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[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 7 September 2021

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

1. Raja Ram Mohan Roy is considered as the “father of Modern India”. Discuss his contributions in making India progressive and rational which set our country on a path of modernity. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Chapter 9 – A Brief History of Modern India by Rajiv Ahir (Spectrum Publishers)

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the contributions of Raja Ram Mohan Roy.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Give a brief intro into the personality of Rajaram Mohan Roy and how western education influenced his perspective on Indian society

Body:

Mention the reforms brought in by Rajaram Mohan Roy such as Reinterpreting Hinduism, his mix of modernism with tradition, on caste and Women’s rights, on sati system, on political liberalism etc.

Write about his various measures he took to achieve the above.

Conclusion:

Conclude by saying his legacy makes him rightly been called as father of Modern India.

Introduction

Rammohun Roy is considered as a pioneer figure in Indian Renaissance. He was a multifaceted social, religious and educational reformer, renowned for his pioneering role in opposing practices like Sati, child marriage and social divisions and for advocating education. His elements of modernity and nonconformism to regressive traditions earned him the sobriquet as “father of Modern India”.

Body

Raja Ram Mohan Roy’s contributions in making India progressive and rational:

  • Social reforms:
  • The abolition of the brutal and inhuman Sati Pratha was his most prominent effort towards reforming Indian society.
  • His efforts were also instrumental in eradicating the purdah system and child marriage.
  • He advocated widow remarriage and education of women.
  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy’s name is thus etched forever as a true benefactor of women not just for helping abolish the custom of Sati, but also raising his voice against child marriage and polygamy, while demanding equal inheritance rights for women.
  • He was also a great opponent of the rigid caste divisions of his time.
  • Educational:
  • He paved the way to revolutionizing education system in India by establishing Hindu College in 1817 along with David Hare.
  • Hindu College later went on to become one of the best educational institutions in the country producing some of the best minds in India.
  • His efforts to combine true to the roots theological doctrines along with modern rational lessons saw him establish the Anglo-Vedic School in 1822 followed by the Vedanta College in 1826.
  • Philosophical:
  • In 1828, Ram Mohan Roy formed the Brahmo Samaj, uniting the Brahmos in Calcutta, a group of people, who had no faith in idol-worship and were against the caste restrictions.
  • He looked back to a tradition in search of monotheism, and looked forward to a sort of Protestant reformation within the Hindu milieu.
  • He implied that every religion has a philosophical core, and as for Hinduism it was Vedanta.
  • The Vedanta provided him with the cultural category while his interpretation of it as monotheistic yielded a comprehensive, holistic theory, which provided a comprehensive critique of culture, society and ideology.
  • Raja’s monotheistic Vedanta provided people with an idea of the paradigms of social change.
  • It enabled people to consider the comparative adequacy of ways of life that might claim people’s allegiance. In such humanitarian vision lies Raja’s lure and his share in India’s modernity.
  • He stressed on rationalism and modern scientific approach.
  • Journalism:
  • Ram Mohan Roy was a staunch supporter of free speech and expression.
  • He fought for the rights of vernacular press.
  • He also brought out a newspaper in Persian called ‘Miratul- Akhbar’ (the Mirror of News) and a Bengali weekly called ‘Sambad Kaumudi’ (the Moon of Intelligence).

Conclusion:

Raja Ram Mohan Roy and his Brahmo Samaj played a vital role in awakening Indian society to the pressing issues plaguing society at that time and also was the forerunner of all social, religious and political movements that happened in the country since.

 

Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

2. The scope of the reform movements was not confined to religion only but included the society as a whole. It gave a vison of a prosperous modern India and subsequently this vision got incorporated in the Indian National Movement. Elaborate. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Chapter 6- India’s Struggle for Independence by Bipan Chandra.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about how reforms movement were aimed at India society as whole and how they got integrated with the mainstream national movement.

Directive word: 

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by mentioning that the reform movement was a holistic socio-religious reform movement aimed revitalising our society and religion.

Body:

Elaborate on features such as the movement focussed on aspects such as to bring in an enlightened society, removal of superstition, to establish a democratic society, to promote rationality and scientific temper etc. Mention steps taken by reforms to achieve these.

In religious aspects mention the steps that were taken by various reforms to reform the major religions.

Conclusion:

Conclude by saying that the same approach was carried forward by the national movement and was included in the vision of independent India.

Introduction

Indian Society in the 19th century was caught in a vicious web created by religious superstitions and dogmas. The priests exercised an overwhelming and unhealthy influence on the mind of people. Social Conditions were equally depressing with women being oppressed in name of gender along with people deemed to be of lower caste.

Body

Scope of reform movement included Religion and social condition

  • The major social problems which came in the purview of the reforms movements were emancipation of women(in which sati, infanticide, child marriage and widow re-marriage were taken up), casteism and untouchability, education for bringing about enlightenment in society.
  • In the religious sphere main issues were idolatry, polytheism, religious superstitions, and exploitation by priest.
  • Important characteristics of Social Reform Movement included leadership by wide emerging Intellectual middle class.
  • Reform movement started in different parts of India in different period but having considerable similarities.
  • They were link with one region or one caste. It was clear to them that without religious reformation, there cannot be any social reformation.
  • Two Intellectual criteria of social reform movement included- both Rationality and Religious Universalism
  • Similarly, while the ambits of reforms were particularistic, their religious perspective was universalistic. Raja Ram Mohan Roy considered different religion as national embodiments of Universal theism.
    • g.: In the BrahmoSamaj, it led to the repudiation of the infallibility of the Vedas, and in the Aligarh Movement, to the reconciliation of the teachings of Islam with the needs of the modern age.
  • The socio religious reform movement, as a whole, was against backward element of traditional culture in terms of both religious and social evils.
    • g.: Holding that religious tenets were not immutable; Syed Ahmed Khan emphasized the role of religion in the progress of society: if religion did not keep pace with and meet the demands of the time it would get fossilized as in the case of Islam in India.
  • The focus was on regeneration of traditional institutions including medicine, education, and philosophy and so on.
  • There were differences in methods of those reform movements but all of them were concerned with the regeneration of society through social and educational reforms.

Reform movements and national awakening

  • In spite of the opposition from the orthodox sections of the society, these movements contributed towards liberating people from the exploitation of priests.
  • The movement gave the upcoming middle class cultural roots and reduced the sense of humiliation that the British powers had created.
  • Modern, rational, secular, and scientific outlook was promoted realizing the need of the modern era. The reformers aimed at modernisation rather than outright westernization.
  • A favourable social climate was created to end India’s cultural and intellectual isolation from the world.
  • It was greatly due to the constant endeavours of the reformers that abolition of Sati and legalisation of widow-marriage were achieved during the nineteenth century.
  • There was much intellectual fervour, prolonged agitation and acute discussion during the controversy over the age of Consent Bill.
    • Such debates, even if they failed to bring about any concrete change immediately, raised the level of consciousness.
  • The ideas and activities of the intellectuals were directly or indirectly related to the task of nation-building and national reconstruction.
  • The social reform movement, as a matter of fact, was not an isolated phenomenon; it was loaded with wider national political and economic considerations. In a way, the social reform movement was a prelude to nationalism.

Conclusion

In a nutshell, it can be argued that in the evolution of modern India the reform movements have made very significant contribution. They stood for the democratization of the society, removal of superstitions and decadent customs, spread of enlightenment and development of a rational and modern outlook. This led to the national awakening in India.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies

3. The aim of establishing Tribunals in India was expected to serve a double purpose of speedy and cost-effective justice. Critically examine the performance of tribunals in India. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

A Special Bench of the Supreme Court led by Chief Justice of India N.V. Ramana said that the Centre should conform and fill long-pending vacancies to key tribunals.

Key Demand of the question:

To form a critical assessment of functioning of the Tribunals in India.

Directive word: 

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Give a brief description about tribunals and their purpose of removing delayed justice and also adjudicate on technical issues. Mention relevant articles of constitution associated with tribunals.

Body:

Firstly, give brief history of tribunals in India. With the use of statistics and facts such as number of tribunals established.

Discuss the performance of tribunals with respect to case pendency, adjudication, appeals, appointments, etc.

Also, mention latest court judgements related to tribunals to bring in more independence of the Tribunals from the executives. Mention about the National Tribunal Commission and issue of manpower in the Tribunals.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward to make dispensation of justice via tribunals more effective.

Introduction

Tribunal means a set or a bench upon which judge or judges sit and decide controversies between the parties and exercises judicial powers as distinguished from purely administrative functions. It is a quasi-judicial institution that is set up to deal with problems such as resolving administrative or tax-related disputes. Part XIV-A of the Constitution which consist of two Articles 323A and 323B deals with these Tribunals  E.g.: National Green Tribunal, Central Administrative Tribunal etc

Body

Tribunals and judicial efficiency

  • Flexibility: Rigid procedures and evidence ordeals of courts are not followed, rather it goes by the principle of natural justice.
  • Less Expensive: Administrative justice ensures cheap and quick justice. Its procedures are simple and can be easily understood by a layman.
  • Relief to Courts: The tribunals perform an important and specialised role in justice mechanism. They take a load off the already overburdened courts. They hear disputes related to the environment, armed forces, tax and administrative issues.
  • Reduce pendency: To overcome the situation that arose due to the pendency of cases in various Courts, domestic tribunals and other Tribunals have been established under different Statutes, hereinafter referred to as the Tribunals.
  • Adequate Justice: In the fast-changing world of today, administrative tribunals are the most appropriated means of administrative action, and also the most effective means of giving fair justice to the individuals.
    • Lawyers, who are more concerned about aspects of law, find it difficult to adequately assess the needs of the modern welfare society
  • Efficiency: The Tribunals were set up to reduce the workload of courts, to expedite decisions and to provide a forum which would be manned by lawyers and experts in the areas falling under the jurisdiction of the Tribunal.

Critical examination of the performance of tribunals in India:

  • The manner of appointment of its members, performance appraisal, career path for tribunal members, remuneration, terms of service, are all outside the oversight of the judiciary. This is the foremost problem with tribunalisation.
  • In India, executive interference in the functioning of tribunals is often seen in matters of appointment and removal of tribunal members, as well as in provision of finances, infrastructure, personnel and other resources required for day-to-day functioning of the tribunals.
  • Administrative tribunals, with their separate laws and procedures often made by themselves, puts a serious limitation upon the principles of Rule of Law.
  • Most of the tribunals do not enjoy the same amount of independence of the Executive as do the Courts and the judges.
  • Recently, the Chief Justice of India NV Ramana-led bench of the Supreme Court pulled up the central government for the rising number of vacancies in various law tribunals across the country. The bench asked the centre to “clear its stand” on the urgent need to fill these vacancies.
  • The civil and criminal courts have a uniform pattern of administering justice. A uniform code of procedure in administrative adjudication is not there.
  • Administrative tribunals are manned by administrators and technical heads who may not have the background of law or training of judicial work. At times they adopt summary procedures to deal with cases coming before them
  • In Chandra Kumar case, SC held that the appeals to such tribunals lies before the court and hence defeats the whole purpose of reducing burden of the superior courts.
  • Since the tribunals are mainly chaired by the retired judges who are appointed by the government, so the present judges in courts may favour government in certain matter to gain political patronage in appointment to such tribunals after retirement.
  • Lack of adequate infrastructure to work smoothly and perform the functions originally envisioned for them. There is a lack of understanding of the staffing requirements in tribunals.

Way forward

  • In the interest of better justice delivery, their traditional structures and methods of functioning should be reformed.
  • In the interest of maintaining the rule of law in society and to preserve individual freedom, that there should be some kind of judicial control over these tribunals.
  • Increasing the number of judges, filling the existing vacancy, use of technology to bring efficiency in administration of justice.
  • Tribunals themselves are better positioned to gauge their own administrative requirements. Therefore, providing power to tribunals to create or sanction posts can be a step in the right direction.
  • The existing tribunals should be validated with proper measures to ensure their independence.

Conclusion

The Tribunals plays an important role and part in the sphere of the adjudication of disputes. Tribunals function differently from courts, from the manner of appointment to the procedure followed. Due to its increasing role, it is important to establish a competent authority for the redressal of people’s grievances and adjudication of the disputes. Therefore, the concept of administrative tribunals was emerged and is dynamically flourishing in India holding certain flaws and strengths.

Value addition:

Tribunals and their mandate

  • The original Constitution did not contain provisions with respect to tribunals.
  • The 42nd Amendment Act of 1976 added a new Part XIV- A to the Constitution.
  • This part is entitled as ‘Tribunals’ and consists of only two Articles–Article 323 A dealing with administrative tribunals and Article 323 B dealing with tribunals for other matters.
  • Article 323 A empowers the Parliament to provide for the establishment of administrative tribunals for the adjudication of disputes relating to recruitment and conditions of service of persons appointed to public services of the Centre, the states, local bodies, public corporations and other public authorities.
  • Under Article 323 B, the Parliament and the state legislatures are authorised to provide for the establishment of tribunals for the adjudication of disputes relating to the following matters:
    • Taxation
    • Foreign exchange, import and export
    • Industrial and labour
    • Land reforms
    • Ceiling on urban property
    • Elections to Parliament and state legislatures

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4. The provision of safe water and sanitation coupled with improvements in hygiene initiatives (WASH) can contribute significantly to ameliorating nutritional challenges and to improve health outcomes. Explain. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

According to the World Health Organisation, 50 per cent of all mal- and under-nutrition can be traced to diarrhoea and intestinal worm infections, which are a direct result of poor water, sanitation and hygiene.

Key Demand of the question:

To develop a link between WASH and improved nutrition.

Directive word: 

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by giving context between malnutrition and hygiene.

Body:

Give brief about the malnutrition status in India, its causes and its impact.

Bring the link between malnutrition and sanitation. Highlight how apart from the food intake, factors such as contaminated drinking water, poor sanitation, and unhygienic living conditions play a part in the development of the child. Cite data from WHO and NFHS-5 to substantiate your points

Mention few initiatives taken up by the government in this direction to address this chronic issue.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction

Of all the problems confronting the youth, nutritional insecurity is the worst, holding the power to cripple the future of an entire generation. A recent UNICEF report stated that nearly 12 lakh children could die in low-income countries in the next six months due to a decrease in routine health services and an increase in wasting. Nearly three lakh such children would be from India — nearly as much as the countrywide death toll from Covid-19. If this challenge has to be mitigated, India must use the pandemic as an opportunity to come up with long-term multi-stakeholder solutions to the problem of nutrition in the country.

Body

Background: Statistics on Nutrition indicators in India

  • According to the latest data,9 per cent of children under five are stunted, and 20.8 per cent are wasted — a form of malnutrition in which children are too thin for their height.
  • This is much higher than in other developing countries where, on average, 25 per cent of children suffer from stunting and 9 per cent are wasted.
  • Inadequate dietary intake is the most direct cause of undernutrition. This, however, is the most obvious cause of the problem.
  • Several other factors also affect nutritional outcomes, such as contaminated drinking water, poor sanitation, and unhygienic living conditions.

Sanitation and nutritional challenges linkage

  • According to the World Health Organisation, 50 per cent of all mal- and under-nutrition can be traced to diarrhoea and intestinal worm infections, which are a direct result of poor water, sanitation and hygiene.
  • Nutrition and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are intricately linked, and changes in one tend, directly or indirectly, to affect the other.
  • The global nutrition community has long emphasised this interdependence, suggesting that greater attention to, and investments in, WASH are a sure-shot way of bolstering the country’s nutritional status.
  • In India’s case, in particular, with its population of more than a billion people, both WASH and nutrition must be addressed together through a lens of holistic, sustainable community engagement to enable long-term impact.
  • Safe drinking water, proper sanitation and hygiene can significantly reduce diarrhoeal and nutritional deaths. On the one hand, poor WASH facilities exacerbate the effects of malnutrition.
  • But, on the other hand, pre-existing micronutrient deficiencies exacerbate children’s vulnerability to WASH-related infections and diseases.
  • WHO has estimated that access to proper water, hygiene and sanitation can prevent the deaths of at least 8,60,000 children a year caused by undernutrition.
  • It’s evident that there is a direct, and irrefutable, correlation between sanitation and nutrition, and the sooner we acknowledge it, the faster we can work towards fixing it.

Addressing water and sanitation issues

  • Target multiple contributing factors, like WASH – The underlying drivers for India’s ‘hidden hunger’ challenges are complex and go beyond direct nutritional inputs.
    • The push for toilet construction must be combined with a strategy for behavioral change.
  • A simultaneous approach to nutrition and WASH will not only aid India’s fight against malnutrition, bolster Covid resilience amongst the most vulnerable sections of society but also safeguard against monsoon-related health challenges.
  • This will require a coordinated, multisectoral approach among the health, water, sanitation, and hygiene bodies, not to mention strong community engagement.
  • Jal Jeevan mission will focus on integrated demand and supply-side management of water at the local level, including creation of local infrastructure for source sustainability like rainwater harvesting, groundwater recharge and management of household wastewater for reuse would be undertaken in convergence with other government programmes/schemes.
  • Artificial Recharge Techniques such as Rainwater Harvesting Systems in houses and localities should be mandatory. This will increase the Groundwater level in Indian villages. Government has to encourage local participation in water conservation by steps such as an awareness campaign.
  • The Union Government on its part has created a Jal Shakti Ministry as a separate full-fledged ministry to address the water emergency in the country.
  • Swachh Bharat Mission has been a tremendous success with nearly 500 million people having stopped open defecation since 2014.

Conclusion

An integrated approach to nutrition and WASH at the individual, household, and community levels along with Covid management will serve to tackle the problem of mal- and under-nutrition from the ground up, building awareness and accelerating implementation of clean and safe living strategies

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

5. e-RUPI has the potential to achieve financial inclusion and bridge digital divide in India. Write about the benefits of e-RUPI and analyse if it is the first step towards the adoption of digital currency in India. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

Taking the first step towards having a digital currency in the country, Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched an electronic voucher based digital payment system “e-RUPI”.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the benefits of e-RUPI and analyse its potential as a digital currency and future digital currencies.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start the answer describing and how it works.

Body:

Write about the vouchers and potential areas of application of e-RUPI.

Next, write about the benefits it brings – Financial inclusion, bridging digital divide, financial, healthcare, and welfare services which are offered as part of e-RUPI.

Next, write about e-RUPI as a digital currency. Write how e-RUPI is different from digital currencies but introduction of e-RUPI a move in the right direction towards digitalization.

Conclusion:

Summarise that e-RUPI is encouraging news for the digitization of India’s financial infrastructure and could pave the way for further acceptance of digital currencies in the future.

Introduction

e-RUPI is a one-time contactless, cashless voucher-based mode of payment that helps users redeem the voucher without a card, digital payments app, or internet banking access. It is  basically a digital voucher which a beneficiary gets on his phone in the form of an SMS or QR code.  It is a pre-paid voucher, which he/she can go and redeem it at any centre that accepts it.

Body

Benefits of e-RUPI:

To the Consumer

  • e-RUPI does not require the beneficiary to have a bank account, a major distinguishing feature as compared to other digital payment forms.
  • It ensures an easy, contactless two-step redemption process that does not require sharing of personal details either.
  • Another advantage is that  e-RUPI is operable on basic phones also, and hence it can be used by persons who do not own smart-phones or in places that lack internet connection.
  • Only mobile phone and e-voucher required – Users redeeming the voucher need not have a digital payment app or a bank account.
  • Safe and Secure: Beneficiaries do not need to share personal details and hence their privacy is maintained.

To the sponsors

  • e-RUPI is expected to play a major role in strengthening Direct-Benefit Transfer and making it more transparent.
  • Since, there is no need for physical issuance of vouchers, it will also lead to some cost savings as well.

To the Service Providers.

  • Being a prepaid voucher, e-RUPI would assure real time payments to the service provider.
  • Visibility for voucher utilisation – Voucher redemption can be tracked by the issuer
  • Quick, safe & contactless voucher distribution

e-RUPI is the first step towards the adoption of digital currency in India

  • The main objective and long-term vision behind e-RUPI is to reach 190 million unbanked citizens, fold them into a formal financial system, and close part of the digital gap.
  • This digital payment system can provide equal access to financial, healthcare, and welfare services to each and every citizen of our country.
  • The government is already working on developing a central bank digital currency and the launch of e-RUPI could potentially highlight the gaps in digital payments infrastructure that will be necessary for the success of the future digital currency.
  • This new transfer system could be put to widespread use in public- service delivery, as it allows for money to be spent only for intended purposes and reaches the correct beneficiary.
  • With the government’s focus on direct benefit transfers for assorted welfare programmes, the e-Rupi can prove pivotal in terms of preventing leakages and providing last-mile connectivity for routine state provisions and other forms of support.
  • Reduced cash utilisation, especially when an institution is distributing benefits. This can have significant adverse tailwinds for companies like Sodexo, if organisations use a part of their kitty to issue purpose specific e-RUPI – such as learning allowance on specific portals.

Challenges:

  • Rural-urban divide, both in terms of technology and access to banking infrastructure.
  • A large gap still exists in terms of internet access. As per the latest data available from the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India, there are 34.6 rural internet subscribers per 100 people in the country, as opposed to 104 in urban areas (as on end December 2020).
  • Internet penetration also varies widely across states. Internet subscribers per 100 persons ranges from 210 in Delhi and 87.6 in Punjab to 40.8 in Uttar Pradesh and 32.9 in Bihar.
  • There are around 190 million unbanked citizens in our country, residing mostly in rural parts.
  • As the existing digital payment methods require a bank account and internet/smartphone, until these gaps are filled, complete financial inclusion will remain a developmental challenge.

Way forward:

  • The M-Pesa in Kenya can be an example on which e-RUPI can build on.
  • e-Rupi has been announced just for specific purposes, but it could be scaled up massively.
  • In the US, there is the system of education vouchers or school vouchers, which is a certificate of government funding for students selected for state-funded education to create a targeted delivery system. This could be emulated in India too.

 

Topic: Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.

6. The quality of our lives depends not on whether or not we have conflicts, but on how we respond to them. Comment of the role of emotional intelligence in conflict resolution. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Ethics by Lexicon publications.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Conceptual Tuesdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Key Demand of the question:

To write the role of emotional intelligence in resolving conflicts.

Directive word: 

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining conflict resolution in the light of the above given statement.

Body:

In brief mention about the conflicts and arguments that happen on daily basis and their nature. Give examples.

Next, mention how emotional intelligence plays in the process of conflict resolution process. Write about self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship management and their role in the resolution process. Substantiate with examples

Conclusion:

Write about importance of conflict resolution in an empathetic and a productive manner using EI.

Introduction

Conflict resolution can be defined as the informal or formal process that two or more parties use to find a peaceful solution to their dispute. Emotional intelligence or EI is the ability to understand and manage your own emotions, and those of the people around you. EI helps in understanding the emotions, evaluating it and managing it which paves the way for conflict resolution.

Body:

Components of Emotional intelligence:

  • Self-awareness: being aware of your reactions and tendencies
  • Self-management: staying on top of, and managing your reactions
  • Social awareness: being able to perceive what others are feeling and thinking and picking up on the emotions of others
  • Relationship management: using your awareness of your emotions and those of others to manage interactions; this includes communicating clearly and handling conflict.
  • Stress tolerance: To stay focused, stress should be managed and it involves own reactions to stress or the reactions of others to the stress. Employees with high EQs are more likely to listen, reflect, and respond to constructive criticism
  • Impulse control: Independent people evaluate the alternatives and initiate the work by taking appropriate action by executing the right options. People who manage their impulses avoid being distracted and losing control of the situation. Emotionally intelligent employees are more likely to keep their cool under pressure
  • Optimism: Optimistic people have a target that they’re aiming toward. These people are confident in their ability to carry out the required actions and meet the target by looking for successful solutions to problems.
  • Negotiation: For being able to empathize and be creative in finding win-win solutions will consistently pay off to all the stakeholders involved.

How EI helps in Conflict resolution:

  • Self-serving fairness interpretations: Rather than deciding what’s fair from a position of neutrality, we interpret what would be most fair to us, then justify this preference on the bases of fairness.
    • For example, department heads are likely to each think they deserve the lion’s share of the annual budget. Disagreements about what’s fairlead to clashes.
  • Overconfidence: We tend to be overconfident in our judgments, a tendency that leads us to unrealistic expectations. Disputants are likely to be overconfident about their odds of winning a lawsuit,
    • For example, an error that can lead them to shun a negotiated settlement that would save them time and money.
  • Escalation of commitment: Whether negotiators are dealing with a labor strike, a merger, or an argument with a colleague, they are likely to irrationally escalate their commitment to their chosen course of action, long after it has proven useful.
    • We desperately try to recoup our past investments in a dispute (such as money spent on legal fees), failing to recognize that such “sunk costs” should play no role in our decisions about the future.
  • Conflict avoidance: Because negative emotions cause us discomfort and distress, we may try to tamp them down, hoping that our feelings will dissipate with time.
    • In fact, conflict tends to become more entrenched, and parties have a greater need for conflict resolution when they avoid dealing with their strong emotions.

Conclusion:

Governance in modern times is becoming increasing complex with affective components of behaviour having a major role to play. Intelligence quotient alone can’t solve majority of problems an administrator faces, use of emotional intelligence is a must for better public service delivery as well as redressal.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.

7. Integrity is a foundational moral virtue, and the bedrock upon which good character is built. Substantiate. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: A Practical approach to Ethics Integrity & Aptitude by DK Balaji

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Conceptual Tuesdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about how Integrity is at the core of good character.

Directive word: 

Substantiate – When you are asked to Substantiate, you must pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidence.  You must appraise the worth of the statement in question using suitable case studies or/ and examples.

Introduction: 

Begin by defining what is Integrity and any relevant quote is possible.

Body:

Mention how integrity boosts the moral values such as honesty, fairness, decency etc that boosts one’s moral character and contributes to an ethical system. Use examples to support the argument.

Also, write about how with having Integrity as foundational value, we can add more virtues for ethical development.

Conclusion:

Mention that it further boosts self-awareness of individuals and aids for a just society.

Introduction

Integrity in its bare-bones essence means adherence to principles. It is a three-step process: choosing the right course of conduct; acting consistently with the choice—even when it is inconvenient or unprofitable to do so; openly declaring where one stands. Accordingly, integrity is equated with moral reflection, steadfastness to commitments, trustworthiness. C.S. Lewis, the great author opines that “Integrity is doing the right thing, even when no one is looking.”

Body

Acting with integrity means understanding, accepting, and choosing to live in accordance with one’s principles, which will include honesty, fairness, and decency. Character is one’s moral and ethical code, and integrity means that one lives according to that code. Thus, someone who lives with integrity, lives according to their moral values.

For instance, Gandhiji withdrew the Non-cooperation movement in a jiffy when the violent Chaura-Chauri incident took place. This show that Gandhiji’s character was true to his integrity.

Character and action are intertwined so intimately that one’s professional duties, or even what is perceived by others as one’s duties, cannot override one’s conscience without negatively affecting (and changing) one’s character. For the physician to be of good character, it is vital that he or she follow his or her conscience in all things: in private life and also in his or her profession, i.e., in the treatment of patients.

On the other hand, if an individual has a strong moral and ethical code but compromises what is right when it serves popular opinion, or in order to achieve personal gain, they are not living with integrity. Despite the quality of their character, their failure to live by their code creates significant behavioural problems.

For instance, when heads of institution do acts of nepotism or crony capitalism, just for their personal benefits, the character flaw is evident.

Conclusion

Character cannot be separated from the person. To be of good character means that one’s habits, actions, and emotional responses all are united and directed toward the moral and the good.


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