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What do you understand by demographic transition? By emphasising on demographic dividends, our government must not ignore the inevitability of population ageing and take steps to address the challenges that will arise in the future.

Topic: population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues.

3. What do you understand by demographic transition? By emphasising on demographic dividends, our government must not ignore the inevitability of population ageing and take steps to address the challenges that will arise in the future. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference:  Live MintInsights on India

Why the question:

India is at a peculiar stage in its demographic transition, characterized by a bulge in its youth population, which can be a window of opportunity to accelerate growth. However, a parallelly occurring phenomenon that requires equal attention is rapid ageing.

Key Demand of the question:

To understand and highlight the follow up challenge of demographic dividend i.e. high old-age dependency ratio and suggest steps to account for it in policymaking.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing about the demographic transition and India’s vantage point in this transition.

Body:

Mention the advantages of having high demographic dividend and how India can reap benefits from it. Also, highlight the challenge of Rapid Ageing due to falling fertility rates and increased life expectancy, following the phenomena of demographic dividend.

India’s demography in 2050 and the pressure to have a sound Pension system to ensure income security at the same time, mitigating the fiscal costs of high old-age dependency ratio.

Mention the existing policy for care of the elderly and its shortcomings.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.