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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 7 July 2021

 

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

1. Syama Prasad Mookerjee’s dreams strengthened Indian Nationalism and steered people towards unified India. Comment. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express  

Why the question:

On July 6th, Syama Prasad Mukherjee was born. And the article explains in what way he was a torchbearer of Indian nationalism.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the contributions of Syama Prasad Mookerjee to Indian nationalism.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background and history of Syama Prasad Mookerjee.

Body:

He was a barrister, an academician and a politician. At 33, he became the youngest Vice-Chancellor of the University of Calcutta and held office till 1938. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee was part of Minister for Industry and Supply in Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru’s cabinet from 1947-1950. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee founded the Bharatiya Jana Sangh in 1951, which is a predecessor to the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).

Explain that Mookerjee was a preacher of nationalism and a unified India, and supported the elimination of the communal divide imposed by the British through an institutional framework. His strong reaction to the communal politics of the Muslim League and other anti-national and disruptive forces resulted in his active association with the All India Hindu Mahasabha.

 Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of his contributions.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

2. Examine the viability and challenges in implementation of All India Judicial Service as a reform in recruitment and appointment to the subordinate judicial services in India. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

Many law commissions and the judiciary in many cases have called on the administration to consider and implement All India Judicial Services (AIJS). Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss and examine the feasibility of All India Judicial Service as a reform in recruitment and appointment to the subordinate judicial services in India.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by expounding on the idea of All India Judicial services in brief.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

First present brief history of the origin of the idea; The idea for an ‘All India Judicial Service (AIJS)’ was first proposed by the 14th Report of the Law Commission of India in 1958, aimed at creating a centralized cadre of District Judges. In the All-India Judges case in 1992 the apex court had opined that the recommendations of the Law Commission on the setting up of AIJS should be examined and implemented. Similar opinions were expressed in the All India Judges Association Vs. Union of India (2002) case as well. In 2019 there had been a consultative process for the creation of the All India Judicial Service (AIJS).

Account for the constitutional perspective.

Present arguments both in favour and otherwise.

Discuss the concerns associated.

Conclusion:

Conclude with its importance.

 

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

3. India and Africa’s complementary sectorial priorities and similar roles in the evolving global food markets present several opportunities for cooperation in the agricultural sector. Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

In the light of the recent visit of the Indian External Affairs Minister to Kenya, the article analyzes the potential of India-Africa cooperation in agriculture even as China has been exponentially deepening its relationship with African nations.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the possible engagements that India-Africa can make in the Agricultural sector.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with a brief on historical relations between India and Africa.

Body:

The relations between India and Africa have long historical roots right from ancient times up until the anti-colonialism struggle. This historical solidarity has today grown into a modern partnership.

Talk about India-Africa agricultural cooperation. Africa supplies a vast basket of agricultural goods to India dominated by items such as fruits, nuts, grains and pulses.

India’s outreach to African nations in terms of agricultural cooperation currently includes the following institutional and individual capacity-building initiatives.

Discuss the significance of the cooperation for both the countries.

Explain challenges if any.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way ahead.

 

Topic: India and its neighborhood- relations.

4. Indian political ideologies and cultural practice, while less politically authoritarian, are also far less egalitarian, for national humiliation to be owned equally unlike China. Critically examine. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article explains how China used its historic national humiliation for strengthening the country. However, India could not do that due to the prevalence of inequality.

Key Demand of the question:

Critically examine in what way Indian political ideologies and cultural practice, while less politically authoritarian, are also far less egalitarian, for national humiliation to be owned equally unlike China.

Directive:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the question.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain how China used the idea of humiliation; Chinese nationalism is the centrality of the idea of humiliation. From the First Opium Wars to the Nanjing massacre, it is an organising principle of historiography in China. President Xi Jinping’s address at the Party centenary begins with a reminder and resolve that China will never be humiliated again. Explain how national humiliation is central to education policy.

Then move onto explain how the concept of humiliation worked in Indian nationalism.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the practical and moral necessity of playing down national humiliation may not be a bad thing but how countries deal with their own constructs of humiliation will determine their future.

 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

5. The unrelenting practice of Section 66A of the Information Technology (IT) Act, even after it was struck down as unconstitutional, is worrisome. Examine. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The Supreme Court found it distressing that people were still booked and tried under Section 66A of the Information Technology (IT) Act even six years after it struck down the provision as unconstitutional and a violation of free speech.  Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Critically examine the usage of Section 66A of IT Act and in what way it is still worrisome.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with description of Section 66 A of IT Act.

Body:

Section 66A gave authorities the power to arrest anyone accused of posting content on social media that could be deemed ‘offensive’.

Explain that it provided punishment for sending offensive messages through communication services.

Under the section, a conviction could fetch a maximum of three years in jail and a fine.

In Shreya Singhal v. Union of India (2015), the Supreme Court in 2015 had scrapped Section 66A of the IT Act, 2000.

The court ruled that as it did not distinguish between speech that was merely “offensive or annoying” and that which was guilty of inciting a disruption of public order, Section 66A was liable to have a chilling effect on free speech.

Discuss the challenges associated.  Suggest remedies to it.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to address the issue at hand.

 

Topic: GS-2: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

GS-3: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

6. Account for how zoonotic diseases have impacted humankind since the beginning of its association with animals. Also, explain what possible steps should be taken to minimize the risk of future pandemics and mitigate its impact. (250 words)

Reference:  Hindustan Times

Why the question:

The article highlights the scale and spread of zoonotic diseases every year resulting in socio- economic disruption like recently done by COVID-19.

Key Demand of the question:

Account for how zoonotic diseases have impacted humankind since the beginning of its association with animals. And also suggest solutions to address these issues.

Directive:

Account – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what zoonotic diseases are.

Body:

Explain that despite repeated warnings about the possibility of zoonotic diseases causing large scale disruptions in human lives and activities, it is unfortunate that a problem of such devastating potential has so far failed to elicit the required support from policymakers and resource allocators.

According to several studies, increased incidences of zoonotic diseases in recent times are a direct consequence of the ongoing abuse of nature.

Discuss the reasons for increase in scale and spread of the same.

Suggest what possible steps should be taken to minimize the risk of future pandemics and mitigate its impact.

Conclusion:

Hence, if we need a comprehensive approach, recognized as One-Health, to target all our preparedness and responses and also, need to start repairing our fractured relationship with nature to minimize the risk of future pandemics.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7. Explain the importance of leadership in effective crisis management with suitable illustrations. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explain how in crisis situations like Covid-19, Leaders need to display both grit and grace to beat the crisis.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the importance of leadership in effective crisis management with suitable illustrations.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with who a leader is.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain first the importance of leadership in effective crisis management.

Identify and highlight the significance of the important traits of leadership such as grit and grace, agility, a high level of resilience, communication skills, and empathy, investing in meaningful relationships and leveraging social capital, and credibility.

Give the example of the covid-19 induced pandemic and highlight the importance of Leadership in effectively managing the crisis and list out the characteristic features which are essential to get things done.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of leadership in crisis management.


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