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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 26 May 2021

 

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General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

1. Reforming the POCSO Act is necessary to account for the reporting of historical child sexual abuse. Critically comment.  (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains in what way POCSO Act needs reforms to account for the reporting of historical child sexual abuse.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the need for reforms in the POCSO Act.

Directive:

Critically comment – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘comment’ is prefixed, we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Over the last nine years, India has sought to “protect children from offences of sexual assault, sexual harassment and pornography” through the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act (POCSO). But POCSO has not been without controversy or deficiency.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain first what you understand by Historical child sexual abuse; it refers to incidents that are reported late. Historical abuse is not just confined to institutions but also includes intra-familial abuse where it is difficult for the child to report the offence or offender at the earliest point in time.

Discuss the causative factors of it. Institutional hurdles in accepting Historical Child Abuse.

Suggest challenges associated with the Act and recommend reforms that are necessary to overcome it.

Conclusion:

Conclude that there is an urgent need to reform and revise our laws to account for various developments such as historical reporting of child sexual abuse. The Union government must frame guidelines to direct effective and purposeful prosecution in cases that are not covered by the POCSO.

E.g. the U.K. issued detailed Guidelines on Prosecuting Cases of Child Sexual Abuse under Sexual Offences Act of 2003, provides guidelines for prosecution of historical case.

 

Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

2. Critically examine prospects and challenges of India’s Act East Policy. Also suggest some measures to strengthen India’s relationship with South East Asian countries. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article explains as to what is going wrong with India’s Act East policy.

Key Demand of the question:

Critically examine prospects and challenges of India’s Act East Policy. Also suggest some measures to strengthen India’s relationship with South East Asian countries.

Directive:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with a brief on India’s Act East policy in general.

Body:

India’s Look East policy is an effort to cultivate extensive economic and strategic relations with the nations of Southeast Asia to bolster its standing as a regional power and a counterweight to the strategic influence of the People’s Republic of China.

Present the pros and cons of the policy.

Suggest some measures to strengthen India’s relationship with South East Asian countries.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of it.

 

Topic: Development processes and the development industry —the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.

3. Discuss the significance of community actions in overcoming the failure of the state and market amidst the pandemic situation.(250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article explains why community efforts are essential for real change.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to explain the significance of community actions in overcoming the failure of the state and market

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The pandemic has highlighted those solutions to any social problem call for an effective collective action that coordinates the aspirations of several groups of stakeholders.

Body:

Explain that during the second wave of Covid infections, communities emerged as resilient entities across the country. India’s ethos, value systems and cultural strengths have automatically generated new energies and scores of new groups. Community actions enabled society to overcome the failure of the state and market.

Discuss how for active engagement of civil society in coping with the pandemic assumes great significance.

Give examples/case studies highlighting the role of communities in overcoming the failure of the state and market amidst the pandemic situation.

Conclusion:

Suggest way forward and conclude.

 

Topic: Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

4. CBI is often criticized for being a “caged parrot speaking in its master’s voice”. In this context critically analyse the challenges in the functioning of it.(250 words)

Reference: The Hindu  

Why the question:

The high-powered selection committee headed by the Prime Minister has finalized some names for the post of CBI director. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the inherent challenges associated with CBI and explain in detail why it is often blamed to be a caged parrot speaking in its master’s voice.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the question.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

First briefly talk about the Central Bureau of Investigation. The CBI is the premier investigating agency of India operating under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions.

Discuss its composition and then explain the challenges associated; It has often been used by the government of the day to cover up wrongdoing, keep coalition allies in line and political opponents at bay. It has been accused of enormous delays in concluding investigations, Loss of Credibility, lack of accountability, acute shortage of personnel, limited powers etc.

Explain the concerns around political interference in detail.  

Conclusion:

Suggest way forward to address the issues.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5. “Improving lives of poorest must be the measure of India’s progress, rather than ease of doing business for global investors”. Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains how improving lives of poorest must be the measure of India’s progress, rather than ease of doing business for global investors.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail with suitable justifications as to how improving lives of poorest must be the measure of India’s progress, rather than ease of doing business for global investors.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some data related to the context of the question.

Body:

Explain that economic policies must be radically changed to make life easier for migrant labour than for migrant capital. The ease of living of India’s poorest people must be the principal measure of India’s progress, rather than the ease of doing business for international investors.

India must build public health and education systems ground up, in preference to world class universities and world-class tertiary care hospitals.

Policies must support the informal sector, and nurture small enterprises across the country that generates more employment with less capital investment.

Suggest solutions.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth. Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

6. With such rapid innovations in the industry, the future of crypto globally as well as in India is bright and will create opportunities for Indian entrepreneurs to enter the space and provide new job opportunities that will directly benefit the economy at large. Elucidate. (250 words)

Reference:  Live Mint

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of future of cryptocurrency.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to discuss the positives of the cryptocurrency and the advantages of it.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what Cryptocurrencies are.

Body:

The future of cryptocurrency is bright as a lot of developments have led to the growth of the cryptocurrency industry. Big banks, companies, and institutional investors such as JP Morgan, MicroStrategy, Tesla, and PayPal have entered the space. There are over 9,000 Cryptocurrencies in existence today.

Emerging cryptocurrency regulations by governments across the world, formalizing the industry, lowering risks associated with crypto investments.

There is increasing adoption as governments across the world have started regulating the cryptocurrency industry and India too is embracing regulations in the crypto space.

Conclusion:

Suggest challenges if any, conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: basics of cyber security

7. While the prolonged lockdown has pushed women into digital spaces, It is now a proven fact that cyber Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG) bears a causality with the digital exclusion of women worldwide. In this backdrop analyse in detail the issue of rising gender-based cybercrime. (250 words)

Reference: tribuneindia.com

Why the question:

National Crime Records Bureau 2018 data: About 6030 cybercrimes were registered by women. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the issue of rising gender-based cybercrime.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what you understand by cybercrime or present some key facts with respect to the context of the question.

Body:

Explain the Issue of rising gender-based cybercrime – Anonymous in nature: VAWG has percolated to the digital realm, and in its anonymous non-confrontational, it must be viewed as an impeding factor to gender justice in the 21st century. Skewed power dynamics: Often between men and women is another example of what sustains digital attacks on women and girls. Symptomatic of societal mentality etc. Absence of protective legislation.

Suggest what needs to be done. One can as well present the case of India.

Conclusion:

Suggest solutions to address the issue.


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