals in lawful custody of the police and those serving a sentence of imprisonment after conviction cannot voteUnder trial prisoners are also excluded from participating in elections even if their names are on electoral rolls. Only those under preventive detention can cast their vote through postal ballots.

Body

Scenario in India

The ‘Prison Statistics India, 2014’ published by the National Crime Records Bureau, says there were 2, 82,879 under trials and 1,31,517 convicts lodged across 1,387 prisons in the country as on December 31, 2014.

Rationale behind giving voting rights to under trial Prisoners

  • The voting ban is criticised on the ground that it makes no offence-based or sentence-based classification— that is, prisoners are debarred from voting irrespective of the gravity of the offence they have committed, or the length of their sentence. It also makes no distinction between convicted prisoners, under trials, and those in lawful police custody.
  • Besidesa person is innocent until proven guilty by law. Despite this, it denies an under trial the right to vote but allows a detainee the same.
  • The provision also violates the rights to equality, vote (Article 326) and is arbitrary. It is not a reasonable restriction.
  • The SC has also observed that a person is in prison because of his or her conduct, and cannot claim equal rights as others who are not incarcerated.

Way forward

  • Under trials should be allowed to vote. This is because there are many people, awaiting trial, who have spent more time in prison than the actual term their alleged crime merits. Their numbers are much bigger than convicts.
  • The increasing realisation that progressive criminal justice reforms, including the right to vote in the prisons, should be the way forward.
  • It also stems from the fact that voter disenfranchisement has had an ugly history related to racism and oppression of the indigenous peoples in countries such as the US and Canada.
  • “Innocent until proven guilty” is a central tenet of the justice system. In this context, prisoner voting can prove to be a major component of rehabilitative justice and a step towards in the easier integration of these people into the mainstream after serving time.

Value addition

Global practice

  • In Europe, Switzerland, Finland, Norway, Denmark, Ireland, the Baltic States, and Spain already allow prisoner voting.
  • Countries like Romania, Iceland, the Netherlands, Slovakia, Luxembourg, Cyprus and Germany have opted for a middle path: Voting is allowed subject to certain permits and conditions such as the quantum of sentence served.
  • They are only disenfranchised as an added penalty based on the gravity of the crime. Bulgaria allows for anyone sentenced to less than a decade to vote. In Australia, the limit is five years.

 

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

4. India and Israel’s ties have become significantly much stronger in the recent years. Though the defence trade deals forms the bedrock of their partnership, both states can have mutual benefits by formalising a Free Trade Agreement (FTA). Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

India and Israel have agreed to start the free trade agreement negotiations from November.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the growing relations between India-Israel and benefits of signing an FTA for both countries.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin the answer by writing about the growing trade ties among other things between India and Israel in the recent past.

Body:

First, talk about how defence sector dominates the ties between both countries.

Next, talk about the benefits of signing FTA for both the countries with respect some of the major sectors – India’s large market and huge consumer base, Water and Agriculture, Israeli Pharma, R&D etc.

Next, mention bottlenecks in signing of the FTA and the ways to resolve it.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stressing on the mutual benefits for both countries by signing the FTA.

Introduction

Israel and India are exploring to open new vistas of partnership in the world of finance, including collaboration between market regulators and allowing Israeli investment in corporate bonds, taking advantage of a favourable climate in both countries.

Most recently, India is making emergency military purchases from several countries including Israel to bolster the military’s capabilities amid border tensions with China in eastern Ladakh.

Body

Bedrock of India – Israel Partnership

  • Defence relations between India and Israel are longstanding.
  • The strategic communication between the two countries began during the Sino-India War of 1962 when PM Jawaharlal Nehru wrote his Israeli counterpart David Ben-Gurion for shipments of arms and ammunition.
  • This has been a rising graph since then.
  • India is the largest arms buyer from Israel; trade is to the tune of approximately $600 million.
  • In 2019, India signed the biggest weapons deal in Israeli defence history, which is nearly $2 billion.
  • This will provide India with an advanced defence system of medium-range surface-to-air missiles, launchers and communications technology.
  • However, the depth and cooperation in the India-Israel bilateral ties doesn’t end here. The ambit of India-Israel defence cooperation has widened to include other domains like economy, agriculture, etc.; however, the cornerstone remains Israeli arms sales to India

FTA between India & Israel will be a big step forward

  • India and Israel recently agreed to resume negotiations on a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) from next month as the two sides are confident to conclude the long-pending deal by June 2022.
  • The Indo-Israeli trade rose from $200 million in 1992 to approx. $5.8 billion in 2018.
  • It is expected that once the FTA is in place, the annual trade volume between the two nations would be raised threefold i.e., up to $15 billion.
  • This FTA will also open the gates to those products which are not yet exported due to low competitiveness.
  • Efficient use of technology in water management and agriculture is one of the aspects that Israel has been very keen on introducing to the Indian market.
  • Other areas that could witness immense growth include energy (particularly from renewable sources), healthcare and medical devices, pharmaceuticals, IT, and aviation.
  • There is a huge list of products that Israel does substantially import, but not from India.
  • These include products like milk powder, animal feed preparations, methanol, etc. Such products should be identified to have a greater excess to the markets.
  • Other sectors where Indo-Israeli cooperation is possible is software, plastics, packaging, and textiles.
  • The Israeli companies are also contemplating investing in India for diagnostic centers, power generation, telecom and high value agricultural projects.
  • All this would act as a catalyst for promoting further investments to mutual advantage.

Conclusion

For too long, India has, under the guise of maintaining its strategic autonomy, shied away from explicit friendships in the international scenario. The India-Israel relationship must continue to expand. What just needs to be done away with is the normative posturing of the relationship which could potentially endanger India’s international relations and also its domestic situation.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Disaster and disaster management

5. Making of an effective flood risk management strategy and its implementation require active participation and role of the flood prone local community. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate.

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

At least 25 people have lost their lives in Kerala’s floods that took on alarming proportions over the weekend. Triggered by heavy rains in the south-west tip of the Indian peninsula, the inundation has revived memories of a deluge in 2018.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the importance of involving and empowering local communities in flood management strategy.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving the context of recent floods and rising trends of flood across India.

Body:

First, write about the how floods impact the local communities and their livelihoods.

Next, write about the benefits of involving local communities in planning, preparation, adaptation, mitigation and rehabilitation process of flood risk management. Also, speak on the limitations of centralised approach to flood management.

Next, write about the need to address the long terms causes like climate change, unplanned development, destruction of fragile ecosystems etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward

Introduction

                India has been traditionally vulnerable to the natural disasters on the account of its unique geo-climatic conditions. In recent years, extreme rainfall events leading to flooding are becoming common, particularly in the Western Ghats and Kerala. World Meteorological Organization, in its report ‘The Global Climate in 2015–2019,’ concluded, “While tropical cyclones are responsible for many of the world’s most destructive floods, there have been many other instances of major flooding since 2015.

 

Triggered by heavy rains in the south-west tip of the Indian peninsula, the recent Kerala inundation has revived memories of a deluge in 2018.

Body

Floods in India:

  • India is one of the most flood-affected nations in the world, after Bangladesh.
  • Floods constitute 52% of all natural disasters in India, and the costliest as well, with over 63% of all damages attributed to it.
  • The economic losses due to this destruction was 0.43% of GDP.
  • The damages translate to 2.68% of the Centre’s total expenditure every year.

Rationale behind Community Participation in flood management

  • The same plan, regardless of the regional characteristics, is implemented or imposed everywhere.
  • Local knowledge, experiences, skills, resources and techniques are not given due importance. Rather external resources and techniques are proposed to be utilized.
  • Negligence about local cultural instincts and heritage.
  • Prioritisation is decided by an outsider and not the stakeholders or the community itself.
  • Local community does not have any information about the disaster management plans for their area and the role of different sectors in helping the community during disasters.
  • Feelings of coordination and self-belonging to the society are developed.
  • Local geo-climatic and socio-cultural characteristics get attention of the people in development and disaster management.
  • Local initiatives begin and community provides assistance to the executing agencies involved in disaster management.
  • There is exchange of knowledge, information, skills and techniques between the community and the experts involved from outside.
  • Community comes forward to put forward its ideas for selection of appropriate programmes suitable to their locality and society.
  • Community can monitor the quality of works being done in its locality. It will also generate a sense of responsibility among the community.
  • It will lead to capacity building of the community on issues of disaster-safe developmental activities.

Way forward

  • Decentralization would not only increase responsiveness to local needs and preferences, but also bring wider  economic  and  social
  • The policies  of  decentralization focus   on building a governance framework emphasizing a more   participatory, democratic, and responsible mechanism.
  • Despite the numerous advantages of decentralization, public policies for decentralization still face constraints in reality.
  • We should reach for region-specific solutions that involve actions within the ambit of local administrative control

Conclusion

There is a need for coordination in the Community-Based Approach among all the stakeholders. This bottom-up, participatory approach can make community members more receptive of new knowledge and information presented to them.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.

6. Emotional intelligence is about being aware of how emotions affect your communication and even leveraging human emotions to make yourself more persuasive. Explain. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Conceptual Tuesdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Key Demand of the question:

to develop a link between emotional intelligence and persuasion.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by defining emotional intelligence (EI).

Body:

First mention the role of EI in – perceiving emotions, using emotions, understanding emotions, and managing emotions.

Next, link the emotional aspect of EI with communication and persuasion – attempting to influence an outcome or followers using – authority, consistency and commitment, liking and reciprocity/reciprocation etc.

Conclusion:

Complete the answer by stressing on the implications for leaders and employers in understanding the importance of interpersonal relationships in the organizational context.

Introduction

Emotional intelligence refers to the capability of a person to manage and control his or her emotions and possess the ability to control the emotions of others as well. In other words, they can influence the emotions of other people also.

Body

Emotional intelligence

Emotional intelligence or EI is the ability to understand and manage your own emotions, and those of the people around you. Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth.

It is said to have five main elements such as – self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills. Of these, self-regulation is of significant importance in this context, especially for civil servants.

For instance, watching social media and comparing ourselves with someone else might lead to extreme anxiety about our inadequacies or shortcomings. Instead of indicting ourselves for our situation, one must understand that every individual has their own trajectory in life. And circumstances surrounding one’s riches or well-being can be very different.

Significance of Emotional Intelligence

  • The chances of succeeding are skewed towards people who are better able to manage themselves and others emotionally, one’s who are likeable and trustworthy.
  • Research shows that more than 80% percent of success is due to skills in “human engineering,” personality and ability to communicate, negotiate, and lead. Only 15 percent is due to technical knowledge.
  • Additionally, Nobel Prize winning psychologist, Daniel Kahneman, found that people would rather do business with a person they like and trust rather than someone they don’t, even if the likeable person is offering a lower quality product or service at a higher price.
  • Hence, instead of exclusively focusing on conventional intelligence quotient, one should make an investment in strengthening his/her EQ (Emotional Intelligence). The concepts of EQ may be difficult to measure, but their significance is far greater than IQ.
  • Simply put, emotional intelligence is that “something” within us that help us to sense how we feel and enables us to truly connect with others and form a bond.
  • It gives us the ability to be present and listen to someone when they most need it. It is that sense of internal balance within us that enables us to keep our composure, make good decisions, communicate successfully, and maintain effective leadership even when under stress.

 Ways to develop Emotional Intelligence

  • Self-regard: Having high self-regard means that one has a good understanding of his strengths and weaknesses. Acting on this understanding requires that you have good self- knowledge and effectively strike a balance between being confident and being arrogant. People are more comfortable helping others who demonstrate the right amount of humility.
  • Optimism:People find optimism and happiness attractive attributes. People are more likely to cooperate with someone who’s optimistic.
  • Approachability: Approachability, like optimism, attracts people. When we’re happy others are more pleasant to be around. Being happy add to “likability” factor. It can also be contagious. Everybody likes to be happy, and being around happy people contributes to one’s own happiness.
  • Self-evaluation: By self-evaluating oneself, one can know one’s emotions and reactions to different situations. By observing others, one can comprehend feelings of others.
  • Communication: By improving one’s expression, one can communicate better.

Conclusion

In the civil services, emotional intelligence is beneficial to manage the emotions in a manner that will be helpful to achieve productive outcomes. High-EI individuals, could reduce the effects of negative emotions like anger or rage on their decision-making. Rage and anger are not only removed as hindrances, but also used to enhance the quality of decisions. Therefore, emotionally intelligent civil services could result in better decisions especially when more negative emotions accompany decisions.

 

Topic: Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and nonpartisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.

7. Why is objectivity important for a civil servant? Discuss with examples. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Conceptual Tuesdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the importance of objectivity.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining objectivity.

Body:

Write about how Objectivity helps in taking decisions based upon established facts and figures, helps avoid personal opinion and bias and arrive at fair decision.

Cite suitable examples to substantiate your points.

Conclusion:

Complete the answer by stressing on its significance.

Introduction

Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to reality and truth, which has been variously defined by sources. Generally, objectivity means the state or quality of being true even outside of a subject‘s individual biases, interpretations, feelings, and imaginings. A proposition is generally considered objectively true when its truth conditions are met without biases caused by feelings, ideas, and opinions (mind-independent).

Body

Relevance of Objectivity in Public Services:

  • Being non-partisan
    • Objectivity will help civil servants to be non-partisan, impartial and more service oriented.
    • For example District collector in making appointments needs to give priority to merit rather than other factors like the caste or background of the caste.
  • Critical thinking and taking rational decisions
    • By thinking both pros and cons and then taking a decision.
    • It also contributes in rational merit based decision makings in day to day work of them. Team work, solving emergency issues like riotous situation.
    • within judicial / administrative procedure, there should be mechanism for appellate board g. in taxation, land acquisition etc.
    • It also plays a big role in reducing menace of corruption from the system.
  • Right to be heard:
    • often officers don’t hear the complaint or opinion of people properly and just do the things that are in their mind. Hence new schemes should have ‘social audit / public hearing’ components.
  • Information management:
    • if you don’t have hardcore information /statistics, you can’t take objective decisions.
    • g. sustainable development goals (SDG) have 17 goals and 169 targets. Previously in Millennium development goals (MDG), we had 18 indicators, yet we lacked proper statistical databases to compare performance. Lack of data, prevents us from finding the faults and fixing them.
  • Transparency:
    • Being objective ensures that work of civil servant becomes fair, transparent and visionary above all narrow considerations of kinship, nepotism, favouritism.
    • g. right to information act. Bureaucrat will think twice before taking subjective/discretionary decisions, fearing that he’ll have to answer it if someone files an RTI

Conclusion

In public life objectivity as a value must strive for in all interaction but at many times being objective become difficult. Fairness as a value closest to objectivity can be practiced which progressively leads to objectivity.


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