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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 21 July 2021

 

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General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

1. Analyse the constitutional and legal safeguards in India with regard to state-led surveillance. Do you think they are adequate? (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The ‘Pegasus Project’ report says that over “300 verified Indian mobile telephone numbers, including those used by ministers, opposition leaders, journalists, the legal community, businessmen, government officials, scientists, rights activists and others”, were targeted using spyware made by the Israeli firm, NSO Group.

Key Demand of the question:

Analyse the constitutional and legal safeguards in India with regard to state-led surveillance.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what you understand by State-led surveillance.

Body:

Discuss that notably, there are no provisions in existing laws that allow the government to hack the phones of any individual since the hacking of computer resources, including mobile phones and apps, is a criminal offence under the IT Act.

Explain the concerns in detail; against rights of citizens, Threat to press freedom, Weak protection for surveilled etc. Even the proposed personal data protection law fails to consider surveillance while also providing wide exemptions to government authorities.

Vesting disproportionate surveillance power with the executive threatens the separation of powers of the government.

Given the secrecy involved in surveillance activities, the affected person is unable to show a breach of his/her rights. Thus, there is limited scope for the Supreme Court and High Courts to issue writs under Articles 32 and 226 of the Constitution.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a fair and balanced opinion and suggest what needs to be done.

 

Topic: India and its neighborhood- relations.

2. Amidst the gloom that has enveloped Afghanistan; one hope for many countries has been China’s potential role in stabilizing it. Elaborate. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article explains how amid the gloom that has enveloped Afghanistan, one hope for many countries has been China’s potential role in stabilizing it.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the possible potential role that China can play in stabilizing the Afghanistan region.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the question.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

First, discuss the factors that call for China to play role in Afghanistan; Scope for India-China cooperation, Northern neighbours, Bilateral cooperation with the U.S, They might support a larger role for Beijing in Afghanistan in partnership with Russia, Iran, Kabul’s western neighbours, also has deepening ties with China, Role of Pakistan etc.

Explain then, what are the challenges in China playing role in stabilizing Afghanistan.

Conclusion:

Conclude that it is against this backdrop that the chances of China playing a major role in stabilizing Afghanistan remain slim.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3. Individual talent alone cannot make India a great sporting nation, in this context discuss the need for creating a suitable ecosystem for sports development in India. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

Upcoming summer Olympic games in Tokyo are the context of the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the need for creating a suitable ecosystem for sports development in India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of India’s performance in Sports played worldwide.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain first the factors that determine sports performance. The economic prosperity of a nation and the general standard of living in a nation could be seen as good indicators of the nation’s sports prowess with some exceptions, Genetic factors, Availability of sports infrastructure etc.

Discuss then the need to create a suitable ecosystem for sports development in India.

Highlight the importance of the role that the government must play.

Conclusion:

Conclude with suitable suggestions.

 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4. Our country needs a more humane and sensitive police force that works for the welfare of the citizens. Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains that a healthy Police system is necessary to ensure a feeling of safety and security among the masses.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail the need for a more humane and sensitive police force in the country.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some facts like – In 2015 (April – November), 25,357 cases were registered under the police category. This included 111 deaths in police custody, 330 cases of custodial torture, and 24,916 in others.  These numbers were shared by the former Minister of State for Home Affairs, Kiren Rijiju, in the Lok Sabha in response to a question.

Body:

Discuss that our country needs a more humane and sensitive police force that works for the welfare of the citizens. This requires harmonizing the working environment of police personnel along with the fulfillment of their psychological needs.

Present a comparison with other countries.

Explain the reasons behind police brutality. Suggest how and why we need to develop a more humane and sensitive police force in the country.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way ahead.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5. Why is India fighting the US, EU at WTO over a global fishing deal? Analyse its implications for India Ocean. (250 words)

Reference:  Live Mint

Why the question:

India has opposed a move by developed countries at the World Trade Organisation (WTO) to scrap subsidies for fishermen. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain why India is fighting the US, EU at WTO over a global fishing deal and what its implications are.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the question.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

First, talk about the Fisheries Subsidies Negotiations at WTO. The negotiations on fisheries subsidies disciplines have been ongoing for nearly 20 years. Not all subsidies are considered harmful and some would not be covered by any WTO agreement. The Pew Charitable Trusts estimates that an ambitious deal at the WTO could boost the amount of fish in the world by 12.5% by 2050, based on a model it shared with negotiators.

Then discuss what the problems associated with Fisheries Subsidies are.

Explain why India is opposing the scrapping of subsidies on fisheries?

Present its implications for India Ocean.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security

6. What challenges do external non-state actors pose to India’s security? Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  Times of India

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper III, part internal security.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the challenges that external non-state actors pose to India’s security.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining who are external State and non-State actors.  

Body:

Explain about external non state actors – Non-state actors are individuals or organizations that have powerful economic, political or social power and are able to influence at a national and sometimes international level but do not belong to or allied themselves to any particular country or state. They include NGOs, MNCs, religious outfits, Drug Cartels, Mafias, terrorist groups etc. they may work in tandem for the peace, stability and development of a country or they may work against the State.

Discuss the threat that they pose to internal security in India such as insurgency, terrorism, cyber security, communalism, counterfeit currency etc.

Discuss how India should deal with such challenges.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions and ways to address the problems.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Case study

7. You are posted as a DCP in the national capital of the country. In a locality which falls under your jurisdiction, protests have been going on for the last one month against a decision taken by the government. While these protests have been non-violent in nature and are being led by women, the protesters have blocked a major road which connects a number of satellite cities. This has led to traffic jams and congestion causing inconvenience to people who use this road for commuting to work causing hardships and a loss to the economy. A number of people filed complaints in this regard and also approached the courts. The High Court has directed the police to keep larger public interest in mind and take appropriate action. In light of the information given above, answer the following questions:

While highlighting the significance of right to protest in a democratic setup, discuss the limitations on this right, even if the protests are non-violent, as in this case. What are the options available to you? Evaluate each of these options and choose the option you would adopt, giving reasons. (250 words)

Why the question:

The question is a case study.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to analyse the case study in detail and highlight the significance of right to protest in a democratic setup and discuss the limitations on this right, even if the protests are non-violent.

Directive:

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The facts of the given case pertain to the rights of the people to assemble peacefully and protest against the actions of the state, which they deem unjust. Such a right is an integral part forming the foundation of a democratic setup.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

 Discuss the significance of the right to protest in a democracy.

Discuss the limitations of exercising the right to protest.

Suggest remedial measures.

Evaluate each measure and present the best option available to you.

Conclusion:

Conclude suitably.


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