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[Insights Secure – 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 29 July 2021

 

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General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

1. The UP draft Population Bill seeks to codify and institutionalize an ableist mindset. In this context discuss the issues associated with the Bill. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article highlights that apart from UP’s population policy’s coercive approach to population control, it plays into the widely prevalent notion of the disabled as a burden.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the issues associated with the UP draft population Bill.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief context of the question. A new draft Bill prepared by the Uttar Pradesh (UP) Law Commission seeks to control the population by introducing a two-child policy.

Body:

The answer body must critically analyse in detail the provision of Disability in the draft bill, Section 15 of the draft Bill grants exemption to certain classes of individuals from the two-child norm.

The Bill draws from the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016 to define disability. There are 21 conditions listed in the Act. These include impairments like visual, hearing and speech, locomotor, intellectual disabilities as also blood disorders and learning disabilities like dyslexia.

The bill invokes an ableist mindset and tends to view the disabled as non-existent and equivalent to being dead. It reinforces the belief of disability being a curse.

The bill also infuses the notion of incapability or incapacity of all persons with disabilities while underlining that having a disabled child is as good as not having one at all.

It is no coincidence that Section 15 of the draft Bill is titled, “Of Death or Disability of Child”. It equates the two.

Conclusion:

The way disability is dealt with in the draft Bill shows a complete lack of understanding of what constitutes a disability, as also its heterogeneous status. It reflects sadly on how the state views persons with disabilities.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

2. India’s failure to invest in public health facilities has resulted in a disproportionately large role for private services in this industry. Critically analyse. (250 words)

Reference:  Live Mint

Why the question:

The article explains in what way Healthcare privatization has not served India well.

Key Demand of the question:

Critically analyse in what way India’s failure to invest in public health facilities has resulted in a disproportionately large role for private services in this industry.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

India opened its markets to private participation 30 years ago.  Overall, sectors dominated by private players boast of a reasonable degree of competitive intensity. The value delivered for prices charged or value for money has increased.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Briefly first present the state of India’s healthcare. The current Oxfam Inequality Report 2021 indicated India’s sad state of healthcare. It draws on data from the National Family Health Survey and the National Sample Survey to show large differences in health and healthcare access.

Explain why privatization of healthcare in India has not served its purpose.

Suggest what needs to be done.

Conclusion:

For millions of people, it’s still partly a nutrition issue. Recent studies, however, imply that prior advances in human development indexes have been lost. A major overhaul of public healthcare is required.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Disaster and disaster management.

3. The floods in Europe are a wake­up call for us to adopt the Dutch mantra, ‘live with water, and build with nature’. Elucidate. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

A month’s rain poured in just 24 hours in the worst-affected areas of Germany and Belgium. This caused multiple rivers to burst their banks and flood parts of the two countries as well as the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Switzerland. It is believed that these areas of Europe have not witnessed such heavy rainfall for more than a century.

 Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way the floods in Europe serve as a wake­up call to us in India to adopt pragmatic policies and practices that are nature friendly.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the context of the question, state the associated facts.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Talk about the reasons for rising floods: the cause of the floods is attributed to climate change. Experts say the more CO2 the world emits into the atmosphere, the warmer will be the air temperature.

Then talk about the Dutch model of flood prevention. The Dutch have gone beyond their conventional dependence on dikes, dams, walls and gates to protect themselves from floods. Their current disaster resilience mantra is to live with water, build with nature and make room for the river.

They champion creating adequate space for rivers to overflow by protecting floodplains from human interference, deepening river­ beds and creating alternate channels for excess water.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the floods in Europe serve as a wake­up call to us in India to adopt pragmatic policies and practices that are nature friendly.

 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

4. Explain the key features of Insolvency and Bankruptcy (Amendment) Bill 2020 and also analyse its significance. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article examines the Pre-packaged Insolvency Resolution Process (PIRP), how it differs from the Corporate Insolvency Resolution Process (CIRP) and key hurdles that the new mechanism may face in gaining traction.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the key features of the Bill and analyse its significance.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what the Bill is about.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Discuss first the Pre-packaged Insolvency Resolution Process (PIRP), how it differs from the Corporate Insolvency Resolution Process (CIRP) and key hurdles that the new mechanism may face in gaining traction.

A pre-pack entails the resolution of the debt of a distressed company through a direct agreement between secured creditors and the existing owners or outside investors instead of a public bidding process.

Explain all the key features in detail. Discuss what the benefits of pre-packs are over the Corporate Insolvency Resolution Process (CIRP).

Elaborate upon the pros and cons.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment. Disaster and disaster management.

5. The recent tourist tragedy in Himachal Pradesh points to the importance of preserving ecology. Explain with suitable suggestions. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The tragic death of nine tourists in a landslip in Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh is another example highlighting the fragility of the ecology of the Himalayan States.

Key Demand of the question:

Elaborate upon the importance of preserving ecology and suggest ways to do the same.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Give a brief background of the issue in question.

Body:

Explain that encouraging an incompatible model of development in the hills, represented by big hydroelectric projects and large-scale destruction of forests and damming of rivers, will erode its ecology.

Sooner, the Himalayan States may be entering a phase of irreversible decline because of losses to their ecology and frequent landslides may become inevitable.

Discuss the impact of infrastructure, power development on the local ecology of the region.

Mega hydropower projects could alter several aspects of ecology, rendering it vulnerable to the effects of extreme events such as cloudbursts, flash floods, landslides, and earthquakes.

Conclusion:

Suggest what needs to be done, highlight the policies and programs of the government in this direction and conclude.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

6. Income inequality, resource mismanagement and health hazards are some of the negative consequences of globalization. In this context, what are some of the ethical dilemmas that civil servants face today? How has the approach to handling these undergone a change? Discuss.  (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is about the ethical dilemmas that civil servants face today owing to consequences of globalisation.  

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss what are some of the ethical dilemmas that civil servants face today and in what way has the approach to handling these undergone a change.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief upon the impact of globalisation in general.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain the key ethical dilemmas that civil servants face due to the changes brought by globalization. In the era of globalisation, the role of the State has changed. Economic liberalisation has led to – on one hand, the diminishing role of state and on the other, increasing role of private sector. The basic objective of private enterprises—maximizing profits—does not always coincide with broader social concerns. Therein lays the ethical dilemma of civil servants of balancing these two priorities, profits – for sustaining economic activities and addressing social concerns – as part of the welfare state etc.

 Then, talk about the difference in approach to handle the challenges and resolve the ethical dilemmas.

Conclusion:

Conclude with suggestions to address such challenges.

 

Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships.

7. Marketing has become a crucial link in the success of a business. With suitable examples, discuss the ethical issues involved in marketing of a product or service. How can these issues be resolved? (250 words)

Reference:  marketing-schools.org

Why the question:

The question is based on ethical issues involved in marketing of a product or service.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the ethical issues involved in marketing of a product or service and suggest way forward to address them.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly underline the importance of marketing and therein the importance of ethical consideration. Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

First explain what Marketing is; Marketing refers to activities of a company associated with buying and selling a product or service. Marketing through advertising, selling and delivery of products to potential customers, is vital for the success of any business. Since it has the potential to influence attitudes, behaviors and priorities; ethical considerations are part and parcel of marketing.

Discuss the ethical issues with examples for greater clarity.

Discuss the need for self-regulation, ethical codes and legal aspects to resolve unethical marketing practices.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions.


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