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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 24 May 2021

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

1. Assess the importance of the accounts of the Chinese and Arab travellers in the reconstruction of the history of India. (250 words)

Reference:  Previous Year question: CSE2018 , Modern Indian History by Spectrum Publications

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the importance of the accounts of the Chinese and Arab travellers in the reconstruction of the history of India.

Directive:

AssessWhen asked to assess, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the question.

Body:

Reconstruction of Indian history of the ancient and medieval era is a daunting task owing to lack of chronological records, and subjectivity in the interpretation of archaeological and literary sources.

In this context, accounts of foreign travellers, who were eye witnesses to the events that occurred at that time, become an important source to corroborate other sources of history.

Discuss the contributions of Chinese and Arab accounts.

Conclusion:

Conclude that though there are issues associated with the reliability of the accounts provided by these travellers owing to their personal biases, still they are key sources for finding out the missing links in the reconstruction of Indian history.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

2. What is vaccine tourism? Why is it gaining popularity? Explain. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of Vaccine tourism.  

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the concept of Vaccine tourism and explain why it is gaining popularity off late.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

A couple of days ago, reports emerged of a Dubai-based tour operator offering a 24-day package tour from Delhi to Moscow that has included two shots of the Russian Sputnik-V vaccine.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain what vaccine tourism is – In India, the term “vaccine tourism” became popular late last year when reports emerged of several tour operators offering packages to the US with the additional benefit of a vaccine shot.

Meanwhile, South Africans are said to be flying to Zimbabwe, Canadians and South Americans are traveling to the US for jabs, while tour operators in Europe are offering trips to Russia for Sputnik V shots.

Discuss why it is gaining popularity.

Conclusion:

Conclude with prospects and present the case for India.

 

Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

3. Explain in what ways the patents impediments can be avoided ensuring social justice and improvising the battle against pandemic. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article brings to us to some ideas related to patent pathways amidst the challenging days of covid-19.  

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail in what ways the patents impediments can be avoided ensuring social justice and improvising the battle against pandemic.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by highlighting the concerns around patenting amidst the pandemic.

Body:

Explain that Universal vaccination is a necessity to stop the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic.

To achieve global herd immunity and prevent new strains of COVID-19 from emerging, vaccines need to be affordable and available in massive quantities throughout the globe.

The lack of technical know-how and the limited capacity of the current manufacturers to scale up their production capacities have led to massive vaccine shortage globally. The strict intellectual rights regime is also a hurdle for large scale manufacturing of the vaccines.

Discuss some of the ways to overcome the patents hurdle to help scale up the global vaccine production.(take cues from the article)

Conclusion:

Patents should not be considered as ironclad ownership rights. They are but a temporary contract that balances the public interest with the claims of the innovator and that too in normal times. Given the urgent global health crisis, all possible options should be used to overcome the IP hurdle to ensure large scale vaccine production.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4. The barb in COVID cases and the following lockdowns has led to Job losses and created an unemployment Crisis. Explain with examples the initiatives taken by the Governments to recompense wage losses and support livelihood. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The second wave of COVID-19 pandemic and the localized lockdowns across several States, have resulted in restrictions on movement of people and goods and thus has led to restrained economic activity in India. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Account for the job crisis the country is facing owing to pandemic, Explain with examples the initiatives taken by the Governments to recompense wage losses and support livelihood.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain first how the restrained economic activity has resulted in large scale job losses in India.

Body:

According to the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE), the unemployment rate has shot up to 8% in April 2021 as several States started imposing lockdowns. The month of May has seen the rates rise further.

There have been a mammoth 73.5 lakh job losses in April alone. There has been a steady fall in the number of employees (both salaried and non-salaried) for the third straight month.

This is a clear indication that the jobs scenario is weakening.

Discuss the economic consequences of rising unemployment. Explain with examples the initiatives taken by the Governments to recompense wage losses and support livelihood.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic:GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

GS-3: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. Chipko was more a denunciation of everything the forest department had stood for, and less about hugging trees. Analyse. (250 words)

Reference:  India Today

Why the question:

Veteran environmentalist and architect of the Chipko Movement Sundarlal Bahuguna, 94 has succumbed to COVID.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail in what way Chipko was more a denunciation of everything the forest department had stood for, and less about hugging trees.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what Chipko movement was.

Body:

The transformation of Chipko from a struggle to control local resource use to a national movement was influenced heavily by a growing global environmental concern. Chipko began independent of global environmental consciousness, but in interacting with the rest of the world, Chipko assumed a deep conservationist bearing. In the process, its utilitarian and developmental stance was steadily eroded.

Discuss the shortcomings of forest department policies and in what way Chipko stood fast and gave it a new meaning.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

6. Discuss the need and benefits of imposing ecotax as part of environmental fiscal reforms in India. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article brings to us discussion on ecotax and its importance.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the need and benefits of imposing ecotax as part of environmental fiscal reforms in India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what you understand by ecotax.

Body:

The answer body must explain in what way environmental fiscal reforms will reduce pollution and generate resources for financing the health sector.

The Indian government announced a pandemic-related stimulus package in FY 2020-21 though there was large decline in tax revenue. The fiscal deficit for FY 2020-21 (revised estimates) is projected to be 9.5% of the GDP; for 2021-22, it is pegged at 6.8%. The focus is on maintaining fiscal discipline. In this peculiar scenario, sustained health financing in India remains a challenge.

Explain in detail the need and benefits of imposing ecotax as part of environmental fiscal reforms in India.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

7. What is meant by Genome sequencing? In the context of Covid 19 pandemic, analyse it’s significance in health sector. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains how genome sequencing is crucial to track SARS-CoV-2 variants.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the concept of genome sequencing and analyse its significance in health sector amidst the pandemic.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the concept of genome sequencing first.

Body:

Explain how as variants of the COVID-19 virus emerge, genomic sequencing could help boost the public health response and provide the impetus to create value for future crises. Coronavirus has a tendency to mutate as they multiply which can have harmful, beneficial or no effects and so it is important to keep a track of the genome sequencing in order to check its virulence

Without sequencing data, public health authorities are blind to viral mutations that may reduce the efficacy of current response tools (for example, safety protocols, tests, vaccines, and clinical care) and are unable to take precise public health action. Sequencing is a powerful tool that enables public health authorities to improve precision, efficacy, and efficiency of public health response.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.


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