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[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 21 September 2021

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

1. Despite Americans facing seemingly impossible obstacles, they emerged independent. How did the Americans defeat the mighty British Empire in a military conflict? Was the foreign intervention the most decisive factor in the victory of U.S.A? Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the reasons for the victory of U.S.A over Britain.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving the context of victory of U.S.A over Britain against the odds.

Body:

In brief, giving a contrast of the might of British empire and relative weaknesses of the Americans.

Next, in detail explain the reasons for the victory of U.S.A over the British. Nature of warfare, spirit of fighting, distance between England and America and involvement of foreign powers etc.

Next, analyse the impact of France and other Europeans in the American war of Independence.

Conclusion:

Pass a judgement if it was decisive in deciding the outcome of the conflict.

Introduction

By the mid-18th Century, the 13 colonists were thriving in America and started to lose their British identity. A  new sense of identity was emerging in the colonists’ minds. Tensions grew over time between the residents of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and the colonial government, which resulted in a full-fledged war by 1775. The American residents fought against the British by making an alliance with France. Americans defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War, thus becoming the United States of America.

Body

Reasons for defeat of Great Britain in North America

  • The representatives of 13 colonies met at Philadelphia (1774) for the first continental congress. Their appeal for just treatment was rejected by the king and their actions declared as mutiny.
  • The War started in 1775 with colonial militias clashing against British troops for the first time.
  • The congress met again in Second continental congress (1776) and declared independence on July 4.
  • The declaration, among other things, asserted the inalienable rights of men that had to be protected. This was later elaborated in the Bill of rights.
  • The Americans were aided by the French, who were looking for an opportunity to strike at Britain.
  • The trouble brewing at home (Irish rebellion) also made things difficult for the British.
  • Other enemies of the British like Spain and Holland also started fighting them at different locations of the continent.
  • War ended with English commander Lord Cornwallis surrendering to George Washington in 1781.
  • The treaty of Paris was signed in 1783 between England and USA which formally brought an end to the war.

Foreign intervention in the war and its significance in victory of USA

With the outbreak of the American Revolution in 1775, France and Spain saw an opportunity to capitalize on the misfortunes of their rival Britain.

  • The single most important diplomatic success of the colonists during the War for Independence was the critical link they forged with France.
  • Representatives of the French and American governments signed the Treaty of Alliance and the Treaty of Amity and Commerce on February 6, 1778.
  • As the French and the British continued to vie for power in the 1770s, French officials saw an opportunity in the rebellion of Britain’s North American colonies to take advantage of British troubles. Through secret agents, the French Government began to provide clandestine assistance to the United States.
  • In April 1779, Spain signed the Treaty of Aranjuez with France. France agreed to help in the capture of Gibraltar, Menorca and Florida, and in return, Spain would aid France in the war with Britain.
  • Spain and France agreed that French forces would fight in the United States and in her waters, while Spanish forces would only attack British possessions outside of the United States. Spain did not want to be seen as directly assisting a British colony in revolting against its mother country as they had colonies in the America.
  • Spain contributed to the American Revolution from the onset by secretly providing money, gunpowder and supplies to the Americans.
  • This assistance was desperately needed to maintain the struggle for independence against the vast resources of the British Empire.

Conclusion

After the American Revolution, America emerged as a political and economic superpower. The revolution also inspired revolutionaries and freedom fighters across the world, most notably inspiring the French Revolution. The American revolution had a profound impact on the history of the modern world. It provided a template through which modern ideas could defeat oppressive regimes. The subsequent success of the USA in world arena is a testimony to how powerful is the idea of liberal democracy and emancipation of the populace.

Value addition

Precursor to American war of Independence

  • No Representatives of Colonies in the British Parliament: The colonies were given no representation in the British parliament.
  • The seven years’ war (1756-63), though ended in the British victory, had drained her resources. She turned to colonies to offset the losses. Since the major colonies were in North America, they suffered the most. The fledgeling industries of the colonies were especially penalised. This was under the lobbying of native industrialists in Britain.
  • Taxation without representation, since the colonies were not represented in the British parliament, many people asserted that the British government had no rights to tax the colonies. They used the slogan ‘No Taxation without Representation’.
  • Through protests like Boston Tea Party (1773), where tea cartons carried by British ships were thrown at the sea, Britain’s right to levy taxes was eroded over time. This power was assumed by respective local governments.

 

Topic: History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

2. The origins of the American Civil War can be attributed to belligerence between the Northern and Southern states for territorial and political control, rather than the issue of slavery. Critically Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Chapter 2, Part 4 – Jain and Mathur World History.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the causes of American civil war as to whether it was tussle for political power between the North and South or fought for the issue of slavery.

Directive word: 

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context of American Civil war between northern states and southern states.

Body:

Mention the major various factors that caused the outbreak of American civil war. Examine whether the civil war was primarily a power conflict between the states or was fought for the issue of slavery? Give examples to substantiate your points.

Conclusion:

Pass a judgement regarding the primary cause of civil war.

Introduction

The American Civil War was fought between 1861 and 1865 when a total of eleven states seceded to form the Confederate States of America. They were spurred to leave by the election of President Abraham Lincoln in November 1860 and by the outbreak of hostilities in April 1861.

Whether the central reason for outbreak of civil war was slavery, remains a matter of debate; even though slavery became a crusading factor for Northern states.

Body

Origins of American Civil war: Fight for overall control by Northern/Southern states

  • For the Northern states, often referred to as ‘the Union’, this was a war fought primarily to restore unity to the nation and to secure the new Western Territories from slave–owners.
  • For the Southern Confederate states, however, this was a war to assert their autonomous rights, first enshrined in the Declaration of Independence, from what they considered to be Northern aggression.
  • At the heart of the conflict were the interconnected issues of slavery, territorial and sectional political control.
  • Tensions over these concerns had been present from the start the American nation.
    • The United States began as collection of colonies who sought independence from Great Britain in the late 18th century.
    • The problem of slavery was never clearly settled by the Founding Fathers, leading to decades of discussion, compromise and growing unrest about the future of the institution.
  • The new republic remained divided on the central question of slavery, and by the mid-19th century, the culture and economy of the Northern and Southern states appeared very different to inhabitants above and below what was termed the Mason–Dixon line, division between Pennsylvania and Maryland, marking the border between free and slave states.
    • The issue of slavery only got amplified as that was a differentiating factor between the two sides.
  • Historians continue to debate the balance of causes underlying the origins of the Civil War, but the issue of slavery remains central in any explanation of the great disunion which almost destroyed the United States.
  • It is almost impossible to imagine the Civil War erupting without the passions aroused among Northern abolitionists and those in the South who saw slave-holding as central to their way of life.
  • The abolition of slavery itself was never a direct Union war aim until 1863 when Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, declaring freedom for over three million slaves in the South.

Conclusion

The origins of the Civil War remain a matter of great debate, with a strand of Southern collective memory emphasising the belligerence of the North and states’ rights, rather than the issue of slavery. The majority of professional historians, in contrast, point to the centrality of slavery as the main origin of the War, arguing that the issue was at the centre of national political debate in the years and decades before shots were fired at Fort Sumter in April 1861.

 

Topic: Poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

3. The need of the hour is holistic urbanisation leading to resilient cities that can bounce back from the devastating impacts of pandemic, improve the quality of life of all residents, and can be leveraged in the fight against poverty. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

Covid reinforces that good urbanisation is our most powerful technology for poverty reduction.

Key Demand of the question:

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by defining planned urbanisation.

Body:

In the first part, mention the impact of the pandemic on the urbanisation in the country – over stretched healthcare, disparities, lack of funds, urban poverty etc.

Mention the components which urbanisation should address in the aftermath of the pandemic – fight against poverty, inequality, unemployment, climate change and other pressing global challenges.

Conclusion:

Suggest a way forward to achieve it.

Introduction

Urbanization indeed is the process of becoming urban, moving to cities, changing from agriculture to other pursuits common to cities, such as trade, manufacturing, industry and management, and corresponding changes of behaviour patterns. In India, the urban population in 2011 Census was more than 30% and by 2030, it is expected to reach 41%.

Body

impact of the pandemic on the urbanization in the country

  • So far, India has treated issues like public health, housing, transportation, water and sanitation as separate, compartmentalized challenges.
  • The pandemic reminded us that all these are interlinked. During the first wave, the virus spread much faster in crowded slums with low access to water and sanitation.
  • Therefore, we must look at a city as ‘a living whole’ and plan for urbanization in an integrated manner.
  • The pandemic also reminded us that different segments of urban residents inhabit widely different realities. While many of us transitioned to remote work relatively easily, the urban poor lost their livelihoods, were left stranded, and continued living in hazardous crowded spaces.
  • Women faced the brunt of the pandemic’s socio-economic impact.
  • Going forward, urban planning must put the most vulnerable and excluded populations at its heart, especially those belonging to the bottom 60% of our income distribution.
  • The past year has reinforced the importance of ‘city resilience’. Whether it is floods in Kerala or water shortages in Chennai, environmental and climate risks are only increasing.
  • This is unlikely to be the last pandemic either. Therefore, urban planning must actively take into account medium-to-long term risks

Measures needed

  • The more immediate policy responses that will earn large dividends in India include: – One, addressing crowding by increasing per-capita consumption of floor area by drastically reducing regulatory barriers to construction.
  • Administratively, the crisis has taught us that a pandemic response cannot be federally-mandated and requires a decentralised, proximal, and accountable response. To enable this, city leaders need to be empowered.
  • Social protection systems need to be redesigned to protect the poor and vulnerable in urban areas, in addition to the current focus on rural settlements.
  • Countries such as India with large out-of-pocket expenditures on private health care must restore the balance between health care and robust public health that focuses on improving health outcomes for all — only a capable State can deliver the latter.
  • A holistic approach to investing in cities: Given our learnings from the pandemic, there are four key areas that we must invest in to build truly integrated, inclusive and resilient cities. These are: data, technology, engaging communities, and innovation.

Conclusion

Covid-19 is neither the first nor the last public health crisis to hit cities. Everything from the Black Death to the bubonic plague to the Spanish flu, not to mention world wars and terror attacks, have ravaged cities in the past. Each time, people worried that it was the end of big cities, only to watch them re-emerge stronger and more vibrant. This time will be no different.

Value addition:

Reasons for poor quality of urbanization in India

  • Curtailed Power: local government is curtailed by state government departments in water, power, schools, healthcare, etc.
  • Lack of Independence: only 13 per cent and 44 per cent of the budget of rural and urban bodies was raised themselves
  • Flawed Structure: A Union ministry controlling finance and governance of the states would be unacceptable at the Centre but the Department of Local Self Government in the states has almost unlimited powers
  • Policy distortion: having separate central rural and urban ministries distorts policy
  • lack of power and resources sets off a vicious cycle of decline because ambitious and talented individuals aren’t attracted to city leadership.

Socio-economic Impacts of Good urbanization:

  • Good urbanisation is also crucial to delivering economic justice for women, children and Dalits.
  • Poor quality urbanisation has meant men-only migration, leaving the women with all the hard labour of farm work, raising the children, and looking after in-laws, while having virtually no recourse to health services, or to even emotional support of the spouse.
  • Village children going to abysmal-quality government schools without bilingual possibilities places them at a disadvantage in English-dominated entrance tests for professional courses and civil services.
  • Though not great by any standards, the quality of both healthcare and education in cities remains better than villages by miles.
  • Most painfully, Dalits in villages are often denied the dignity that urban anonymity provides.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure

4. Critical and dissenting voices are important for a vibrant democracy. However, care must be taken to prevent hate speech which is inimical to public order. Evaluate the legal Provisions to deal with hate speech. Are they sufficient? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

As there are no laws on hate speech as such, India needs a political and pedagogical solution to the menace

Key Demand of the question:

To evaluate the impact of hate speech and the provisions to deal with it, if they are sufficient to tackle it.

Directive word: 

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidence.  You must appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming an opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by mentioning how democracy thrives on disagreements provided they do not cross the boundaries of civil discourse and constitutional has guaranteed fundamental rights for that.

Body:

In the first talk about speech which is contravention to the rights. Briefly mention various types of hate speech.

Next, bring out the legal Provisions to deal with Hate Speech in India – Constituional provisions, IPC, RPA act, 1951, CrPC and Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955. Evaluate if it is sufficient to tackle hate speech and write about the shortcomings of the above in tackling it and the impact of it.

Conclusion:

Suggest a way forward in order to prevent hate speech without stifling dissent.

Introduction

The Right to Dissent is an important addition of expressing one’s view, and on many of its most important constituent elements. It will enable practitioners and citizens to claim their rights and participate more effectively in the project of democracy. Disagreeing with each other is a fundamental human trait. There is not a single individual who does not disagree with something or the other all the time. The apex court said, Dissent is a safety valve for democracy. If this safety valve is not allowed to function, then the pressure cooker will burst.

Body

Hate speech has not been defined in any law in India. Fake news is a deliberate lie or a half-truth circulated with the intention to mislead or cause harm to a section of people. It is a type of yellow journalism that consists of deliberate misinformation or hoaxes spread via the traditional print, broadcasting news media, or via Internet-based social media.

Dangers posed by hate speech

  • Hate speech is an incitement to hatred against a particular group of persons marginalized by their religious belief, sexual orientation, gender, and so on.
  • The Law Commission, in its 267th report on hate speech, said such utterances have the potential to provoke individuals and society to commit acts of terrorism, genocide, and ethnic cleansing.

Legal Provisions to deal with hate speech

  • Indian Penal Code:
    • Sections 153A and 153B of the IPC:Punishes acts that cause enmity and hatred between two groups.
    • Section 295A of the IPC:Deals with punishing acts which deliberately or with malicious intention outrage the religious feelings of a class of persons.
    • Sections 505(1) and 505(2):Make the publication and circulation of content which may cause ill-will or hatred between different groups an offence.
  • Representation of People’s Act:
    • Section 8 of the Representation of People’s Act, 1951 (RPA):Prevents a person convicted of the illegal use of the freedom of speech from contesting an election.
    • Sections 123(3A) and 125 of the RPA:Bars the promotion of animosity on the grounds of race, religion, community, caste, or language in reference to elections and include it under corrupt electoral practices.

How sufficient are legal provisions?

  • For a country like India with a massive population of diverse backgrounds and culture, subjects like hate speech become a complex issue to deal withas it is difficult to differentiate between free and hate speech.
  • Several factors are to be considered while restraining speeches like the number of strong opinions, offensive to certain communities, the effect on the values of dignity, liberty, and equality.
  • Certainly, there are laws for such atrocities but a major part of work is still left.

Way forward

  • Clarity and technological upgradationis needed to deal with this and a mechanism to get down such material, which is prone to disturb social setup.
  • Improving the level of training in equality and non-discrimination among police forces and legal bodies,improving research and encouraging reporting of such content.
  • Indian government has been pushing for internet platforms to locate their serversin the country, which might help address dangerous speech in real time.
  • Generating contra-narratives on social networks and raising public awarenessthrough campaigns to tackle extremism.
  • There can be an internationally accepted law that places the responsibility on social media companieslike Facebook to tackle hate speech by deleting obviously illegal content within 24 hours if there is a request from the Government of a particular nation.
  • Social media platforms need to take responsibility to ensuretransparency, accountability and a system of rules and guidelines that users can recognize as standards, and which when enforced in a regularized fashion can begin to act as precedents. Thus, users, police and civil society actors will have a clear sense of what kind of material is likely to be taken down.
  • Therefore giving a proper definition to hate speech would be the first step to deal with the menaceand other initiatives such as spreading awareness amongst the public is the need of the hour.

 

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

5. Quad’s expanding agenda affirms a declared intention to promote greater prosperity and ensure stability in the Indo-Pacific. But the recent developments bring in opportunities and challenges which will test the Quad partners. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Prime Minister Narendra Modi attending the first-ever in-person summit of the four leaders of the Quadrilateral Framework (Quad) in the Indo-Pacific on Friday in Washington, in many ways, is the highlight of his visit to the U.S., where he will also address the United Nations General Assembly.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the opportunities and challenges for Quad in the light of recent developments.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing about aims and objectives of Quad.

Body:

In the first part, highlight the recent geopolitical developments – withdrawal of U.S from Afghanistan, formation of AUKUS etc.

Mention, the opportunites for Quad – maritime security, cyber security and disaster response to connectivity and infrastructure, climate action, vaccine production, student mobility, resilient supply chains, combating disinformation and counter-terrorism etc.

Next, mention the challenges – Free and open Indo-Pacific, Countering COVID-19, formation of AUKUS, issue of Quad expansion and Chinese aggression etc.

Conclusion:

Write a way forward to overcome the above challenges and realise our collective goals.

Introduction

The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad) of four countries, Japan, the US, Australia and India, was formed in 2007 with the initiative coming from Japanese PM Shinzo Abe. It is touted as an alliance to contain China’s expansionist policies and aggression in the Indo-Pacific region. The aim of the Quad is to support a “free, open and prosperous” Indo-Pacific region that China seeks to threaten.

Body

Recent geopolitical events and developments

  • The USA pull from Afghanistan is touted as a move aimed at ending 20 year war and concentrating its resources against China and its rise.
  • USA aims to counter the Chinese heft, especially in the Indo-Pacific, through alliance with like-minded nations.
  • There has also been some surprise over the emergence last week of the new trilateral, the Australia-U.K.-U.S.

Opportunities and areas for collaboration amongst Quad members

  • Countering BRI: The BRI promises economic security but not human security by providing funds to developing countries with a debt trap.
    • Herein, the Quad can play a vital role as it is a group of democratic countries.
    • It should provide a choice to the nations as to where they want to borrow the money for development purposes from and also be a part of the supply chain.
  • Conducting patrols: Quad members can frequently venture into South China sea to ensure international free and open navigation is upheld.
  • Military exercise: A number of joint naval and air exercises have been undertaken by regional countries not only amongst themselves, but also with other powers specially the US and the UK.
    • The aim is to practise inter-operability of fighting equipment and manpower against a common enemy along with joint tactics and cooperation to meet a common military goal.
    • The aim is to send a firm message to China, that its days of expansionism are coming to an end.
  • The prime context behind Quad 2.0 is Beijing’s Maritime Silk Road (MSR), which is an integral part of China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) under Xi Jinping.
  • Climate change: In particular, the leaders are expected to discuss specific goals to be included in their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), like NetZero plans for carbon emissions, deadlines to end coal usage for thermal power plants and renewable energy goals, like India’s plans to build 450 GW of renewable energy capacity by 2030.
  • Critical technologies and resilient supply chains: The Quad also set up a working group on critical and emerging-technology “to facilitate cooperation on international standards and innovative technologies of the future”.
    • This will involve discussions on ensuring consensus on what kind of 5G networks the Quad countries will promote, on data security and free flow, as well as on building supply chains that have been destroyed due to the Coronavirus pandemic.

Challenges confronting the Quad members

  • AUKUS: The Australia-U.K.-U.S. trilateral pact announced on September 16 to develop nuclear-powered submarines, may overpower Quad agenda.
    • To begin with a nuclear pact in the Indo-Pacific, as the AUKUS envisages, is clearly a much stronger message to China than the Quad’s strategic statements have been thus far, and likely to elicit a stronger reaction.
    • France has called AUKUS a “stab in the back”, recalled its Ambassadors from Australia and the U.S., and cancelled a meeting of the India-Australia-France trilateral planned this week as well.
  • India’s reservations: India is not comfortable with any kind of proliferation, which the submarine pact represents.
  • South China Sea: China claims 90% of south China sea as its sovereign territory, continuously terrorising Vietnam, Philippines wrt Paracel and Spratly islands.

Conclusion

At the March summit, a joint statement issued by the leaders, called the “Spirit of the Quad”, said they would promote a “free, open rules-based order, rooted in international law to advance security and prosperity and counter threats to both in the Indo-Pacific and beyond.” Above all, the Quad summit is expected to show all the four countries as part of a strengthened coalition of “democratic polities, market economies and pluralistic societies”.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic:  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment

6. With the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business index being scrapped, India must not lose the progress made so far and further try to improve the business climate in the economy. Comment. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The World Bank Group scrapped its flagship publication, the ‘Doing Business’ report.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the progress made with respect to Ease of Doing Business in India and further steps required to measure it.

Directive word: 

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin my writing Ease of Doing Business report of the world bank and its primary uses to investors.

Body:

Briefly, give context about the irregularities in the report and hence it was scrapped. Mention the major areas of progress India achieved with respect to Ease of Doing Business in past few years. Bring its benefits. Cite stats and facts to substantiate your point.

Next, write about further step that are required to improve the business climate in the Indian economy.

Conclusion:

Conclude by mentioning that irrespective of the index or not, India should focus on simplifying and easing restrictions to have a conducive environment for doing business.

Introduction

Recently, the World Bank Group scrapped its flagship publication, the ‘Doing Business’ report. This report publishes the influential annual ranking of countries on the Ease of Doing Business (EDB) index. The Group acted on its commissioned study to examine the ethical issues flagged in preparing the 2018 and 2020 editions of the EDB index.

Body

Background: Irregularities

  • The allegation surrounding Kristalina Georgieva, Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund, is the proximate reason for scrapping the publication.
  • As Chief Executive Officer of the World Bank in 2018, Ms. Georgieva is accused of having exerted pressure on the internal team working on the Doing Business report to falsely boost China’s rank by doctoring the underlying data.
  • Similarly, tensions were also reportedly brought to bear in the case of Saudi Arabia’s rank, among others.
  • Further, India’s improvement in ranking was based on changes in two cities alone which may not reflect the realities of the country.
  • Notwithstanding any of this, India must ensure that the progress achieved over the years are not lost, rather must improve further.

Progress of India over the years

The last six years have been exciting from an EoDB perspective. India has jumped from 142nd rank in the World Bank EoDB in 2014 to 63rd in 2019.

Steps to improve business climate in India

  • Attracting investment: India needs to move faster on the reform front, to better attract global savings and investments. Bring clarity and certainty in policies of FDI, taxation among others.
  • Fasten starting a business: The available data suggest that the resources required for starting a business can be considerably higher in the lower income economies.
    • It would stultify entrepreneurship and risk-taking, and, thereby, discourage profit earning.
  • Boosting entrepreneurship: We need to policy-induce much greater EDB to boost entrepreneurship nationally. It would lead to better employment opportunities, higher tax revenue for government and also give rise to improved personal income as well.
  • Simplify taxes: Further simplify the indirect goods and services tax (GST) regime, and make taxes, both on income and consumption, easy and taxpayer-friendly. The average time for filing taxes can be significantly higher in lower-middle income economies like India.
  • Reforms all over India: It is also a fact that India’s high global rank in dealing with construction permits, 27th in the ranking, is more a reflection of recent reform measures in the two mega urban centres, and may not quite hold nationwide. The way ahead is to have reforms in place to better coagulate funds for built spaces.

Conclusion

The World Bank’s decision to scrap its annual publication Doing Business report is welcome. Investigations into “data irregularities” in preparing the EDB index, as brought out by the independent agency, seems to confirm many shortcomings repeatedly brought to light for years now.

Value addition

opening_business

  • It 12 indicator sets and 190 economies.
  • Ten of these areas—starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting minority investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts, and resolving insolvency—are included in the ease of doing business score and ease of doing business ranking.
  • Doing Business also measures regulation on employing workers and contracting with the government, which are not included in the ease of doing business score and ranking.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: social influence and persuasion.

7. Great arguments matter, but they are only one component. Other factors such as the persuader’s credibility and their ability to create a mutually beneficial position for themselves and the audience is key to achieving attitudinal change. Discuss. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: A Practical approach to Ethics Integrity & Aptitude by DK Balaji

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Conceptual Tuesdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about how Persuasive communication leads to the change in the attitude.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin the answer by defining persuasion.

Body:

In detail, bring out the various components which are a part of the process to bring about the attitude change.

Source of the message (Person or institution): Credibility and Attractiveness.

Content of the message – Suggestion, Use of primacy and recency effect.

Receiver of the message – Influenceability, Selective attention and interpretation.

Substantiate with examples.

Write about the impediments to it and suggest steps to overcome them.

Conclusion:

Summarize the role of persuasion.

Introduction

Persuasion is a form of influence. It is the way to get people to agree with an idea, attitude, or action by rational and emotional means. It is a problem-solving strategy and relies on “appeals” rather than force. A persuasive argument is a list of connected statements, aimed at establishing a definite proposition for giving one conclusion on the issue.

Body

When Aristotle used the term ethos in the 5th century B.C.E. to describe one of the means of persuasion, he defined it as the “wisdom, sagacity, and character of the rhetor”. Modern scholars of communication and persuasion speak more about “credibility” as an attitude the audience has toward the speaker, based on both reality and perception, rather than an innate trait of the speaker.

Audience members trust the speaker to varying degrees, based on the evidence and knowledge they have about the speaker and how that lines up with certain factors. Audience members trust the speaker to varying degrees, based on the evidence and knowledge they have about the speaker and how that lines up with certain factors like:

  • Similarity: speaker’s experiences, values, and beliefs in common with the audience along with the relation of audience to the speaker because of these commonalities.
    • For instance, using famous personalities like Amitabh Bachchan, Rahul Dravid to promote vaccination or provide message/information to people.
  • Character: speaker exhibiting, in word and action, in the speech and in everyday life, honesty and integrity.
    • For e.g.: To deal with issues like girl child education (Beti Bachao Beti Padhao, selfie with daughter), inter caste marriage, temple entry for women, persuasion may be the only solution because change has to be brought keep intact the dignity and respect of all stake holders.
    • This when done by a person who has been an ardent supporter of women’s rights and has fought for women’s causes, will have more impact.
  • Competence: speaker’s expertise and sound knowledge about the topic, especially through first-hand experience and the competence of speaker in his/her ability to communicate that expertise.
    • For e.g.: When a noted cardiologist talks to people about how exercise keeps their hear fit and persuades people to take up jogging. This will have a stronger impact on people’s mind as the doctor with his competence/knowledge has told it.
  • Good will: Good perceptions of audience towards the speaker.
    • For e.g.: District collector visiting houses in the morning to persuade people for waste segregation before disposal.
    • success of the initiatives like Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan- cleanliness drives and Ujjwala give it up campaign can be attributed to persuasion

The same speaker will have a different level of credibility with different audiences. For example, in regard to presidential campaigns, it is interesting to listen to how different people respond to and “trust” different candidates.

Conclusion:

Thus, speaker’s credibility does not exist alone. It is supported by a number of factors, including Aristotle’s other two traditional forms of persuasion, logos (logic, evidence, good reasoning, and lack of fallacious arguments) and pathos (personal and emotional appeals).

Value addition:

Ways of developing Credibility:

  • Source credibility: Thisinvolves two major criteria namely- expertise and trustworthiness. Along with these, likeness, similarity and physical attractiveness also plays a subtle role in influencing source credibility. Source credibility is further enhanced by information on background, formal training, education, legitimacy etc. Furthermore, non-verbal communication cues like facial expressions, formal training, education, personal experience etc. also play a divisive role.
  • Rational and emotional appeals:A rational appeal makes use of logical arguments and even factual evidence to persuade individuals about the legitimacy and likelihood of attainment of goals. An emotional appeal on the other hand, is framed to arouse emotions of the recipient and make use of the emotions as a means of persuasion. The most commonly used methods is the fear or threat appeal.
  • Reciprocity: Reciprocation is considered as a strong tool of persuasion which leads to a sense of obligation. The rule of reciprocity is highly effective and overpowering.
  • Commitment and Consistency: Boththe values are considered highly important as they are a valuable short-cut through the complicated nature of modern existence. If a person makes any commitment, he or she will likely take up all steps to honour that. Likewise, consistency is highly valued in society as it allows a person to make effective decisions and process information accordingly.
  • Social proof: Thebehaviour of people surrounding us has a great effect on our thoughts and actions. The ‘power of crowd’ is considered very important. This becomes utmost effective when there are uncertainties or similarities in a situation.
  • Liking: Thisis simple as people usually agree to people whom they like. There are two primary factors which contribute to overall liking. They are: physical attractiveness and similarity of attitudes.
  • Authority: Peoplealways listen to those who are either knowledge or trustworthy. The words of an expert are always taken seriously by everyone concerned as compared to a beginner.
  • Scarcity: Scarcityis often underestimated by people as a method of persuasion. Anything which is of limited availability is given more importance by people. People want more of you when they cannot have.

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