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[Insights Secure – 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 2 August 2021

 

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General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

1. Explain the rationale behind the recent Juvenile Justice(Amendment) Bill 2021 and account for its key features. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article explains in detail the amended provisions for adoption, offences in the new Juvenile Justice Bill.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to explain the rationale behind the recent Juvenile Justice(Amendment) Bill 2021 and account for its key features.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what the Juvenile Justice (Amendment) Bill 2021 is about.

Body:

The Act was introduced and passed in Parliament in 2015 to replace the Juvenile Delinquency Law and the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children Act) 2000.

 One of the main provisions of the new Act is allowing the trial of juveniles in conflict with law in the age group of 16-18 years as adults, in cases where the crimes were to be determined.

The nature of the crime, and whether the juvenile should be tried as a minor or a child, was to be determined by a Juvenile Justice Board.

The second major provision is with regards to adoption, bringing a more universally acceptable adoption law instead of the Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act (1956) and Guardians of the Ward Act (1890) which was for Muslims, although the Act did not replace these laws.

Discuss other essential key features.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

2. More politics on quota and little policy aimed at quality education is driving India to restrict the output of thoroughly trained personnel. Critically analyse. (250 words)

Reference:  Times of India

Why the question:

The article explains how Quotas don’t solve what’s really wrong with education.

Key Demand of the question:

One is to explain the politics of quota and in what way it is leading to deterioration of quality of education.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

 Recently, the government announced 27% reservation for OBC and 10% for EWS candidates in the all-India quota for medical admissions.

Body:

Elaborate first upon the politics of quota.

Give examples where the quota system has impacted education in the country in negative manner.

Discuss its impact on skill development of human resources.

Present the case of medical education in the country. For instance, without economic growth or learning outcomes, OBC groups, sandwiched between the general category and SC/STs, were rallied on the promise of quotas.

Now, groups within the OBC quota are clashing over who benefited or lost out, and even the GoI-appointed Rohini Commission is struggling to reconcile claims.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation

3. Looking at the Himalayas only through the prism of geopolitics and security concerns ignores it of its other crucial interests for humanity, comment. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article highlights how the countries of the Himalayas have to look beyond geopolitics and security to protect the interest of humanity.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to explain that the Himalaya is a naturally evolved phenomenon should be understood through frameworks that have grown from within the Himalaya. Viewing the Himalayas as a space of political power is a violent choice, which actually enriched ultra-sensitivity towards territorial claims and border management.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with importance of Himalayas first.

Body:

Discuss first how a conceptual audit of questions related to geopolitics and security concerns while talking or thinking about the Himalaya is perhaps long overdue.

Brief about the significance of Himalayas to the entire humanity.

Talk about the territorialisation of the Himalayas is still prevalent.

Discuss what should be the approach towards Himalayas; Human security cannot be effectively appreciated through the paradigm of sovereign territoriality. So, to protect the interest of humanity, the nation-states have to come together. Anthropological, historical, cultural, and ecological ones have to take privilege over the statist meaning (territoriality, sovereignty, and difference)

Conclusion:

Conclude that time has come when we need to take position between the Himalayas as a national space and as a space of dwelling, instead of avoiding our encounter with this ambivalence.

 

Topic: Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.

4. “Sectarian tribalism has been the bane of the North-eastern States”, in this context discuss the Assam-Mizoram Border and explain how it has unleashed latent regionalism recently. (250 words)

Reference:  Business Standard

Why the question:

On 26 July, a violent confrontation took place between police and residents on the Assam-Mizoram border. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the Assam-Mizoram Border and explain how it has unleashed latent regionalism recently.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the facts related to the recent conflict that occurred between these two States.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Provide first brief background of the question; Recent border clashes on the Assam-Mizoram Border and Assam-Meghalaya border point to the failure of central and state governments to solve the boundary issue.

Explain in what way Assam-Mizoram violence is an outcome of the central government trying too hard to ‘integrate’ distinct northeastern states, which has unleashed latent regionalism.

Discuss the reasons behind such conflicts.

Conclusion:

Conclude with suggestions and solutions to solve the issue.

 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5. Central banks across the world have increased their attention to digital currencies. In this context examine the implications and limitations of introduction of Central Bank Digital Currency in India. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The Reserve Bank of India is likely to soon kick off pilot projects to assess the viability of using digital currency to make wholesale and retail payments to help calibrate its strategy for introducing a full-scale central bank digital currency (CBDC).

Key Demand of the question:

Examine the implications and limitations of introduction of Central Bank Digital Currency in India.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the context of the question.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Discuss first the need for Central Bank Digital Currency in India.

Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC) is nothing but a digital version of so-called “fiat money”.  Fiat money is the regular currency a country uses, as established and regulated by its government.  CBDC is a digital payment instrument that is denominated in a national currency.

Discuss the pros and cons.

Conclusion:

Conclude suitably.

 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

6. What do you understand by carbon border tax? Also, assess the advantages and disadvantages that India is likely to face with the imposition of this tax. (250 words)

Reference:  The Print

Why the question:

At the recent G-20 ministerial meeting on environment and climate change in Italy, developing countries, including India, are expected to raise their concerns over the European Union’s (EU’s) recent proposal on the first of its kind “Carbon Border Tax”.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the concept of Carbon Tax and assess the advantages and disadvantages that India is likely to face with the imposition of this tax.

Directive:

Assess – When asked to ‘Assess, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with definition of Carbon border Tax.

Body:

A carbon border tax is a tax on carbon emissions imposed on imported goods from countries with less strict climate policies. It aims to create a level playing field between imports and domestic production.

The main purpose of the EU’s proposed Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) is to address “carbon leakage” — when companies decamp to places with cheaper pollution costs and looser climate regulations.

Discuss its key features. Explain its impact for India. India, along with other developing countries, has long opposed the EU’s proposed carbon border tax. In April, it issued a joint statement with the BASIC bloc — Brazil, South Africa, India and China — calling CBAM “discriminatory“. The concern is that the border tax will ramp up prices of their goods in Europe and shrink demand.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what should be the way forward.

 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

7. Account for the role of traditional ecological practices as a sustainable solution to climate change problem. (250 words)

Reference:  Times of India  

Why the question:

The article highlights the importance of leveraging traditional lo-tech innovations to fight climate change.

Key Demand of the question:

Account for the role of traditional ecological practices as a sustainable solution to climate change problem.

Directive:

Account – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the context of the question.

Body:

First explain the idea of traditional lo-tech innovations; these innovations are based on diverse ecological understanding of indigenous communities. Give examples such as the root bridges of Meghalaya or the Kerala’s kuttanad system.

Explain the importance of such site-specific technologies to deal with sea level rise, food scarcity, water shortages, etc. Locally developed tech will mitigate these challenges.

Discuss about adaptability, flexibility and explain how to integrate with natural systems and only indigenous technology can help us achieve it.

Conclusion:

Conclude that we cannot solve climate change with the same approach that created the problem. We need to move from polluting technology to nature-based science and the bridge enabling this important step is indigenous technological innovation.


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