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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 9 June 2021

 

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General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

1. Mainstreaming nutrition in different approaches to agriculture especially into agricultural extension could help in reducing overall unacceptably high economic and social costs, thus aiding to alleviate issues of hunger. Analyse. (250 words)

Reference:  researchgate.net

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of improvising nutrition through its integration into agricultural extension.  

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way mainstreaming nutrition in different approaches to agriculture especially into agricultural extension could help in reducing overall unacceptably high economic and social costs.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some facts that can highlight the current status of hunger and malnutrition in the country.

Body:

Malnutrition takes many forms: under nutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, and obesity and being overweight. Under nutrition is the largest contributor to child mortality worldwide. Explain that Malnutrition blights lives and undercuts social and economic development. Children who are chronically malnourished in the critical first thousand days beginning at conception can suffer irreversible damage to their physical and mental development.

Discuss the challenge of achieving good nutrition, thus alleviating poverty and hunger.

Explain the importance of mainstreaming nutrition in different approaches to agriculture especially into agricultural extension that could help in reducing overall unacceptably high economic and social costs.

Give suitable examples.

 Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

2. Account for the growing convergence of India’s interest with the West in the changing geopolitical scenario and opportunities it offers to India. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article explains how for India, G-7 is an opportunity to expand ties with West.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to elaborate in detail on the growing convergence of India’s interest with the West in the changing geopolitical scenario and opportunities it offers to India.

Directive:

Account – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with significance of G-7 Summit for India. For India, the G-7 summit is an opportunity to expand the global dimension of India’s growing partnerships with the US and Europe.

Body:

Discuss in detail the areas of convergence of interests between India and the West.

The challenges from an increasingly aggressive China, the urgency of mitigating climate change, and the construction of a post-pandemic international order are generating convergence between the interests of India and the West.

The idea of a global democratic coalition that is based more broadly than the geographic West has gained ground in recent years.

And India is at the very heart of that Western calculus.

Throw light upon the China factor.

Conclusion:

Suggest way forward. The convergence of interests between India and the West does not mean the two sides will agree on everything.  There are many areas of continuing divergence within the West — from the economic role of the state to the democratic regulation of social media and the technology giants.

 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3. Government schemes and policies have the needed components to address the mental health issues but more needs to be done in the context of pandemic. Explain (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The question is based on the importance of recognizing mental health as the next big concern that lies before the world post-pandemic.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss what more needs to be done in India in the context of COVID-19, which has exacerbated mental illnesses.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some key data on mental illness in the country.  

Body:

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there is a 10-25-year life expectancy reduction in patients with severe mental disorders. About 72% of member states had a standalone policy or plan for mental health in 2017.

Discuss briefly what mental illness is.  Account for the issues that can be posed by it.

Suggest what measures India should take to address the challenges of it. India could reduce the treatment gap for mental disorders, increase the number of personnel in the mental health sector, work towards reducing discriminatory attitudes, and devise an integrated approach for detecting, treating, and managing patient needs.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a possible roadmap to address the issue.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4.  Performance grading index can give a makeover to the performance of schools as recognized by right to education act 2009 in the country. Do you agree? Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The Ministry of Education has released the Performance Grading Index for 2019-20. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the utility of PGI in improvising the performance of schools in India.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The PGI is a tool to provide insights on the status of school education in States and UTs including key levers that drive their performance and critical areas for improvement.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain briefly about the Performance Grading Index (PGI) and its objectives.

Discuss the significance of this Performance Grading Index; the index would encourage states and UTs towards undertaking multi-pronged interventions leading to optimal education outcomes. The index will help the states and UTs to pinpoint the gaps. Accordingly, they can prioritize areas for intervention to ensure that the school education system is robust at every level.

Discuss how it will help in achieving the objectives under RTI 2009.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

 

Topic: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

5. Do you think the Digital Service Delivery platforms in India have reversed the trust deficit and increased the citizen’s participation in the country? Discuss with suitable justifications. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains how a service delivery platform which builds trust between citizens and government has shown results.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the key positive role that the Digital Service Delivery platforms in India have played in reversing the trust deficit and increasing the citizen’s participation.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Historically, Indians have had low social trust and have looked to authorities to enforce compliance. But over the last decade, India has witnessed a big and welcome change in social trust. Indians are increasingly comfortable sending money to a phone number from their phones (UPI, PayTM) and getting into taxis driven by strangers (Ola, Uber).

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Throw light on the aspects of digitalization of citizen services in India.

Explain Digital platforms providing goods and services, including online education and telemedicine; have grown vigorously during the COVID-19 pandemic, while many professionals have maintained productivity by working from home.

Discuss the relevance and acceptance of digital platforms in India and its benefits. Explain how far it has reversed the trust deficit amongst the citizens.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of digital platforms.

 

Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

6. Sex workers in India continue to face difficulties due to the Covid-19 pandemic. They have lost their livelihoods, have limited access to healthcare and face increased violence, in this context discuss the need to grant basic labour rights to sex workers in the country. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article presents the viewpoint that adults have the right to earn through providing sexual services and live with dignity.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the idea of considering the demands of the sex workers to grant them basic labour rights in the country.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the context of the question.

Body:

Owing to the non-recognition of sex work as “legitimate work”, sex workers have mostly been kept at arm’s length from the government’s relief programmes. COVID-19 has thus provided more reason to consider a long-pending demand of sex workers in India — decriminalization of sex work and a guaranteed set of labour rights.

Explain why do sex workers face double burden? Throw light upon the current legal provisions.

Highlight the associated concerns.

Suggest what needs to be done.

Conclusion:

The Supreme Court, in Budhadev Karmaskar v. State of West Bengal (2011), opined that sex workers have a right to dignity. Parliament must also take a re-look at the existing legislation and do away with the ‘victim-rescue-rehabilitation’ narrative.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Case Study based

7. Instead of passing the law banning pre-natal sex determination tests, government should have concentrated on changing the underlying social attitudes. Do you agree? Give reasons. (250 words)

Reference:  ethics, integrity and aptitude by Lexicon publications ,The Hindu

Why the question:

The question is with the context of PCPNDT act and about the need to change social attitudes .

Key Demand of the question:

Explain how instead of passing the law banning pre-natal sex determination tests, government should have concentrated on changing the underlying social attitudes.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the prevalence of sex detection cases in India.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Present the causes and prevalence of sex selection in India.

Discuss the aspects of Human rights considerations.

Elaborate on the implications of son preference.

Discuss how change in social and behavioural attitude is more important and needs focus.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to address the issue.


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