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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 17 May 2021

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

1. As this ‘pandemic generation’ joins the workforce in an economy that is failing to provide adequate employment opportunities to its current strength, India’s chances of levering upon its demographic dividend looks overemphasized. Comment.  (250 words)

Reference:  Economic Times.

Why the question:

The article brings to us insights upon the elusive demographic dividend of our country.

Key Demand of the question:

Examine in detail why India’s chances of levering upon its demographic dividend looks overemphasized.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with current context of the question; the effects of pandemic on youth, employment factors etc.

Body:

Discuss the concept of demographic dividend briefly in the context of India.

Explain the relevant population theories mentioned in the article.

Discuss the issues – Even before the Covid-19 pandemic hit, unemployment levels in India had hit a 45-year high. As of 2017-18, only half of the people in the working age were actually working. In 2004-05, the same proportion was 63.7 per cent. Moreover, the troubled scenario of education and skills is evident from the Pratham surveys that are released each year. In 2018, it showed that just half of the children in the 5th standard could read a text from the 2nd standard.

Explain in what way the possibility of India falling into a ‘middle-income trap’ are higher than the chances of reaping a demographic dividend. Countries fall into a ‘middle-income trap’ because they easily escape abject poverty in early stages of development through simple mobilization of labour and capital.

Conclusion:

Suggest what needs to be one and conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

2. Discuss the phenomena of cloudburst, how is it different from regular rainfall? Analyse the Indian dimension of it. (250 words)

Reference:  Down to Earth

Why the question:

The article presents to us the case of cloudbursts witnessed in the State of Uttarakhand in the recent times.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the phenomena of cloudburst, how is it different from regular rainfall? Analyse the Indian dimension of it.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what Cloudbursts are.

Body:

Cloudbursts are sudden and extreme rainfall events over a limited area in a short span of time. There is no universal definition of a cloudburst.

A cloudburst occurs when moisture-carrying air moves up a hilly terrain, forming a vertical column of clouds known as ‘cumulonimbus’ clouds. Such clouds usually cause rain, thunder and lightning. This upward motion of the clouds is known as an ‘orographic lift’.

Discuss how they are different from regular rainfall? – These unstable clouds cause an intense rainstorm over a small area after becoming heavy enough and locked in the ridges and valleys between the hills.

Present the Indian dimension.

Conclusion:

Conclude with its impact and interlinkages with climate change in general.

 

Topic: Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies. Social empowerment.

3. By weighing the COVID-19 impact on women employment, account for the implications of Universal Basic Services Programme as an opportunity for economic empowerment of women in India. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains how in the pandemic, women have borne a disproportionate burden of the severe disruptions to life and the economy.

Key Demand of the question:

Account for the implications of Universal Basic Services Programme as an opportunity for economic empowerment of women in India.

Directive:

Account – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the question.

Body:

The COVID-19 pandemic has destroyed millions of livelihoods and led to a sudden and large increase in poverty and a massive disruption of the labour market in India. Women workers, in particular, have borne a disproportionate burden. As the country meets the challenge of the second wave of the pandemic, it is crucial to learn lessons from the first wave to chart the policy path ahead.

Explain how the nationwide lockdown hit women much harder than men.

Discuss that the long-standing question of women’s participation in India’s economy has become more urgent with the pandemic disproportionately impacting women’s paid work and increasing the burden of unpaid care work. Support your answer with suitable facts.

Detail upon the idea of Universal Basic Services Programme as an opportunity for economic empowerment of women in India.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way ahead.

 

Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

4. Account for the contributions of Basavanna to Indian Literature and philosophy.  (250 words)

Reference: nationaljournals.com

Why the question:

The question is in the event of Basava Jayanthi celebrated last week.

Key Demand of the question:

Account for the contributions of Basavanna to Indian Literature and philosophy.

Directive:

Account – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief introduction of who Basavanna was. Basavanna or Lord Basaveshwara was an Indian 12th-century statesman, philosopher, a poet and Lingayats saint in the Shiva-focussed Bhakti movement and a social reformer in Karnataka. He lived during the reign of the Kalyani Chalukya/Kalachuri dynasty. He was active during the rule of both dynasties but reached his peak of influence during the rule of King Bijjala II in Karnataka, India.

Body:

Explain that his teachings and philosophy transcend all boundaries and address the universal and eternal.

Discuss in detail his contributions to the Indian society. Role and influences of Basavanna as a social reformer

Explain the bringing of Lingayat faith by him, his contributions through Vachanas etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Basavanna gave rise to a system of ethics and education at once simple and exalted.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.

5. Establishing the National Tribunal commission could possibly entail a radical restructuring of the present tribunals system. Discuss in the backdrop of the recent issues facing the functioning of Tribunals in India. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains the importance of radical restructuring of Tribunals in India.  

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the idea of National Tribunal commission.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what Tribunals are and their importance in general.

Body:

Tribunals are quasi-judicial duties created by the 42nd Amendment Act which added Articles 323A(Administrative Tribunals) and 323B(Tribunals of other matter).

Discuss the constitutional validity of Tribunals.

Explain the recent issues faced with functioning of tribunals.

Account for pros and cons of the idea of national tribunal commission. Give suitable examples in support of your answer.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources. Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

6. Explain the challenges facing medical education in India. Is the value-added role of the private sector in medical education a befitting response to these concerns? (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article highlights the issue of shortage of doctors in India and issues with the involvement of private sector in it. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

One must discuss the challenges facing medical education in India and examine if the improved role of the private sector in medical education an answer to these challenges.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with current context of shortage of medical hands in the country.

Body:

Explain first the shortage of health workers in India. The serious shortage of health workers, especially doctors, in some northern States is a major impediment for achieving the health-related Sustainable Development Goals. The workforce crisis has been aggravated by the imbalances within the country.

For instance, the doctor-population ratio in northern States is far short of the required norm, while the southern States, barring Telangana, have enough doctors in possession.

Discuss the possible role that private sector participation would play. To meet the significant shortfall of qualified doctors in northern States, scaling up of medical education is warranted.

However, the NITI Aayog’s proposal of allowing private entities to take over district hospitals for converting them into teaching hospitals with at least 150 MBBS seats, may sound attractive but there are reasons to be deeply concerned.

Through the implementation of such a policy, the private sector in medical education will be encouraged.

Debate if PPP is an answer.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Work culture

7. What is Ethical Climate and why is it important for any organisation? Explain with suitable example. (250 words)

Reference:  researchgate.net

Why the question:

The question is based on the concept of Ethical climate and its importance.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the principle of ethical climate, its relevance and significance in detail with relevant example.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what you understand by Ethical climate.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain that Ethical climate is the culture of an organization as it pertains to questions of right and wrong. It derives from the governance, values, norms and habits that exist within an organization. Ethical climate results from both a firm’s history and its leadership.

Discuss the key features in detail. Provide for illustrations wherever necessary.

Explain the advantages and need for good ethical climate and relate its relevance to the Governance.

Conclusion:

Conclude with need and importance of ethical climate in any organisation.


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