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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 19 July 2021

 

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

1. Making correct investments in women issues could prove to be transformational in long-term recovery and vigor of our economy and society. Comment.(250 words)

Reference:  Hindustan Times

Why the question:

The article brings to us deeper insights of making corrective investments in women issues and the change that it can bring in the economy and society of India.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail the issues associated with women in India, Women work more, earn less, and face greater health risks and that there is need to make corrective investments to brig transformational change.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some key facts/data that can justify your understanding of the question. Women made up just 24% of those working before the pandemic, yet accounted for 28% of all those who lost their jobs. They also constitute 43% of those who are yet to recover their paid work. This had knock-on effects on other aspects of their lives.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Discuss the challenges that woman face in India; talk about participation at work, low health indicators, lower access to facilities of education, health, work etc.

Then highlight the role that the welfare schemes and policies have played in changing or addressing these concerns.

Explain the need of transformational change in the way the challenges of woman are dealt in the country.

Discuss the impact of such changed methods on overall economy and society.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

2. Critically analyse the features of the draft trafficking in Persons (Prevention, Care and Rehabilitation) Bill, 2021 in abating trafficking from India. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article presents to us a critical review of draft trafficking in Persons (Prevention, Care and Rehabilitation) Bill, 2021.

Key Demand of the question:

One must critically analyse the features of the draft trafficking in Persons (Prevention, Care and Rehabilitation) Bill, 2021 in abating trafficking from India.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what you understand by Trafficking and present the status of it in India.

Body:

The answer body must explain how in its current form, the draft trafficking in Persons (Prevention, Care and Rehabilitation) Bill, 2021 seems to be lacking in nuance, even if well intentioned to stamp out exploitative trafficking.

Explain the key features of the Bill and highlight the shortcomings; According to the United Nations’ human rights experts, it was not in accordance with the international human rights laws.

The Bill seemed to combine sex work and migration with trafficking. The Bill was criticized for addressing trafficking through a criminal law perspective instead of complementing it with a human-rights based and victim-centred approach.

It was also criticized for promoting “rescue raids” by the police as well as institutionalization of victims in the name of rehabilitation. It was pointed out that certain vague provisions would lead to blanket Criminalisation of activities that do not necessarily relate to trafficking.

Conclusion:

Suggest what needs to be done to align the draft bill with the actual goals it desires to achieve and conclude.

 

Topic: Parliament and State legislatures—structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

3. “Fraternity can be a fact only when there is a nation. Without fraternity, equality and liberty will be no deeper than coats of paint”, Elaborate upon the statement in light of a tolerant majoritarian India. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article talks about the importance of majoritarian pluralism of the country and its importance.

Key Demand of the question:

Elaborate upon the quote in the question statement and suggest the importance of tolerant majoritarian India.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with your brief understanding of the quote.

Body:

Discuss what you understand by Majoritarianism and tolerance with respect to India.

Explain why there is a need for the two to coexist together.

Suggest examples to explain and highlight solutions such as – The antidote to the fear of other social groups, especially minorities, often is increased interaction among them in a variety of public and private settings.

Conclusion:

Social reality and complexity cannot be reduced to numbers. After all, one cannot compare attitudes of different social groups blandly without understanding power differences. But quantitative surveys are still necessary tools. Majoritarianism, accompanied by mere tolerant acceptance of minority communities as non-interacting enclaves, is the death knell of democracy.

 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4. India must recognise the right to social security for migrant and informal workers in order to prevent the looming migrant crisis in the country. Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The migrants’ crisis after the two Covid waves compelled policy-makers to make certain provisions for them in the schemes announced for the assistance of the poor.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the need to recognise the right to social security for migrant and informal workers in order to prevent the looming migrant crisis in the country.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the issue.

Body:

On June 29, the Supreme Court finally delivered its judgment on the plight of migrant labour. The judgment was notable for two main reasons. First, it recognized that there was the large-scale exclusion of migrant workers and other informal workers from existing schemes due to the lack of their registration and outdated eligibility lists. It noted that no benefits will be denied to migrant workers for want of an Aadhaar card and that food assistance will be provided for migrants who were not covered by the National Food Security Act. Second, it connected informal workers and migrant workers, both of whom experience exclusion, and mandated that the portal for registration of all informal/migrant workers should be fully operational before July 31.

Then discuss the advantages of providing social protection.

Comment on the inadequate provisions by government.

Conclusion:

Suggest what needs to be done and conclude.

 

Topic: India and its neighborhood- relations.

5. Regardless of threats of terrorism, India has taken several steps at innumerable levels for the all-inclusive development of Afghanistan. Elucidate. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article explains in what way the Taliban’s possible triumph threatens not just India’s diplomatic stakes in Afghanistan, but also 20 years and $3 billion worth of Indian investment in various projects — dams, roads, trade infrastructure.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the role played by India in Afghanistan despite the threats of Terrorism.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the question.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain first about India’s Investment in Afghanistan. India has built vital roads, dams, electricity transmission lines and substations, schools, and hospitals among others in Afghanistan. India’s development assistance is now estimated to be worth well over $3 billion. The 2011 India-Afghanistan Strategic Partnership Agreement recommitted Indian assistance to help rebuild Afghanistan’s infrastructure and institutions.

Talk about its bilateral trade.

Highlight the threats India faces owing to terrorism.

Explain what needs to be done.

Conclusion:

Suggest way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

6. Explain the RBI’s Data localisation policy and the justification behind it. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) recently banned Mastercard from issuing new debit and credit cards to customers in India with effect from July 22. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the RBI’s Data localisation policy and the justification behind it.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what the RBI’s policy is about.

Body:

Data localisation is storing of data on a device physically present within the borders of the country where the data was generated.

Discuss why RBI is for the data localisation policy.

Explain what is the need for local data storage?

Discuss the challenges associated with it.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

7. ‘Even though we may assume that behaviour is rooted in attitude, they are attitudes and actual behaviour are not always perfectly aligned’. Explain the cases where you noticed of divergence in behaviour from attitude with examples. (250 words)

Reference:  researchgate.net

Why the question:

The question is based on the concept of attitude and behaviour and the relationship between the two.

Key Demand of the question:

With suitable examples explain the possible divergence in behaviour from attitude with examples.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what you understand by Attitude and Behaviour.

Body:

Attitudes are views, beliefs, or evaluations of people about something (the attitude object). The attitude object can be a person, place, thing, ideology, or an event. Attitudes can be positive or negative.

While attitude involves mind’s predisposition to certain ideas, values, people, systems, institutions; behaviour relates to the actual expression of feelings, action or inaction orally or/and through body language.

Explain that Difference between attitudes and behaviors is best described by Festinger’s cognitive dissonance theory.

Give examples to depict divergence in behaviour from attitude.

Conclusion:

Conclude with fair and balanced opinion.


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